The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Yin, Yue (Water Conservancy Branch II, Shanghai Water Engineering Design and Research Institution, Shanghai) | Zhang, Qing (Planning & Scientific Research Branch, Shanghai Water Engineering Design and Research Institution, Shanghai) | Du, Xiaotao (Planning & Scientific Research Branch, Shanghai Water Engineering Design and Research Institution, Shanghai)
ABSTRACT A two-stage saltmarsh restoration approach is proposed. The eroded steep coast will be protected by lifting the seabed level in two steps, firstly slowing down the flow velocity and initially increasing the bottom elevation, and secondly establishing a tidal flat for saltmarsh development. The approach is implemented in a typical eroded coast in Hangzhou Bay and the effects of the engineering design are simulated by numerical model TELEMAC. It is shown that after the project is completed, the previous erosion state in the local area is radically altered and a tidal flat of 90m width can be restored. The effectiveness of the project is discussed. INTRODUCTION Saltmarshes are of importance in the coastal ecosystem that delivers rich ecological services including providing habitats of coastal life, purifying water quality and protecting the coastline from erosion (Allen and Pye 1992; Möller, Spencer, French, Leggett and Dixon, 1990; Möller, Kudella, Rupprecht, Spencer, Paul, Van Wesenbeech and Schimmels, 2014). Nowadays, with the enhancement of people's awareness of environmental protection, saltmarsh restoration has attracted more and more attention and many coastal countries have begun to put effort into saltmarsh restoration projects. In 2016, more than 340 acres of coastal wetland area have been saved and reestablished in Braddock by constructing a barrier beach in the form of the breakwater with nature-based features, where the interior wetland erosion was reduced and the natural littoral drift processes for lake sediment was restored (Silva, Wilcox and Polzer 2021). The Hamilton Wetlands restoration is another successful project in the US. More than 5.9 million cubic yards of dredged material were deposited to increase the tidal flat elevation from 1 to 2 feet and provide a suitable environment for marsh vegetation to grow (Styles, Perkey, Smith, Bryant, Gailani and Boyd, 2020). Saltmarsh restorations are also achieved in Europe, where the mud motor has been proved as an efficient and natural process to spread sediment to nearby salt marshes in the Wadeen Sea (Baptist, Gerkema, Van Prooijen, Van Maren, Van Regteren, Schulz and Van Puijenbroek, 2019). Above engineering practices show people's great efforts of combining coastal ecology and safety, while knowledge about how saltmarsh can be created, developed and restored under difficult circumstances are shared.
ABSTRACT At present, the research on the efficiency of inland river vessels passing through the hub is mainly focused on single-stage or multi-level ship locks, but few studies have been conducted on the passage efficiency of ships under the new type of inland river junctions. Compared with the former, the latter needs to consider more constraints. Based on Anylogic software and considering the above constraints, this paper proposes a method for constructing a ship's traffic efficiency simulation model of such a combined hub. Finally, taking Wujiang River Silin's proposed hub as an example, the ship's traffic efficiency under different operating modes is evaluated. INTRODUCTION In order to meet the needs of the development of domestic river cargo transportation, the level of waterways needs to be improved urgently, and higher requirements are naturally set for navigation facilities. The construction of a new type of combined navigation hub has become an inevitable trend. The corresponding operation mode of the ship is no longer limited to the traditional self-propelled mode, and the passage efficiency of the ship under the new mode is a question worthy of attention and research. Taking the Wujiang River Silin's section as an example, a navigation tunnel is planned to be excavated in the cliffs on both sides of the river, and then a 1000t class ship lock-navigable tunnelship lift joint navigation hub is constructed, and a traction system is planned for the ship Towing mode, it is necessary to evaluate the ship's traffic efficiency under this mode. A lot of researches have been done on the issue of the traffic efficiency of hub ships at home and abroad. Smith, LD (2009) and others constructed a discrete event simulation model to study the congestion of some navigation hubs in the upper Mississippi River. The results of the study indicate that giving priority to the ship with the shortest average handling time and the shortest fixed time during the ship crossing process can improve the passage efficiency of the ship lock, especially during peak hours; Wu, ZR (2013) proposed a flexible time for ship crossing time The calculation problem is based on the actual ship crossing data of a hub on the Beijing-Hangzhou Canal, combined with the ship parameter ratio and the theoretical model of traffic flow, and a kinematic calculation method for this problem is given. Liu, Y (2015) used SIVAK software to construct Three Gorges simulation model. From the simulation results, it is concluded that the FCFS scheduling method can improve the service level of ship locks compared with the orchestration scheduling method. The methods studied above can be divided into two types: mathematical modeling, optimization algorithm solving and simulation modeling. None of the objects studied involved a combined hub composed of multiple navigation facilities.
