The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Yi, M. (Intellicess, Inc., Austin, Texas, U.S.A) | Ashok, P. (Intellicess, Inc., Austin, Texas, U.S.A) | Ramos, D. (Intellicess, Inc., Austin, Texas, U.S.A) | Pearce, J. (NOV Inc., Houston, Texas, U.S.A) | Hickin, G. (NOV Inc., Houston, Texas, U.S.A) | Peroyea, T. (APA Corp., Houston, Texas, U.S.A) | White, S. (APA Corp., Houston, Texas, U.S.A) | Thetford, T. (APA Corp., Houston, Texas, U.S.A) | Behounek, M. (APA Corp., Houston, Texas, U.S.A)
Abstract During well construction, it is important to know when a bit is damaged to the point where it must be tripped out and replaced with a new bit. Continuing to drill with a damaged bit or pulling out a bit prematurely are both bad decisions leading to increased drilling costs. A bit pull advisory system was therefore developed and deployed in the field to help the rig crew make better informed bit pull decisions. A bit degradation metric was first developed to estimate the wear on the drill bit as it is drilling. This bit degradation metric utilized a physics-based model to be generalizable both for vertical as well as horizontal wells. Next this metric along with other trends in data were combined using a Bayesian network to arrive at a bit effectiveness belief. This was then further combined with calculations of the time to trip out a damaged bit and replace it with a new bit, to arrive at bit pull beliefs for various scenarios of expected future ROP and distance to total depth (TD). The bit degradation metric was first applied offline on 80 historical wells that consisted of wells drilled in Egypt, North Sea and the US land, and verified to a high degree of accuracy. It was then integrated into a drilling data aggregator and deployed in the field. The physics-based model utilized in the calculation of the bit degradation metric required contextual data, which was automatically routed to the data aggregator from various data sources. The bit pull beliefs for a range of expected ROPs and distance to TD were made available both as channels that can be visualized in vertical charts as well as a heat map. When a bit pull belief suggested a trip out, the driller was first asked to monitor for drilling dysfunctions such as stick slip, bit balling, whirl, etc., and attempt to correct it. Failing that, the bit was to be pulled out. This system is now operational on rigs in Egypt, North Sea and the US, and the response from the field personnel has been positive to date. This is the first drill bit damage tracking advisory that has been deployed on a rig site data aggregator. Using the bit degradation metric and the bit pull beliefs, the rig site team is always able to determine the extent of damage to the bit and whether the bit must be pulled out or not. The system thus helps in reducing ILT and NPT costs by reducing the time drilled with damaged bits and eliminating premature trips out.
Abstract Al Baraka Oilfield Services SAOC has supported Oman's leading oil and gas exploration and production company in the Sultanate, in servicing wells in the Oman Block 6 concession area using Conventional Workover Rigs since 2013. Workover includes primarily changing completions and casings, fishing, cementing, abandonment, milling, perforations, changing pumps/motors, upsizing wellhead, and other integrity operations. The challenge given by the Client to the Contractor was to safely and successfully commission the first two new electric-powered 550 HP Hoists. A Super Local Community Contractor (SLCC) has become the first oil and gas company in Oman to introduce ground-breaking electric-powered Workover Rigs. It is proud to declare itself as the first company in Oman to work intensively and proactively to design these modularized electric-powered workover units, able to optimize the move time between the wells, thereby creating faster turnarounds and reducing costs. This allowed the Client to bring early oil to the tanks, minimizing deferment, achieving ample savings in operations, and accelerating cash flow. Conventional workover rigs are primarily hydraulic, not electric. Compared with the Conventional units, the new Electrical hoists are equipped with the latest technology and ergonomics that ensure safe operations and faster movement between locations which reflects in the increased number of wells attended so far in 2022. Other advantages are viz. modular, less space occupation; improved control features, ability to control both torques and speed very accurately; fully automated pipe-handling systems; less maintenance expenditure and lower capital/operating investment The Electrical units are designed to enhance safety and overall performance efficiency defined by the specific application, the location of the well, and the type of work to be performed. These rigs have a more efficient power source, as electric motors convert more of the energy input into mechanical power compared to diesel engines. This is also reflected in the reduction in Non-Productive Time. Two critical features were the basis of the design of the Workover Unit, i.e. potential to take lead in energy efficiency/decarbonization and minimizing "lifting and drops" hazards by introducing automated handling mechanisms and reducing manual/human intervention. In phase II, these units will be hooked up to the Overhead Electricity Transmission Grid instead of running from diesel generators. Oman's power grid is fed by electricity produced from clean natural gas-fired turbines which emit less pollution; therefore there will be an overall saving in energy consumption and reducing pollution from burning fossil fuels, with the aspiration to reduce global carbon emissions to Net Zero by 2050, as part of the decarbonization roadmap laid down by the Ministry of Energy & Minerals in Oman, in line with the Paris Agreement's objectives of limiting global warming to 1.5°C compared to pre-industrial levels. The electric-powered WO rig concept has been so successful that the Client has incorporated these types of rigs in future new contracts as against conventional hydraulic rigs – the client has changed the contract specification in line with these Hoists. Other service providers are planning to switch to Electric WO rigs as a new trend in Oman as these units have enhanced technical features.
