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The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:

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- Data Science & Engineering Analytics

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ABSTRACT: This paper describes the behaviour and static strength of multiplanar welded connections between plate to circular hollow section column connections loaded with axial loads on the plates. Five different ratios between the axial compression load on the in-plane and out-of-plane plates are investigated. The load on opposite plates is symmetrical. A parameter investigation has been carried out which covers the most important geometrical parameters. 15 Multiplanar connections are analyzed using both geometrical and material non-linear finite element analyses. Analytical models are derived on the bases of the ring model approach. Based upon these models a parametric formula is created. The parameters in the formula are determined with regression analyses, using the finite element results. Good agreement is found between the strength as predicted by the formula and the finite element results. INTRODUCTION This paper presents a part of a large research programme on semi-rigid connections between I-section beams and circular hollow sections columns. This part consists of the parametric investigation on multiplanar welded plate to tubular column connections loaded with compression loads. The data as shown in the paper is valid for these type of connections only if butt welds are applied. However, welded with fillet welds, these connections have a larger strength. Thus, for these connections with fillet welds the presented data might be conservative. In this paper 15 of these connections are studied loaded with 5 different combinations of compression loading on the in-plane and out-of-plane plates. For the finite element calculations both geometrical and material nonlinearities are taken into account. In a previous paper (de Winkel and Wardenier, 1994) a general solution has been presented for a ring model for multiplanar X-joints on the basis of Togo's ring model (Togo, 1967). Making use of this solution a regression model has been made for multiplanar load cases.t

Country:

- Africa > Togo (0.45)
- Europe > Netherlands (0.29)

Genre:

- Research Report > New Finding (0.35)
- Research Report > Experimental Study (0.35)

ABSTRACT This paper describes the behaviour and static strength of uniplanar and multiplanar connections between I-section beams and circular hollow section columns loaded with in-plane bending moments. The out-of-plane I-beams are unloaded. A parameter investigation has been carried out which covers the most Important geometrical parameters. 24 Uniplanar and 24 multiplanar connections are analysed using both geometrical" and material non-linear finite element analyses. Analytical models are derived on the bases of the ring model approach. With these models parametric formulae are set up. The parameters in the formulae are determined with regression analyses, using the finite element results. Good agreement is found between the strength as predicted by the formulae and the finite element results. The derived formulae and the results of the finite element analyses are also compared with existing design formulae and experimental data. INTRODUCTION Welded multiplanar connections between I-beams and tubular columns, without stiffeners can be used economically for offshore and on shore structures. Currently, only design recommendations exist for uniplanar connections (Makino et aI, 1991 and Wardenier et al, 1991). These formulae are simple and based on a limited amount of experimental tests For this study, finite element models of 24 uniplanar and 24 multiplanar I-beam to tubular column connections loaded with in-plane bending, are analysed. The finite element models are based on a calibrated model, which is experimentally verified (Winkel et aI, 1993). Using the ring model approach (Togo, 1967), analytical models have been derived. The formulae thus obtained are the basis of the formulae, which are calibrated with the finite element results, using non-Iinear regression analyses. FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING The finite element models are generated with the pre- and post processor program SDRC I-DEAS. Typical finite element meshes are shown in Figures 1 and 2. For the finite element models parabolic thick shell elements are used with four integration points at Gauss locations in 7 layers across thickness.

Country:

- Africa > Togo (0.25)
- Europe > Netherlands > South Holland (0.16)

Genre:

- Research Report > New Finding (0.69)
- Research Report > Experimental Study (0.55)

The distribution of the reversed path travel time discrepancies (difference in measured travel time A variety of methods of processing two-dimensional crosshole tomography along the same ray path, with source and receiver interchanged) data are reported in the literature, with little guidance yielded an estimate of data variance, ur 4.43 x lOme s'. After ss to which of the competing or complementary techniques offers removal of inaccurate and redundant data, 1160 travel times the "best" results. The main classes of techniques are iterative remained for input into a velocity inversion.

inversion, iteration, iteration number, lsq, mean residual magnitude, model perturbation, modeller, relaxation factor, Reservoir Characterization, residual magnitude, residual reduction, SIRT, SVD, svd two-dimensional tomographic inversion, tomographic inversion, travel time, Upstream Oil & Gas, value decomposition, vector

Country:

- North America > Canada (0.47)
- Africa > Togo > Maritime Region > Lome (0.24)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Seismic processing and interpretation (0.49)

Summary COLOMBO: Dr. HEDBERGs concept of "source sequence", as opposed to that of source rocks, is particularly valuable. We could go a little farther and deny that the origin of petroleum, as such, is synonymous with the origin of the components of petroleum. If this view is correct, while hydrocarbons are generated in the source beds, petroleum is actually formed in the trap environment. Should we not, therefore, regard the traps as having an active source function, rather than as being merely passive containers ? SALVADOR: Probably the most controversial aspect of the origin of oil and gas is still the understanding of the mechanism or mechanisms of primary migration by which the hydrocarbons move from their source rocks to the reservoirs. Could Dr. HEDBERG give us his views on this matter? HEDBERG: I have indeed used the term "sourcesequence" because it has a more general connotation which better includes the whole source system of sediments and fluids which may be associated with the origin of any particular petroleum. With respect to the still highly controversial matter of primary migration, I can only say that personally I believe that a large part of primary migration is associated with the moderately early stages of compaction and water expulsion; that effects of increasing pressure and temperature are continuously involved; and that primary migration of petroleum (or certain constituents of petroleum) may take place variably in the form of free oil, or in a colloidal state, or in water solution, or in gaseous solution, depending on the stage attained and the conditions of origin. DUPUY DE LOME: In connection with Dr. HEDBERGs remarks on coals, do you think there is a relationship between the large recent gas discoveries in the North Sea and the process of "decarbonization" of the coal beds underlying the reservoirs ? HEDBERG: It seems to me quite reasonable to suppose that much of the Permian gas of the North Sea is indeed related to a "re-coalification" of carboniferous coal beds, as suggested by Patijn for the Groningen gas of Holland. HODGSON: Would Dr. HEDBERG care to comment on the contribution of hydrocarbon material from terrigenous sources as distinct from marine organisms ? Since the inorganic constituents of recent Sediments come from the land surface, is it not 74 Origin of Oil and Gas reasonable to accept a land-surface origin for the organic matter as well? HEDBERG: I have mentioned the strikingly widespread empirical relation between high wax content of oils (commonly reflected in high pour point) and probable fresh and brackish water source-sequences, usually of the shale-sandstone lithologic type. I am inclined to believe that this high wax content is fundamentally related not so much to salinity as to conditions favouring contribu

Country:

- Oceania > Australia (1.00)
- Europe > United Kingdom > North Sea (0.54)
- Europe > Norway > North Sea (0.54)
- (4 more...)

Industry:

- Energy > Oil & Gas > Upstream (1.00)
- Materials > Chemicals > Commodity Chemicals > Petrochemicals (0.95)

SPE Disciplines: Reservoir Description and Dynamics > Reservoir Characterization > Exploration, development, structural geology (1.00)

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