Zhang, Jianli (National Marine Data & Information Service) | Wang, Hui (National Marine Data & Information Service) | Fan, Wenjing (National Marine Data & Information Service) | Li, Wenshan (National Marine Data & Information Service) | Gao, Tong (National Marine Data & Information Service) | Liu, Qiulin (National Marine Data & Information Service)
ABSTRACT Based on the observing data from 1980 to 2016 of 24 tide gauges, the long term tide variation/change along the China coast are investigated. Results show that the mean sea levels, M2 constituent amplitudes, mean tidal ranges, mean high tide levels, mean low tide levels along the China coast show rising trends, at the average rate of 0.32 cm/year, 0.09 cm/year, 0.31 cm/year, 0.51 cm/year, 0.19 cm/year, respectively. From the northern Yellow Sea to Hangzhou Bay, the mean tidal ranges increase significantly, with the values of 0.50–1.30 cm/year. The mean tidal ranges along China coast have obvious 18.61 year cycle variation, which the amplitude is more than 20 cm on the Beibu Gulf coast. INTRODUCTION In the last hundred years, the global climate is experiencing the change with a main characteristic of warming. It is pointed out in the fifth IPCC (2013) that the global mean surface temperature rising rate is about 0.012 °C/year during 1951–2012, and during 1971–2010, the global mean sea level has been rising at a rate of about 0.02 cm/year caused by the thermal expansion of sea water, the melting of land glaciers and polar ice sheets. Sea level rise can increase the frequency and effects of occurrence of storm surge, flooding, erosion, salinization and inundation of low-lying land in coastal areas (Chen, 1997). The variation and reduction of the effect the seabed and lateral friction in the shelf shallow water regions caused by global sea level rise lead to the change of the propagation of the incident wave, the reflected wave and the refraction wave, and the shift of the amphidromic point (Zhang, 2000). The possible effects of sea level rise on the tidal wave system in the China Sea are studied by means of the numerical methods (Yu, 2008; Yan 2010; and Zhang, 2013). Assuming the sea level rises 100cm, it is found that the highest astronomical tidal level is up to 10–16cm, and the depth datum of the sea chart drops to 10–12cm in the China Sea (Yu, 2007). The M2 and K1 constituent amplitude in the eastern Pacific has a long-term increasing trend, and the variations of the M2 and K1 component amplitude at all tidal stations in the north of 18°N are consistent (Jay, 2009). The linear changes of the major tidal constituents are commonplace around the world, although not necessarily with large spatial scales (Woodworth, 2010). The S2 was found to be the component that usually shows the largest linear changes among the main tidal constituents in the east Pacific (Müller, 2011). During 1954–2012 years, the semidiurnal tidal parameters show significant secular trends in the Bohai, Yellow Sea and Taiwan Strait, and the largest increase for M2 amplitude is found by 0.4–0.7 cm/year in the Yellow Sea (Feng, 2014). In the northern part of the South China Sea, the amplitude and phase of O1, K1 and M2 has significant periodic variation, and the amplitude of S2 is more stable (Fu, 2015).
