Giunta, Giuseppe (Eni SpA, Development Opertions & Technology) | Nielsen, Keld Lund (Eni SpA, Development Opertions & Technology) | Bernasconi, Giancarlo (Politecnico di Milano) | Bondi, Luca (Politecnico di Milano) | Korubo, Barry (NAOC JV)
Efficiency and safety are primary requirements for oil & gas fluid filled transportation system. However, the complexity of the asset makes it challenging to derive a theoretical framework for managing the control parameters. The current frontier for a real time monitoring exploits the "digital tansformation", i.e. the acquisition and the analysis of large datasets recorded along the whole asset lifecycle, which are used to infer "data driven" relations and to predict the evolution of the asset integrity. This paper presents some results of a research project for the design, implementation and testing of a "machine learning" approach to vibroacoustic data recorded continuously by acquisition units installed every 10-20 km along a pipeline.
In a fluid transportation system, vibroacoustic signals are generated by the flow regulation equipment (i.e. pumping, valves, metering), by the fluid flowing (i.e. turbulence, cavitation, bubbles), by third party interference (i.e. spillage, sabotage, illegal tapping), by internal inspection using PIGs operations), and by natural hazards (i.e. microseismic, subsidence, landslides). The basic principle of machine learning is to "observe", for an appropriate time interval, a series of descriptors, in this stage related to vibroacoustic signals but that can be integrated with other physical data (i.e. temperature, density, viscosity), in order to "learn" their safe range of variation or, when properly fed to a classification procedure, to obtain automatically a discrete set of operational status. The classification criteria are then applied to new data, highlighting the presence of system anomalies.
The paper considers vibroacoustic signals collected at the flow stations of an oil trunkline in Nigeria. The vibroacoustic signals are the static pressure, the acceleration and the pressure transients recorded at the departure and at the arrival terminals. More than one year of data is available. Derived smart indicators are defined, which are directly linked to the asset parameters: for instance, the cross-correlation of the pressure transients at adjacent measuring locations permits to estimate the fluid channel continuity (correlation value), the sound velocity (time of correlation peak), and the sound attenuation (amplitude versus frequency amplitude decay). A portion of the data during normal operation is used for training and tuning a reference model. After that, new data are compared with the model, and anomalies are automatically detected. Two kind of errors are raised: i) sensors; ii) alerts. Sensor errors are referred to missing or corrupted sensors data. Alerts are raised when the measured physical quantities are not coherent with the functional and known service behaviors of the transport system.
The system model is not static over time, and in fact it can be updated by the operators’ feedback, that can tag false alarms and thus, automatically, re-define the set of operational scenarios of the upstream system. The medium-long term construction and update of data driven models is effective for predictive maintenance, automatic anomalies detection, optimization of operational procedures. Moreover, the new policy of data management and the opportunity of gaining awareness by interconnecting the monitoring experience of different assets leverages the introduction of new technologies (cloud, big data), new professional figures (smart data scientist), new operational and business models.
Imomoh Scholarship The Imomoh Scholarship was endowed to the SPE Foundation by Egbert Imomoh to support excellence in education for students from the Africa Region. The recipients will be awarded a single payment of USD 2,000. Recipients View past recipients Eligibility Must be pursuing a master’s degree in petroleum engineering Must be from a country in the SPE Africa Region Comply with sanction policy Complete the electronic application submission process Only applications submitted via the link provided will be accepted. Applications received in any other format will not be eligible. You must submit at least one recommendation and documentation for entry exams (if applicable).
Emmanuel Egbogah, former SPE Africa Regional Director and Honorary Member of SPE, died 18 June. He was a recognized authority on petroleum policy, enhanced oil recovery (EOR), stimulation procedures, and multidisciplinary team approach to field development planning and reservoir management. During his more than 35 years in the industry, he held several executive leadership and policy advisory positions. Among them, he was technical advisor and technology custodian for Petronas, EOR advisor for Libyan National Oil Corp., and petroleum engineering manager and EOR specialist at Amerigo International. From 2007 to 2011, he served as the presidential advisor on petroleum to the Republic of Nigeria.
One of the major challenges of Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) Magnetic Resonance data acquisition is its limited logging speed. Typically, LWD Magnetic Resonance is logged at speeds of approximately 20m/hr (65ft/hr). Higher logging speeds will substantially reduce the vertical resolution of the data and prevent full polarization of the Hydrogen Protons in the formation, thus, introducing errors in the measurement of total porosity, fluid fractions, and permeability.
