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Bhimpalli, Sarah (ONGC) | Shinde, Ashok (Baker Hughes) | Rao, Bayye L (ONGC) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | Panchakarla, Anjana (Baker Hughes) | Chakrabarti, Prajit (Baker Hughes) | Saha, Sankhajit (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Geomechanics has an important role in assessing formation integrity during well construction and completion. It also has its effect when the wellbore is in production mode. Geomechanical study evaluate the impact of the present day in-situ stress and related mechanical processes on reservoir management. The study field ‘K' belongs to Plio-Pleistocene sequence of deep-water environment with hydrocarbon prospects. This belongs to Post-Rift tectonic stage of evolution with hydrocarbon occurring in structurally controlled traps. As a part of exploration activity, four offset oil wells were drilled earlier which were considered for the geomechanical model construction. Field (K) development plan comprising of six hydrocarbon producers and four water injectors was prepared. Considering the thick water column (300m-650m) in this deep water area of offshore and young unconsolidated sedimentary sequence in the sub-surface, expected pore-pressures can be high whereas the fracture gradient can be low. As a result, the safe drilling mud window can be narrow. Upon successful drilling of a well in such challenging environment without NPT (Non-Productive time), completing the well with best possible technologies suitable to the reservoir's mechanical behavior is utmost important for maximizing the production and minimizing the risk. To mitigate these problems in developing this field, an integrated reservoir geomechanics approach is adopted to optimize the drilling plan and reservoir completion parameters for the planned well. This paper covers the geomechanical study of four wells namely W, X, Y & Z drilled in the field ‘K'. The principal constituents of the geomechanical model are in-situ stresses, pore pressure and the rock mechanical properties. Geomechanical model for the field ‘K' was built utilizing the available data by integrating drilling, geology, petrophysics and reservoir data. Methodology adopted in this paper also highlights how a reliable geomechanical model can be built for a field, which is having data constraints. Constraining of stress magnitudes, orientation and anisotropy added value for efficient well planning in deep waters reservoirs. Calculating well specific reservoir rock mechanical properties, it made possible to identify the most optimal completion strategy. Approach contributed knowledge of geomechanical parameters based on the data of four offset wells has been used for successfully drilling and completion of all the subsequent wells without major challenges. Overall, geomechanical modeling has played a major role in drillability and deliverability of the reservoir. Integrated approach adopted in this paper can be used for well planning and drilling of future wells in East Coast of India with similar geological set up.
Gadagi, Amith (KLE Dr. M.S. Sheshgiri College of Engineering and Technology, Belgaum) | Mandal, Nisith Ranjan (IIT Kharagpur) | Sha, Om Prakash (IIT Kharagpur) | Kumar, Sharat (IIT Kharagpur) | Pujari, Sanyappa (Azgaon Dock) | Pentakota, Ravi Kumar (IRS, Vishakapatnam) | Podder, Debabrata (NIT, Shillong) | Akurati, Prabhakar (IIT Kharagpur)
Thin plates, which are widely used in ship structures, undergo weld-induced buckling distortions because of their lower critical buckling strength. Thus, there is a need for an active in-process distortion control mechanism in the welding involving thin plates. In this regard, a ThermoMechanical Tensioning (TMT) method was developed and implemented successfully. In the current work, experimental investigation of the effect of TMT pull on the resulting welding distortions is studied and also the TMT process is compared with a heat sinking technique. The experimental results indicate that an increase in the TMT pull would reduce the extent of weld-induced buckling distortions. The results also suggest that a complicated heat sinking technique can be effectively replaced by a TMT process in reducing the welding out-of-plane distortions. The concept of TMT is further extended to the fabrication of grillage structures used in ship structures, which includes longitudinal and transverse welds.
Africa is on track to becoming the world's most populous region by 2023 as growth in the continent's population surpasses that of China and India; between 2020 and 2040, one in every two births will be African, according to the International Energy Agency (IEA). The problem--and the opportunity--is that three-quarters of those new global citizens living in sub-Saharan Africa will live without access to electricity and other energy-driven staples of the modern world. "More than half a billion people [will be] added to Africa's urban population by 2040, much higher than the growth seen in China's urban population in the two decades of China's economic and energy boom," IEA noted in its Africa Energy Outlook 2019. "Growing urban populations mean rapid growth in energy demand for industrial production, cooling, and mobility," IEA analysts wrote. "The projected growth in oil demand is higher than that of China and second only to that of India as the size of the car fleet more than doubles (the bulk of which have low fuel efficiency) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly used for clean cooking." With regards to gas, Africa is on track to becoming the third-largest region to feed the growth in global gas demand over the next 20 years, the IEA said (Figure 1).