Chen, Wei (Zhejiang Ocean University Zhoushan) | Kuang, Cuiping (Tongji University Shanghai) | Gu, Jie (Shanghai Ocean University Shanghai) | Wang, Zuochao (No. 91991 Troops of PLA) | Shen, Liangduo (Zhejiang Ocean University )
Abstract Warming of the climate system is unequivocal. The 5th IPCC report points out that the sea temperature shows a warming of 0.85 (0.65 to 1.06) °C, over the period 1980–2010. Over the period 1901 to 2010, the global mean sea level has risen by 0.19 m. Meanwhile, the rate of sea level rise due to sea temperature rise during 1963 to 2003 with the value 0.4-0.6 mm/y is smaller than that during 1993 to 2003 with the value 1.0-2.0 mm/y. However, the contribution of sea temperature rise on sea level rise is not clear. In this paper, the Yangtze River Estuary is chosen as a prototype to preliminary study the responses of the mean tidal level change to the sea temperature. Firstly, MIKE21 is selected to establish a depth-averaged sea temperature numerical model covering the Yangtze River Estuary and the Hangzhou Bay. Then, this model is well validated with the measured data. The temperature data from 1960 to 2008 at the Yinshuichuan and Chengshan stations are applied to analyze the sea temperature trend in the Yangtze River Estuary. The rates of STR at the two stations are both 0.025 °C/y, which is regarded as the sea temperature rate in the Yangtze River Estuary. The sea temperatures at boundaries are raised 0.25, 1 and 5 °C respectively to represent the sea temperature in 10, 40 and 200 years later. The results indicate that 1) the mean tidal level rises as the sea temperature increases; 2) the mean tidal level increase at the Dajishan station is greater than that at the Lvsi station; 3) the amplification rate of mean tidal level decreases as the sea temperature increases, which shows that the mean tidal level increases nonlinearly as the sea temperature increases.
Abstract As a kind of clean and regenerated energy, offshore wind power is attracting more and more attention all over the world. Many offshore wind farms have been put into use in Europe, which is making a great contribution to the power supply. During working process, offshore wind turbine foundation is not only subjected to the long-term action of vertical load induced by all weights of platform and equipment, but also imposed by lateral loads and moments caused by wind, wave, current and ice. Therefore, a reliable prediction for the stability of wind turbine foundation under complex load is much necessary. Based on the three-dimensional finite element method, a numerical prediction is carried out here by ABAQUS for the stability of an actual project in Hangzhou Bay, which is built with steel pipe-pile foundation under various complex load conditions. Suggestions for engineering are given at last.
ABSTRACT: One of characteristics of city construction recent years is the increase of construction near the existing building, and the construction condition is becoming more and more complex and abnormal trend. Based on finite element numerical simulation software, Midas GTS, and the practical engineering, this paper studied the influence of different approach distance excavation to bridge pier, and the deformation characteristic of foundation pit supporting. Studies show that an adjacent bridge will have a significant impact on subsidence characteristics and mechanical behavior of the foundation pit wall; with the increasing of excavation depth, the settlement of bridge pier would increase; with approach distance decreasing, the settlement of bridge pier showed a trend of decrease after the first increase; for adjacent excavation, the effect to bridge pier can be ignored when the adjacent distance is greater than 2 times the base width, when the adjacent distance is less than I times the base width, the piers probably have transfinite subsidence and tilt phenomenon. 1 INTRODUCTION With the Urbanization developing, the land using of Urban Construction is getting intensive in China. New building constructed close to existing buildings is becoming more and more common. Such construction is known as "adjacent construction". For Core region in big cities, the adjacent construction has been normalized. Many foundation pit engineering is very close to the existing urban public facilities. For bridge, the structure which extremely sensitive to environmental influences, adjacent construction would cause bridge pier generating transfinite settlement and tilt easily. In addition, adjacent construction would increases the displacement of foundation pit retaining wall and even cause the foundation pit accident. In recent years, adjacent construction accidents emerge in endlessly: In Hangzhou, a foundation pit supporting broken near intersection of Wenyi west road and Huajiang road cause surrounding building tilt, as is shown in Figure 1; In Wuhan, Hubei province, a foundation pit excavated over 10 m depth cause an abnormal subsidence of Huyue bridge piers, the maximum reached 16.98 mm; In Lanzhou, the subway tunnel crossing Hua Linping bridge cause the bridge foundation sinked.