The axial motion (rate of penetration) of the magnetic resonance data has multiple effects on the acquired data. The main effects occur to the data during the polarization time, and the amplitude of the echoes during the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence time. The effects on the amplitude are broadly referred to as the flow effects.
During the drilling of a well in the Niger Delta, an operator needed to save rig cost by increasing the Rate of Penetration (ROP) for LWD Magnetic Resonance from 20m/hr to 40m/hr. This increased ROP caused an overestimation of the total porosity from magnetic resonance.
A newly introduced correction technique enables the compensation of effects due to high ROP on magnetic resonance data. This ROP correction methodology compensates flow and polarization effects. Total porosity and fluid fractions were corrected, resulting also in an updated Magnetic Resonance permeability index. Validation of the technique was accomplished by an accurate match of the corrected total porosity to results from offset wells.
This paper demonstrates the effect of a high rate of penetration on acquired LWD data. Details of flow and polarization effects, and the procedure for correcting these effects, making the data useable and accurate, are also presented.
The Magnetic Resonance (MR) method is based on a magnetic interaction of the magnetic moments of nuclei and externally applied magnetic fields. In the field of Magnetic Resonance Well Logging, only the hydrogen nuclei are of interest. Hydrocarbon and water contain a large number of hyrodrogen nuclei. The hydrogen nuclei possess the strongest magnetic moment. The hydrogen nucleus is a proton. The proton has a mass, an angular momentum and a charge. A spinning charge creates a magnetic moment. This magnetic moment allows the interaction with magnetic fields.
Nigeria recently endorsed the World Bank's zero routine flaring by 2030 initiative and raised her own goal to 2020. As a step towards achieving the 2020 flare out goal, the Ministry of Petroleum Resources has established a national gas flare commercialization framework. Under this framework, licenses would be issued to third parties who would become off-takers of the gas. While this framework presents opportunity for investment, most of the oil fields where the gas is being flared may be far from existing pipelines and process infrastructures. Additionally, flare gas is often associated with volume, composition and pressure fluctuations, which make technology selection for its utilization more challenging. This paper reviewed some technologies for flare gas recovery and utilization, and identified promising technologies with capabilities of handling flare gas volume below 1 MMscfd. Mini gas-to-liquid (mini-GTL) technologies for producing diesel, methanol and anhydrous ammonia developed by Greyrock, GasTechno and Proton Ventures, respectively, were selected. The technical viability and economic benefits of these technologies were evaluated based on feed gas rate of 500 Mscfd. While all the technologies are technically viable, the gross profit margin of the GasTechno's miniGTL technology with methanol as the GTL product was found to be more attractive.
The complex nature of deep water sediments requires the use of a full field 3D static model to enable better understanding of the reservoir characteristics of the field. This study focuses on the 3D static modelling of the 458 reservoir in Botti field to facilitate field development. The Botti field is a partially appraised field located about 20km offshore Nigeria. A total of four wells have been drilled in the field and only two wells encountered the target reservoir. The depositional environment is mainly deep water slope channel sands with some submarine fans. The morphological uncertainties relating to the slope channel sands deposits, requires a detailed 3D static model which defines reservoir characteristics such as channel orientation, continuity and connectivity.
Akinlawon, Adeyemi J. (Emerald Energy Institute, University of Port Harcourt) | Iledare, Omowumi O. (Professor Emeritus, LSU Center for Energy Studies, USA and Director, Emerald Energy Institute, University of Port Harcourt)
Petroleum E&P operations in Nigeria were virtually restricted to land, swamp and shallow offshore until 1993. The Federal government, in its quest to open a new frontier in oil and gas exploration, allotted the first set of deep-offshore blocks to some international oil companies (IOCs) and indigenous oil companies, in 1993, to operate under contractual fiscal arrangements. The adoption of the contractual fiscal system was to provide a suitable agreement structure for encouraging investment in offshore acreage. As at year end 2015, there were seven deep-offshore producing fields, which contributed about 40% of total oil production in Nigeria.
There are a number of deep-offshore fields on the queue for investment decisions, but progress has been inhibited because of several factors, including the low crude oil price regime and lack of fiscal instruments and terms for natural gas development. The proposed Nigeria National Petroleum Policy of November 2016 estimated the cost of producing a barrel of oil in Nigeria as $28.99/bbl. At this high estimated unit cost, coupled with the sustained volatility in crude oil prices, the deferment of cost recovery and declining earnings from the field development projects have become inevitable.