Abstract The development of a geothermal system can supply low-carbon electricity to support the raising energy demand under the energy transition from fossil fuel to renewables. CO2 can substitute for water for energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs owing to its better mobility and higher heat capacity. Additionally, trapping injected CO2 underground can achieve environmental benefits by targeting Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. In this study, different flow schemes are established to assess heat mining and geological CO2 sequestration (CCS) by injecting CO2 for the purpose of an enhanced geothermal system. The Qiabuqia geothermal field in China is selected as a study case to formulate the geothermal reservoir simulation. The results show that a pure CO2 injection into a water-saturated reservoir can provide the best performance in heat mining. Besides, this operational strategy can also provide extra benefits by producing 6.7% CO2 retention. The generated geothermal electricity under a pure CO2 injection into a CO2-saturated formation is the lowest, while its 42.1% of CO2 retention shows a promising CCS performance and the large volume of stored CO2 can supply some profits by carbon credit. Considering the assessment on heat mining and CCS, the pure CO2 injection into a water-saturated reservoir is recommended for the operation of an EGS. Under this flow strategy, well spacing, production pressure difference and fluid injection temperature are dominated in geothermal energy production. Three factors, including well spacing, production pressure difference and fracture conductivity, influence the CO2 storage capacity. In operating an EGS, a larger well spacing, a lower injection temperature and a lower fracture conductivity are suggested. While the optimal production pressure difference should be further determined to balance its effect on geothermal production and CO2 storage since it presents an opposite effect on these two parts. This work demonstrates the feasibility of heat mining associated with CO2 geological permanent storage in an EGS by injecting CO2. The proposed study proves that not only the sufficient and sustainable energy can be supplied but also a significant amount of CO2 emission can be eliminated simultaneously. In addition, the investigation of geothermal energy production and CO2 geological sequestration under different operational parameters can provide profound guidance for the operators.
Abstract Using the press-replace technique, a recently developed finite element method depending on the criteria of the small deformation analysis SDA, to investigate the soil-foundation interaction of the Jack-Up rig with Spudcan during its proceeding to achieve stability installation in Multi-Layered soil. The analysis has been implemented and compared with previously published cases, which has been done experimentally and by using large deformation finite element analysis. The Press-Replace technique PRT is mainly has been developed able to capture the Spudcan proceeding through the multi-layered soil specifically in cases of penetrating through soft soils by simulating the possible squeezing accompanied by the back-flow phenomenon, which happens for the soft soil during the installation. The considered analysis criteria have been explicated. The results provided an effective expectation of the soil-structure interaction validated by the previous experimental and numerical results. Depending on the detailed analysis steps provided, engineers and researchers can use it to make the needed analysis for similar case studies. The small deformation analysis SDA has been operated on six cases of multi-layered soils and compared to the previous experimental and numerical results. The variety of investigated cases was depending on the type of upper layered, either it was a soft to moderate clay layer or a sand layer. The two main criteria have been considered in the current analysis, which is the backflow of clay and the back-fill of sand. As the analysis theory depends mainly on the geometry update, the simulation steps of these two criteria have been provided in detail. That control has been applied, by observing the soil movement behavior of the previous experimental outcomes. Four cases with upper clay soil and other two cases with upper sand layers have been investigated and compared to previous experimental and numerical results. By controlling these two states of the upper soil layer, it can be obtained the different simulation steps in the analysis in the condition of the existing upper layer is sand or clay. The analysis provided shows a good comparison of stability depth to the previous results. Furthermore, it gives a very close evaluation behavior to the previous experimental results. This approach numerical method provides a tool for the engineers to use the Press-Replace technique PRT, which is a smooth and fast numerical technique compared to the other numerical methods, to investigate and obtain the Spudcan penetration through similar cases of multi-layered soil.