Abstract Based on the composition of renewable natural lipids, the hydroprocessing technology for producing Bio-jet fuel from lipids was developed by SINOPEC Research Institute of Petroleum Processing. On pilot plant, the synthesized paraffinic kerosene was produced from various plant oil, waste cooking oil and algae oil. From 2011 to 2012, on the industrial demonstration plant of SINOPEC Hangzhou Refinery, the synthesized paraffinic kerosene was successively produced from palm oil and waste cooking oil. The quality of synthesized paraffinic kerosene produced by SINOPEC Bio-jet fuel technology meets all requirements of specification for synthesized paraffinic kerosene from hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids (ASTM D7566-11). The quality of Bio-jet fuel with blend ratio of 50% by volume synthesized paraffinic kerosene and the conventional jet fuel fulfils the requirements of Specification ASTM D1655. The SINOPEC Bio-jet fuel was successfully completed test flight on the April 24, 2013. CAAC officially granted SINOPEC the No. 1 Chinese Technical Standard Order Authorization for bio-jet fuel production on February 12, 2014. 1. Introduction Biomass is the only renewable energy source that can be used directly for producing transport fuels. The liquid fuel produced from biomass mainly includes that fuel ethanol used for gasoline, biodiesel used for diesel and bio-jet fuel used for aviation fuel. Transportation fuels produced from biomass are considered to be an important way to solve the shortage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases emissions The airline industry is a global and rapidly evolving sector. Commercial aviation is predicted to grow at a rate of 5% annually until 2030, exceeding expected fuel efficiency improvements by approximately 3%; this implies that fuel consumption and emission will continue to rise. Fuel is the biggest carbon emission source, account for above 90% of the total carbon dioxide emissions of the aviation industry; so experts believe that bio-jet fuel is the key factor for taking continuous steps to maintain and grow profit margins as well as to reduce its carbon footprint Bio-jet fuel is similar in chemical composition and properties to traditional jet fuel, it is fully compatible with conventional jet fuel and can be used within aircraft respectively engine fuel system or the fuel distribution network without any adaptation. In order to promote the commercial application of bio-jet fuel, "Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuel Containing Synthesized Hydrocarbons" (ASTM D 7566-11) was issued by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) in July 2011. Following this standard, airlines are now able to use bio-jet fuel in commercial flights up to a blend of 50% by volume with conventional jet fuel. In recent years, some companies have stepped up the development of bio-jet fuel by hydrogenation technology, such as Honeywell Green Jet Fuel™ technology of Honeywell UOP company, Bio-synfining™ technology of Syntroleum company and NExtBTL™ technology of Neste Oil company. Test flights power by bio-jet fuels from hydrogenation production have been conducted by many airlines China Petroleum & Chemical Corporation (referred to as SINOPEC) Research Institute of Petroleum Processing (referred to as RIPP) began the development of bio-jet fuel technology in 2009. SINOPEC Zhenhai Refining & Chemical's Hangzhou refinery's original device is revamped to an industrial demonstration plant of bio-jet fuel. From 2011 to 2012, SINOPEC has successful produced bio-jet fuel from palm oil and waste cooking oil serially. Civil Aviation Administration of China officially granted SINOPEC the No. 1 Chinese Technical Standard Order Authorization (CTSOA) for bio-jet fuel production on February 12, 2014.
ABSTRACT A small-scale circulation model was built based on POM (Princeton Ocean Model), covering the Yangtze Estuary, Hangzhou Bay and adjacent sea areas. Ocean circulation offered by the East China Sea circulation model was imposed at open boundaries of small-scale model. In order to study the anomalies, the Yangtze Estuary circulation during 2002–2003 was simulated. It shows that there is a relationship between the Yangtze Estuary circulation and ENSO events. During the warm period of ENSO events in winter, the Yangtze Estuary circulation gets weaker obviously, especially the Taiwan warm current. Runoff has strong influences on circulation at the mouth of the Yangtze Estuary and Hangzhou Bay.