Gondalia, Ravi Ramniklal (Schlumberger) | Sharma, Amit (Schlumberger) | Shende, Abhishek (Schlumberger) | Jha, Amay Kumar (Schlumberger) | Choudhary, Dinesh (Schlumberger) | Gupta, Vaibhav (Schlumberger) | Shetty, Varun (Schlumberger) | Bordeori, Krishna (Schlumberger) | Barua, Bhaswati Gohain (Schlumberger) | Singh, Mukund Murari (Schlumberger) | Zacharia, Joseph (Schlumberger) | Patil, Jayesh (Joshi Technologies International) | Murthy, P V (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) | Das, Santanu (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation) | Mahawar, Dheeraj (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation)
Abstract From 2005 to 2020, the application of hydraulic fracturing technology in India has touched the length and breadth of the country in almost every basin and reservoir section. The variety of reservoirs and operating environment present in India governed this evolution over the past 15 years resulting in a different fit for purpose fracturing strategy for each basin varying from conventional single-stage fracturing (urban, desert & remote forested regions) to high volume multi-stage fracturing, deepwater frac-packs and offshore ultra-HPHT fracturing. The objective of this paper is to present the milestones along this evolution journey for hydraulic fracturing treatments in India from 2005 to 2020. This paper begins with a review of published industry literature from 2005 to 2020 categorized by reservoir type and the proven economical techno-operational fracturing strategy adopted during that period. The milestones are covered chronologically since the success or failure of technology application in one basin often influenced the adoption of novel hydraulic fracturing methods in other basins or by other operators during the initial years. The offshore evolution is branched between the west and the east coasts which have distinctly different journeys and challenges. The onshore evolution is split into 5 categories: Cambay onshore Barmer Hills & Tight Gas East India CBM and shale gas Assam-Arakan Basin Onshore KG Basin Each of these regions is at different stages of evolution. The Barmer region is in the most advanced state of evolution with frac factories in place while the Assam-Arakan Basin is in a relatively nascent stage. Figure 1 presents estimated hydraulic stage count based on published literature underlining the exponential growth in hydraulic fracturing activity in India. This paper enlists the technical and operational challenges present in the onshore and offshore categories mentioned above along with the identified novel techno-operational strategies which have proven to be successful for various operators in India. A comparison is presented of the different timelines of the exploration-appraisal-development journey for each region based on the economic viability of fracturing solutions available today in the Industry. Lastly, specific non-technical challenges related to available infrastructure, logistics and social governance are discussed for each region. This paper concludes by identifying the next step-change in the evolution of hydraulic fracturing operations in India among the 5 categories. Each of Government, operators and service providers have important roles to play in expanding the adoption of this technology in India. These roles are discussed for each identified category with the perspective of continuing the country's journey towards energy security.
Abstract One of the major brownfields in offshore India was producing for three decades from main carbonate reservoirs of the Eocene and Oligocene age. Average production of this brownfield is approximately 11,000 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). To maintain the declining reservoir pressure, the field has been under active water injection for more than two decades. However, being a complex carbonate reservoir with high textural heterogeneity, the water-front movement is not very well understood and monitored. To increase the oil production, the operator started drilling horizontal drain-holes from the platforms and has adopted a conventional perforated and blind tubing combination as a completion strategy. However, it was found that wells were performing poorly with very high water cut. An integrated and comprehensive petrophysical workflow was applied that used data analysis and the added value of advanced 3D acoustic data in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data to provide a rapid realistic solution to avoid such high watercut through optimizing the completion strategy. This led to a production gain in this offshore field, which was underperforming as per earlier predictions and expectations. Conventional well-log based qualitative evaluation for horizontal segmentation strategy was rejected in favor of an integrated approach for lateral reservoir facies delineation. Lateral petrophysical property characterization was carried out through quick integration of NMR pore-size driven facies analysis, advanced acoustic radial profiling, anisotropy, and Stoneley analysis. Permeability profiling along the horizontal drain-hole section using NMR and acoustics provided critical insight. Those were integrated to avoid potential high permeability conduits of thief zones for water breakthrough. A rock-quality index was derived to optimize the completion strategy soon after the logging, even preceding the rig-down of the acquisition runs and lowering of the completion. Zones with higher skin, deeper formation damage, and lower rock-mechanical properties were avoided for efficient swell-packer placements. The well started producing and continued production with only 10% water cut along with 450 barrels of oil compared to an average 90% watercut and 100 barrels of oil from the other wells of the same platform, which used the older nonoptimized completion strategy. Based on the promising result for the first well, the same workflow was used for two similar wells of other two different platforms inthe same field, which also resulted in similar production with enhanced oil production and reduced water cut. The study using the rapid integrated evaluation workflow established efficient zonal isolation of high permeability thief zones with accuracy for timely optimization of horizontal well segmentation, which assisted in pulling higher production in this brownfield by reducing unwanted water production.
