This paper has an objective of identifying the nature of formation fluid from an extreme tight fractured reservoir. A good understanding of petrophysical properties of the reservoir rock as well as the fluid it contains constitutes a real challenge for tight reservoirs, that are the most common unconventional sources of hydrocarbons. The front-line characterization mean is the Wireline logging which comes directly after drilling the well or while drilling, knowing that for low to extreme low porosity-permeability reservoirs any attempt of conventional well testing will not bring any added value not rather than a confirmation of reservoir tightness. A tailored workflow was adopted to design the most appropriate formation testing module, select the best depths for fluid sampling, and distinguish hydrocarbon from water bearing intervals. This workflow involves ultrasonic and Electric Borehole Images in combination with Sonic Scanner for natural fractures detection, localization and characterization, integrating Dielectric recording and processing for petrophysical evaluation, then Formation Testing was carried out for fluid identification and sampling. The use of borehole electric and sonic imager coupled with advanced sonic acquisition helped not only to identify the natural fractures depths, but also the nature of these fractures. This integration was used for selecting the sampling station.
Unexpected water accumulation (called perched water) can be present inside hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs. In case of limited or poor geophysical data, the prediction of this accumulation may be difficult.
In this paper, a real case is used to show how the presence of perched water was initially supposed and then verified through production data analysis.
During the development campaign of a deep water reservoir in West Africa, a water injector well found an unexpected shallower water table. To understand the nature of this water, the gas while drilling data of two oil producer drilled in the same area of the water injector were analysed. Based on this analysis the last meters of the open hole section of both oil producers were in water. The integration of gas while drilling data, stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural settings knowledge of the area suggested that this water was locally trapped during oil migration, most likely due to the presence of a structural barrier.
The two oil producer wells, located in the supposed perched water area, were successfully started-up. The behavior of both wells was daily monitored to understand and confirm the nature of perched water phenomenon. From day one, the two wells showed water production. After few weeks, the water cut of one well clearly started to reduce. For the other well, the water cut behavior was constant and only after one year of production the declining trend was appreciated. The observed declining trend of water production was the final confirmation that aquifer in this sector of the field is isolated and with limited extension. The water cut trend was also captured in the 3D dynamic reservoir model. In addition, tracers were implemented in the model to identify different water production sources (injected or perched) and to forecast their evolution during the field life.
The literature on perched water is quite limited and usually this kind of phenomenon is detected and described only on the geological side, but the production behavior of this water is rarely observed. This case study is integrating the geological and geophysical knowledge of the field with production data analysis to understand perched water behavior and can be considered a reference for other similar situation.
It is often stated that necessity is the mother of invention. Never is this proverb more relevant than in the offshore oil and gas environment we currently operate in where real step changes leading to reduced capital and operational expenditure opportunities are sought and embraced by field operators. This paper discusses the pre-job planning, field execution and lessons learned from one such technology that challenged conventional thinking of sand faced completion, casedhole completion and well integrity to successfully deliver a single-trip, interventionless, sand control completion in deepwater Bonga Field, located on the continental slope of the Niger Delta.
Convention dictates that the vast majority of offshore completions be run in two and sometimes three trips which routinely takes in excess of eight to ten days to deploy. Given the day rate of high specification rigs capable of drilling in deep water environments, the ability to reduce this time was deemed paramount to the economics of the project. Utilizing a collaborative approach to initial concept design, risk assessment, extensive testing and contingency planning at component and system level, a single-trip, interventionless, sand control completion system was designed and successfully installed. This paper describes the completion architecture, operational sequence and challenges leading to the installation of an interventionless completion.
A clearly defined set of deliverables and design principles were drawn up to guide the direction of the project including: successfully deploying the upper and lower completion in one trip, and testing all barriers. Adopting a simple, low risk and high reward design, meeting clients well barrier requirements and utilizing proven cost-effective technology are examples of design principles used. The system was tested and evolved through a number of iterations in an onshore trial well environment on a number of occasions leading to the first successful deployment completed in the second half of 2018, resulting in an average completion installation time of 5 days, versus the average 10 days for deploying multi-trip completions. Details of the successful installations, lessons learned, along with planned future activity are outlined within the body of this paper. While several of the components incorporated in the single-trip system had been run previously in isolation, this paper also discusses the steps taken to facilitate the first full-system approach to the application of radio frequency identification (RFID) enabled tools in the first single-trip, interventionless sand control completion system. Several components within the completion have been equipped with this technology including a multi-cycle ball valve, wire wrapped screens fitted with inflow control device (ICD), remote operated sliding sleeve for annular fluid displacement.
North Dakota oil drillers are falling far short of the state’s goals to limit the burning of excess natural gas at wellheads, 5 years after the state adopted the rules to reduce the wasteful and environmentally harmful practice. America’s hottest oil patch is producing so much natural gas that, by the end of last year, producers were burning off more than enough of the fuel to meet residential demand across the whole of Texas. The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation announced a three-point smart strategy aimed at ending gas flaring in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry in 2 years. Climate Change has brought the oil industry face-to-face with the enormous challenge of providing the world with a source of efficient and reliable energy while at the same time ensuring that CO2 emissions are mitigated. Honeywell announced that its Callidus Technologies business began operation of China's only facility capable of testing flare emissions for volatile organic compounds.
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation announced a three-point smart strategy aimed at ending gas flaring in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry in 2 years. At least four US pipeline companies have seen their electronic systems for communicating with customers shut down over the last few days, with three confirming it resulted from a cyberattack. In response to questions from lawmakers on whether federal law adequately provides for the prosecution of "criminal activity against infrastructure," the Department of Justice recently committed to "vigorously" prosecute those who damage "critical energy infrastructure in violation of federal law."
Anadarko Petroleum wants a fleet of at least six vehicles with armor heavy enough to stop AK-47 bullets at its natural-gas project in Mozambique. And it needs them soon. By examining two very different security-risk environments, this paper will illustrate how easily security-related human-rights risks can go unnoticed unless care is taken early in the risk-management process. A third Damen security vessel will be deployed to provide security and other support services to the international offshore oil companies active off the coast of Nigeria in the Gulf of Guinea, in cooperation with the Nigerian Navy. Sinopec’s Shengli oil field became the latest victim of the ransomware that hobbled big business across the globe.
The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation announced a three-point smart strategy aimed at ending gas flaring in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry in 2 years. Climate Change has brought the oil industry face-to-face with the enormous challenge of providing the world with a source of efficient and reliable energy while at the same time ensuring that CO2 emissions are mitigated.
Lloyds Register Senior Flow Assurance Engineer Oche Ameh explains what flow assurance is and the importance of this field in oil and gas extraction. The Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation announced a three-point smart strategy aimed at ending gas flaring in Nigeria’s oil and gas industry in 2 years.