Xie, Jing (Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology) | Sun, Zhaochen (Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology) | Liang, Shuxiu (Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology) | Zhang, Yifei (The Second Institute of Oceanography SOA) | Li, Bogen (The Second Institute of Oceanography SOA)
ABSTRACT Xiangshan Bay characterized by typical bedrock and silt is a long and narrow coast waters. It is both a traditional shellfish and algae breeding base and a frequent human activity area, where the environmental pollution is increasingly severe. Simulating pollutant transport process and forecasting water quality changes could provide a strong support for comprehensive improvement of water quality. A FVCOM-based tidal current hydrodynamic model is built. It is validated that this model can successfully simulate the bay's hydrodynamic conditions. Based on a pollutant transport model with the hydrodynamic conditions, the transport process of the pollutant from major land-based outlets in the bay is simulated and discussed, and the pollutant transport regularity is summarized. INTRODUCTION Xiangshan Bay is located in the middle part of the coastal area of Zhejiang, China, with Hangzhou Bay in north, Sanmen Bay in south and Zhoushan Archipelago in east (Fig. 1). It is a narrow half-confined harbor along northeast-southwest direction with 3km ~ 8km in width, and extends 60 kilometers inland. The bay with 1445km catchment area is an ideal deep safe harbor, and both a traditional shellfish and algae breeding base and a frequent human activity area. With the development of the social economy and the coastal harbor industry, sewage from land-based outlets discharged into the bay leads to accelerated eutrophication, and several red tide events have happened in recent years. The optimal arrangement of land-based outlets in the bay has become one of focuses. The major tidal current restricted by topography and boundary condition in Xiangshan harbor is reversing current with little rotation, and the current velocity reduces gradually from the bay's entrance to the inner and the average velocity in main channel is the greatest. Furthermore, direct water exchange is dominant in east of Xize, and residual current exchange occurs in west. The regional characteristic is obvious.
Shi, Lianqiang (State Research Centre for Island Exploitation and Management, Second Institute of Oceanography) | Xia, Xiaoming (State Research Centre for Island Exploitation and Management, Second Institute of Oceanography) | Jia, Jianjun (State Research Centre for Island Exploitation and Management, Second Institute of Oceanography) | Hu, Gang (Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology, Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China) | Li, Weihua (Estuarine and Coastal Science Research Center) | Fu, Gui (Yangtze Estuary Waterway Administration Bureau)
ABSTRACT: The Nanhui tidal flat (NTF), located at the junction of Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, is influenced by two tidal currents in these areas. In recent years, the geomorphology, water and sediment migration, and deposition at the flat have significantly changed because of the deposition promotion of low beach reclamation projects. In this study, the recent topographical evolution of NTF is analyzed. The results showed that the seasonal variation of the NTF is mainly caused by wading reclamation projects surrounding the NTF and the specific depositional dynamic environment of water-sediment exchange in swales. Distinct seasonal differences in erosion and siltation at the NTF are also observed. INTRODUCTION The Nanhui tidal flat (NTF), situated at the junction of Yangtze River Estuary and Hangzhou Bay, is the main venue for water and sediment exchange in this area. Its northern and southern regions are called the east (eNTF) and south (sNTF) shoals of the NTF, respectively (Fig. 1). Since the 1990s, the eNTF has been the site of large-scale projects to promote deposition and enclosure. Up to 45 kilometers of embankment have been made, 20000 hectares of land have been enclosed, and the coastal sea dike line has extended out to a width of 5–7 kilometers (Fu et al., 2007). Human activities, such as the construction of the North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary Deepwater Channel Construction (1998–2010) and accretion promotion projects outside the Pudong International Airport (2007–2009), have caused dynamic sedimentation conditions to change significantly in NTF waters, leading to a new round of adaptive adjustment processes in the topographic evolution of the NTF. The seasonal characteristics of erosion are also focused on. This study could provide scientific basis for the continued sustainable use and conservation of beach resources.