Ebraheem, Mohamed O. (Geology Department, Faculty of Science, New Valley University (Corresponding author)) | Ibrahim, Hamza A. (Geology Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University (Corresponding Author)) | Ewida, Hatem F. (North Sinai Petroleum Company (NOSPCO)) | Senosy, Ahmed H. (Geology Department, Faculty of Science, New Valley University)
Summary The early Cretaceous formations in recent years are considered significant potential hydrocarbon-bearing rocks in many rift basins such as Komombo, south Egypt. Therefore, this study is focused on the critical analysis and interpretation of well logging together with seismic reflection data on the Al Baraka petroliferous reservoir in the Komombo subbasin. The interpretation of these data was used to construct the first 3D geophysical models in this area which were subsequently interpreted in terms of their potential to be hydrocarbon-bearing or not. The 3D petrophysical models were deduced to illustrate the spatial distribution and propagation of the petrophysical properties (laterally and vertically) within the reservoir. Additionally, 3D seismic models were prepared to get a comprehensive, in-depth picture of how the productive hydrocarbon reservoir zones are structurally controlled in different depths. So, these models are crucial for explaining reservoir characteristics and providing supported geological reservoir models for precise reservoir performance prediction. This study aims to differentiate and determine hydrocarbon potential zones in terms of the petroleum system. The results of these progressive analyses showed that only two zones (C and D) in the Six Hills Formation are considered the most productive zones because they have a large thickness of sand bodies, low-water saturation values, high porosity, and high permeability. These zones are located in the northeastern and central parts of the studied area, which represent the depocenter of the subbasin. This evidence supported and confirmed the presence of petroleum accumulations in certain zones within the Six Hills Formation. Therefore, this work can give and encourage experts with adequate knowledge to understand the development of the rift basins in Komombo and other basins in middle and south Egypt.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released new details about the design of the 27-billion Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund (GGRF), a first-of-its-kind, national-scale competitive grant program created by President Biden's Inflation Reduction Act. This program, part of the Investing in America agenda, will leverage public investment with private capital and finance clean-energy projects that reduce pollution and energy costs, increase energy security, and create good-paying jobs, especially in low-income and disadvantaged communities and places that have historically shouldered the burden of harmful pollution. The GGRF is designed to catalyze investment in thousands of clean-energy projects, build the capacity of community lenders to drive local economic growth, and deploy cost-saving solar energy on rooftops and in communities across the country. Bitcoin Mining Could Mitigate Greenhouse Gases Bitcoin mining is emerging as a way to mitigate greenhouse-gas emissions from hydrocarbon extraction. According to a recent report by the International Energy Alliance (IEA), in 2021, global gas flaring burned an amount of gas equivalent to the total volume imported by Germany, France, and the Netherlands, contributing to a direct release of 270 million tons of CO2 and nearly 8 million tons of methane (equivalent to approximately 240 million tons of CO2).
Elokr, Mohamed (Kuwait Energy Egypt) | Lotfy, Ahmed (Kuwait Energy Egypt) | Xing, Wei (United Energy Group Limited) | Li, Huijing (United Energy Group Limited) | El Bassioni, Ahmed (PetroTrace Egypt) | Moatasem, Nader (Burg El Arab Company)
Abstract ASH oil field located in the east of the AG Basin in Egypt. Lower Cretaceous Alam El Bueib is the main oil producing formation. Due high heterogeneity of the Abu Roash Members succession in addition to the influence of thick limestone of the Upper Cretaceous and the influence of multiple complex faults, the quality of seismic data is very poor. This is mainly manifested in, a, the variation of vertical velocity in lithology changes resulting a significant error in depth migration; b, the fault imaging is not clear due to low S/N ratio, which leads to serious challenge for structure mapping. Therefore, the seismic re-processing was carried out. Two key techniques were carried out to achieve the target, that: uses new well VSP data to adjust the velocity model and CRAM PSDM for re-processing. Adjusting the velocity model: The previous PSDM acquired in 2015 had no well control covering the deeper target of Alam El Bueib Formation but the advantage of using VSP data of ASH-3 well as a well control for building new velocity model of the reprocessed data. CRAM PSDM re-processing: The CRAM (Common Reflection Angle Migration) is a cluster-based imaging system that generates conventional reflection angle gathers without azimuth dependency. Optimal local tapered beams are internally created and imaged to form high-quality image gathers, which can then be used in standard interpretation systems for accurate velocity model building and amplitude inversion (AVA). Applying CRAM technology in depth migration instead of Kirchhoff depth migration, has a great impact on enhance the final seismic image. The CRAM algorithm is using the Ray path migration of the seismic signal instead of using migration aperture as in Kirchhoff. Applying the ray path migration helps in adopting the seismic trace position ultimately enhance the fault definition and S/N ratio at the deeper target levels. As a practical case from the comparable seismic sections, same arbitrary line in different seismic volumes, the reprocessed data showed a high level of improvement in fault definition specially in the north portion of ASH field closer to the major fault which was very poor in the previous data. In the reprocessed CRAM PSDM data, the good amplitude extended towards the north and west portions of the field, which allowed to define the faults through Alam El Bueib horizon and decrease the uncertainty of the new proposed well location in the entire field. (Figure 1) Figure 1: Amplitude comparison between reprocessed and original data, ASH field