This paper evaluates the impact of current fiscal provisions on deep-offshore developments and estimates thresholds of oil price, reserves and cost of services, with the view of determining optimal terms that will encourage new field developments. The model framework adopted for this paper is based on the generic discounted cash-flow modelling with considerations for risk and uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo simulation process.
E&P investment measures are derived by solving a discounted cash flow equation iteratively in a coded Excel spread sheet model. Using estimated responsiveness measures, the paper investigates how to adjust contractual fiscal terms and instruments to make investing in E&P ventures in deep-offshore Nigeria offer satisfactory returns under low price regime. The significance of the impact of fiscal agreement terms and instruments using Monte Carlo simulation provides a framework to compare the performance of deep-water projects.
Nigeria has the 9th Largest Gas Proven reserves in the world with an estimated reserve volume of 188 trillion standard cubic feet (SCF) Faulted Gas Distribution Networks Low Gas Price Insufficient favorable Gas Policies
Faulted Gas Distribution Networks
Low Gas Price
Insufficient favorable Gas Policies
Based on the current dynamics in Crude Oil Pricing & the need for more alternative and unconventional sources of energy, developing all facets of Natural Gas Technology, which has proven in recent times to be a formidable alternative source of energy is not only beneficial but imperative. In developed Nations, Storage of hydrocarbon resources is essential in order to meet seasonal demands. Continued commodity price volatility indicates that more storage is appropriate.
On Thursday, the 31st of March, 2016, Nigeria's power generation grounded to a complete halt, with a total output of 0MW for close to three hours.
In order to eliminate this problem, Underground Natural Gas Storage is a potential solution that will lead to a continuous availability of Natural Gas irrespective of market conditions and in turn an improvement in economic conditions.
Major Fields in the Niger delta are mature provinces, having been in production for well over 35 years, most of these fields are in the decline curve of the Oilfield Lifecycle. These depleted reservoirs can serve as underground natural storage for Nigeria's abundant associated gas.
The objective of this research is to estimate the projected volumes of depleted reservoirs in the Niger delta region, using reservoir data from particular fields and to analyze their gas deliverability & economic viability if utilized for underground storage.
The Agbada 2 flow station should have been buzzing with activity, pumping crude to one of Nigeria’s largest export terminals. Instead it was idle in the muggy, midmorning heat as Wilcox Emmanuel, the facility’s manager, shrugged in resignation about the thieves who’d shut him down. As much as 30% of the oil sent by pipelines through the swampy Niger River delta is stolen, consultant Wood Mackenzie estimates. At Agbada, the wells dotting the surrounding forests had been closed for three weeks following a pipeline leak that was probably deliberate. The 60,000-BOPD flow station, owned by Royal Dutch Shell’s Nigerian unit and idle for most of June, illustrates the nation’s struggle to restore deliveries of its most vital resource.
Eze, Joy (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Onakomaiya, Oluwarotimi (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Ogunrinde, Ademola (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Adegboyega, Olusegun (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Wopara, James (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Timibitei, Fred (Shell Petroleum Development Company) | Ideh, Matthew (Shell Petroleum Development Company)
The exploration and production of oil and gas mostly occurs in remote locations, so as to minimize human exposure and Health Security Safety and Environment (HSSE) risks. Shell Companies in Nigeria is not any different having operated for over 50 years in Nigeria with the largest footprint of all the international oil and gas companies operating in the country spanning over land, swamp, shallow waters and offshore terrains. Shell Petroleum Development Company, the operator of a joint venture (the SPDC JV) between the government-owned Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation – NNPC (55% share), Shell (30%), Total E&P Nigeria Ltd (10%) and the ENI subsidiary Agip Oil Company Limited (5%) focuses mostly on onshore and shallow water oil and gas production in the Niger Delta with about 60+ producing oil and gas fields and a network of approximately 5,000 kilometers of oil and gas pipelines and flow lines spread across the Niger Delta.
Escravos Beach is over 60km from the closest major city, Warri, a major oil and gas zone in the Niger Delta. It is bounded by the Escravos River to the East, Chevron canal to the North and the Atlantic Ocean to the South and is covered with predominantly mangrove forest especially along the creeks and consists of a number of natural and man-made waterways (rivers, creeks and canals).
Unlike most other onshore operations, this location can only be accessed via the waterways; thus requiring the rig equipment and every other equipment to be channeled via the waterways and subsequently on land to arrive at the site. The amphibious nature of this operation requires a combination of onshore and swamp requirements with increased HSSE exposure, logistics requirement and cost.
This paper aims to highlight the practical experience garnered in the rig move and workover operations of Rig XYZ which operated in the Escravos Beach region.