Abstract There are 26 sedimentary basins in India divided into four categories on the basis of hydrocarbon prospectivity. A total of about 3.14 million square kilometres area is covered by these sedimentary basins which includes both onshore and offshore. One of the most prominent category-1 (commercially producing) basin of India is Krishna Godavari basin with an estimated hydrocarbon potential of about 1130 million metric tonnes. It is is formed by the extensive deltaic plain formed by the two large east coast rivers, Krishna and Godavari. It covers an area of 15000 square kilometres onshore and about 25000 square kilometrs offshore, upto a water depth of about 1000m (National Data Repository, DGH-MoPNG, GOI). It is believed that India relies heavily on KG basin for its energy security. However, one of the major challenges being faced in the KG basin offshore field development is Flow Assurance. Since most of the fields offshore KG basin are in deepwater setting, high pressure and low temperature conditions aggravate flow assurance problems. Flow assurance is identified as a significant deepwater offshore development challenges and hence has emerged as a prominent discipline in the oil and gas industry. There are several definitions of Flow Assurance, one of the most common of which is: Flow Assurance is the analysis of thermal, hydraulic and fluid related threats to flow and product quality and their mitigation using equipment, chemicals and procedure (Makogon T.Y., 2019). It can be understood as an all-encompassing holistic approach of fluid flow from the reservoir to point of sale with an integrated perspective of asset development. In simple terms flow assurance aims to ensure fluid flow irrespective of flow trajectory, fluid chemistry and environmental conditions (Brown L.D., 2002). It has become increasingly important in recent times as the industry has turned to deepwater resources for energy sources. There are multiple examples where the proper utilization of Flow Assurance technology has saved billions of dollars for oil and gas companies. Norske Shell saved approximately 30 billion NOK in the Troll field by resorting to direct electrical heating of produced fluids. The same was utilized by Italian company ENI for its Goliath development and by BP in its Skarv field (Makogon T.Y., 2019). This paper describes a comprehensive workflow to identify and mitigate flow assurance risks for the deepwater block in KG basin.
Abstract The Daman marginal field is a prolific gas-producing clastic field with highly unconsolidated Paleo-Miocene sandstone formations and a wide variety of lithologies across multistack sand layers. As such, high-rate water packs (HRWPs) are the ideal completion method in many Mumbai fields. Because multistack reservoirs require good zonal isolation, and to prevent crossflow between reservoirs with different pressure regimes, multistack sand exclusion (MSSE) methodology was selected for primary well completions with minimum rig time and a high degree of treatment placement accuracy. From an operational standpoint, exploiting these layers using this method means more control points can be achieved across these heterogeneous layers, and the MSSE completion is ideal for multiple applications in a shorter period, helping sustain sand-circumscribed gas production from these unconsolidated layers. During the design phase, grain-size distributions and core study defined the sand range from generally clean, coarse, and sorted to poorly sorted, with high-fines content and clay rich. To address the unique challenges of deep offshore operations, formation technical difficulties, high-stakes economics, and the significant untapped potential from these Daman sands, the MSSE approach was designed and implemented in this field. Historically, for multistack wells, an HRWP is performed zone by zone whereby the process of sump packer installation, perforation run, deburr run, screen assembly installation, and pumping is repeated for each zone. In Well A, the MSSE system was applied without any repetition and all in one phase. All layers were perforated and positively isolated. Each interval was individually opened for the HRWP treatment using a low-friction low-residue carrier fluid. Using a high-packing-factor proppant at a higher rate, the well was treated sequentially from the bottom of the interval to the top. Many marginal fields in this basin have become uneconomical because of the high cost and complexity of sand control methodology. Therefore, reducing costs and time becomes vital to help ensure economic viability, as well as achieving significant operational efficiencies. Additionally, reducing near-wellbore (NWB) mechanical skin and ensuring good productivity from the reservoir are among the major solutions when implementing an MSSE completion. The methodology adopted significantly helped reduce expenditures by standardizing completion design, simplifying the core complexity, and enhancing overall reliability and operational efficiency. The optimized engineering workflow was fit for purpose, rather than the conventional “cookie-cutter” method to address sanding propensity in this field. This paper discusses the cutting-edge MSSE completion systems that focused on downhole completion and modifications for pumping operations. Additionally, the paper reviews challenges addressed during this campaign, workflow adapted, detailed strategy success factors, and positive results obtained during evaluation. This has helped reduce potential risks and improve reliability and performance, which can act as best practices and can be applied within similar fields.