Abstract Project planning and execution are vital in the oil and gas industry due to their high impact on operational efficiency. failure in project planning or delay in its execution will significantly impact project expenditures, Asset OPEX, and generated revenues from this asset. In line with Kuwait energy Egypt project management guidelines and company strategy to excel in project management and operational efficiency; The following variables were used to solve the problem: Standardization of Engineering and construction of oilfield surface facilities, this will allow access for modification of running facility and relocate extra equipment to accommodate production increase. Usage of current resources including recycling of surplus and condition B materials in minor projects such as ESP cables for power transmission, tubing, and rods for flowlines, fences, and camp revamping, and relocation of idle equipment to most needed places like relocation of El-Salmiya 2 tanks and one separator to Al-Jahraa facility and water flood tanks to ASH facility to avoid extra rental equipment on location. Also, the Al-Ahmadi flow line was relocated to the Al-Jahraa gas project. Improving the efficiency of oilfield facilities by optimizing parameters according to the priority of safe production, production de-bottlenecking, saving energy, and reducing consumption. Quality inspection must be practical and realistic, the quality inspection report and data issued must be true and reliable, and the relevant records, reports, and data should be accurate, complete, and timely archived. Innovation is encouraged to rely more on new energy-saving and higher efficiency technologies. Contractors' qualification, selection, and contract management to ensure the highest performance and lowest prices in the market, extensive negotiations, and tendering processes are performed before awarding. The applied methodologies resulted in huge savings in both CAPEX & OPEX that was reflected on total asset value and production optimization to achieve company key performance indicators. These positive results can be summarized as follows: Run facilities with maximum capacity and avoid bottlenecks. Reduced hookup time allowing smooth relocation of equipment to release rental equipment Optimized projects time and costs while optimizing operating and maintenance expenditures. The company has gained its reputation and was recognized as best-in-class operator via repeated operational excellence awards from different entities due to its unique methodology in project planning and execution "make rather than buy/rent". the invented tools, and local resources were utilized to get the job done on time via setting challenging objectives to save +5% of the total project cost and stress on waste elimination. Thinking out of the box for readily available solutions like the gas plant brought from a sister company saved more than 30 million dollars. in conclusion, it’s vital to generalize the applied methodologies to other assets to enhance their business models.
Esmail, Mohamed Abdulmageed (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO) | Abdelhalem, Tamer Hosny (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO) | Mohamed, Islam Ibrahim (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO) | Elnahas, Mohamed Hasan (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO) | Mohamed, Hossam Sabry (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO) | Yehia, Mohamed Ahmed (Gulf of Suez Petroleum Company, GUPCO)
Abstract Microbial hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is a complication in the oil and gas industry. Production of H2S by bacteria within oil reservoir is detrimental to both injection and production. This study determines the root cause of the problem with a scientific approach to control H2S content – in a mature field in Gulf of Suez (GOS) – by applying different methods of chemical treatments in injectors, subsequently leading to production of fluids and gases with sustaining lower H2S content. The field depends on injection of sulfate-rich seawater into hydrocarbon containing reservoirs for pressure maintenance for 50 years. H2S content in the reservoir was relatively low before proceeding the water-flooding project. Initially, microbiological induced corrosion in oil production and water injection pipping were detected, then a strategy for monitoring the process of microbial production of H2S and its build-up within a reservoir and mitigation of induced scale by bacterial action was created. Finally, chemical injection approaches were implemented to reduce sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) activity in the reservoir and to control / decrease H2S content in production fluids and gases. Sharp increase in H2S content in production fluids and gases parallel with a decline in injection rate of water injection wells were the first signs of microbiological bacterial activity in piping and reservoir. In situ injection of biocide in production wells followed by soaking for 24 hours failed to decrease H2S content in production fluids. Continuous injection of oxygen scavenger with water stream in injection wells was the second trial that succeeded in decreasing H2S content in production wells, but only for short time, and then it increased yet again. This trial was the highest cost with low to moderate results. Last trial was to inject biocide with water stream in injection wells for three months, followed by H2S content observation in production wells. Chemical lab tests showed dramatic reduction of H2S content by 30 to 40% in some production wells in addition to tremendous improvement in injection rate of the injectors. The case signifies the importance of root cause analysis and engineering problem solving techniques in finding a solution to reduce microbial hydrogen sulfide content caused by SRB action. Reduction of H2S allows opening of many shut-in producers that were producing high H2S content fluids and resulted in severe corrosion in addition to health, safety and environment (HSE) issues, particularly when assets were not designed to be operated in souring conditions.