Prakash, Shailesh (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Zayyan, Mohammad (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Gjertsen, Ole (Schlumberger) | Acuna, Manuel Centeno (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Kulshrestha, Piyush Kumar (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Tewari, Pratyush (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Sharma, Anshul (Schlumberger Asia Services) | Alexander, Gregg (Schlumberger) | Nik MohdNajmi, Nik Fahusnaza (Schlumberger) | Wares, Annie (Schlumberger) | Nikalje, Shiba (Schlumberger Asia Services)
Abstract Raageshwari Deep Gas (RDG) field is a major gas field in the Barmer Basin of Rajasthan, India which comprises of a tight gas-condensate reservoir within the underlying thick Volcanic Complex. The Volcanic Complex comprises two major units – upper Prithvi Member (Basalt) and lower Agni Member (Felsics interbedded with older basalt). The production zone is drilled in 6" and has historically seen high level of shock & vibrations (S&V) and stick-slip (S&S) leading to multiple downhole tool failures and poor rate of penetration (ROP). Individual changes in Bit and bottom hole drilling assembly (BHA) design were not able to give satisfactory results and hence an integrated approach in terms of in-depth formation analysis, downhole vibration monitoring, correct predictive modelling, bit and BHA design was required. A proprietary formation analysis software was used to map the entire RDG field to understand the variation in terms of formation compactness, abrasiveness and impact (Figure 1,2,3 & 4). The resulting comprehensive field map thus enabled us to accurately identify wells that would be drilling through more of problematic Felsics and where higher S&V and S&S should be expected. To better understand the vibrations at the point of creation, i.e., bit, a downhole vibration recording tool was used to record vibration & stick-slip data at a frequency of 1024Hz. This tool picked up indication of a unique type of vibration occurring downhole known as High Frequency Torsional Oscillation (HFTO), that was quite detrimental to the health of bit and downhole tools. A proprietary predictive modelling software was used to optimize the bit-BHA combination to give least amount of S&V and S&S. Data from the downhole vibration recording tool, formation mapping software and offset bit designs was used to design a new bit with ridged diamond element cutters and conical diamond element cutters to drill through the highly compressive and hard basalt. The predictive modelling software identified a motorized Rotary steerable assembly (RSS) to give the best drilling dynamics with the newly designed bit. The software predicted much lower S&V and S&S with higher downhole RPM which was possible with the help of motorized RSS. Implementing the above recommendations from the various teams involved in the project, drilling dynamics was vastly improved and ROP improvement of about 45% was seen in the field. This combination was also able to drill the longest section of Felsics (826m) with unconfined compressive strengths as high as 50,000 psi in a single run with excellent dull condition of 0-1-CT-TD This paper will discuss in detail the engineering analyses done for improving drilling dynamics in field along with how HFTO was identified in field and what steps were taken to mitigate it.
Aman Srivastava is technical adviser, well construction for Halliburton-Landmark. With almost 10 years of experience in on-field and off-field drilling activities, Srivastava holds a special interest in well-construction engineering. He is a reviewer of two peer-reviewed journals in petroleum engineering and holds a patent for his design of internal combustion engines. He earned a BS in mechanical engineering from the National Institute of Technology, India, an MS in petroleum engineering from the University of Oklahoma.
Total is investing $2.5 billion for a 20% minority interest in Adani Green Energy Limited (AGEL), an Indian renewable energy company, from its parent, the multinational industry conglomerate Adani Group. Terms of the agreement include a 50% stake in a 2.35-GW portfolio of AGEL-owned operating solar assets and a seat on the company's board. Patrick Pouyanné, Total's chief executive officer, said in announcing the deal, "Our entry into Adani Green Energy is a major milestone in our strategy in the renewable energy business in India put in place by both parties. Given the size of the market, India is the right place to put into action our energy transition strategy based on two pillars: renewables and natural gas." Headquartered in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, AGEL is considered one of the world's most ambitious solar developers.