The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Herbet, Ronald (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hibatullah, Muhammad Irsyad (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Restiadi, Depi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | M.Adam, Cepi (Pertamina Hulu Energi - Subholding Upstream) | Satria, Andrean (Halliburton) | Rusady, Taufan (Halliburton) | Mordekhai, Mordekhai (Halliburton) | Ummah, Khairul (Bandung Institute of Technology)
Abstract Tunu Shallow Zone (TSZ) is one of producing zone in Tunu Field. Tunu Field is a giant gas field located in the present-day Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. The gas reservoirs are scattered along the Tunu Shallow Zone and correspond with fluvio-deltaic series and main lithologies are shale, sand and coal layes. The development of TSZ heavily relies on seismic to access and identify gas sand reservoirs as drilling targets. Anomaly seismic is correspond with the gas sand reservoirs, however with the conventional use of seismic that is difficult for differentiating the gas sands from the coal layers. We established Tunu reliable technology which is comprised four different analyses on stacks, CDP Gathers, AVA/AVO, and litho-seismic cube. We are hit high success rate in identifying gas but requires a lot of time to assess the prospect. But the challenge is to access more than 20, 000 shallow geobodies in time manner, faster and more efficient to fulfill our drilling sequences target and speed-up the development phase. Therefore, we are developing seismic driven supervised machine learning to fit learn geological Tunu characteristic to be gas reservoirs. Several machine learning algorithm has been tested and selected based on several criteria such as AVA/AVO, and amplitude of seismic. The algorithm used to learn behavior of seismic correspond with gas reservoir from data training then applied it to validation and blind dataset for evaluating final models. The final machine learning output is gas probability cube with precision of 70-80% precision from well drilled result in term of gas occurence. Furthermore, unsupervised machine learning has been used to extract potential prospecting targets as geobody targets. Initial test showed encouraging result to extract geobody targets in the shorter time compare with the conventional geomodeling. The final goals are optimizing our current workflow for screening shallow gas potentials, accelerate screening in the future well targets with more efficient, effective way and independent of subjectivity, allowing 2G (geologist and geophysicists) explore deeper and confident way when targeting next future shallow gas target. Usage of seismic driven machine learning for targeting shallow gas reservoir is one big step in the current oil and gas industry and in the same time opening more opportunity to maximize powerful machine learning in 4.0 industry era which is need accuracy, more precise, robust, faster and efficient.
We continue to live in volatile times. While there has been an easing of the global pandemic, geopolitical issues and conflicts have been increasing. There is also ever-increasing pressure to sanction and maintain oil and gas projects in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner. These projects can no longer be considered part of an isolated or independent petroleum sector but as part of the whole resource base of an area, country, or region. There needs to be visibility of the linkages among company vision; national, regional, and global targets; and the project attributes in meeting sustainable development goals and maintaining good governance.
We continue to live in volatile times. While there has been an easing of the global pandemic, geopolitical issues and conflicts have been increasing. There is also ever-increasing pressure to sanction and maintain oil and gas projects in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner. These projects can no longer be considered part of an isolated or independent petroleum sector but as part of the whole resource base of an area, country, or region. There needs to be visibility of the linkages among company vision; national, regional, and global targets; and the project attributes in meeting sustainable development goals and maintaining good governance. Paper SPE 205603 is a good example of a systematic approach to managing oil and gas reserves and resources data that has been assessed using the SPE Petroleum Resources Management System (PRMS). It is important for entities to accurately capture the information gathered during resource evaluation to use for strategic planning and sound resource management. We have been encouraged with the ongoing adaption of PRMS and many of the recommendations of the system, including the use of project-maturity subclasses. We would like to provide a cautionary note that several papers in the 2021–22 cycle highlight the need to ensure that management of resources complies with the requirements of PRMS when they say they do—for example, that when modifications are made to the system, the project still meets the requirements for inclusion in a particular class, such as discovery for contingent resources; and that discovered unrecoverable resources are not contingent resources. Paper SPE 207801 is a case study in trying to apply the principles of sustainable resource management by repurposing oil and gas wells for geothermal production. The paper follows a systems approach to testing the principles of the circular economy (though this term is not used in the paper). A circular economy is a systems approach that enables the resource to maintain its highest value for as long as possible. Critical considerations in implementing circularity are reducing and rethinking resource use and pursuing longevity, renewability, reusability, reparability, replaceability, and upgradability for resources and value-added products. Paper SPE 208483 discusses the challenge of decommissioning oil and gas equipment in Australia. The paper is a comprehensive discussion that highlights the importance of good regulation and the development of visible and robust decommissioning plans by industry titleholders. This important issue will resonate at a global scale and underlines the importance of a lifecycle focus on decommissioning rather than a just-in-time approach, which may not optimize costs or engender safe and environmentally responsible practices. Finally, we encourage you to seek out the additional reading material. Topics include good governance in exploration planning, testing pathways to decarbonization for remote offshore gas fields, an integrated subsurface study, and an example of the complementary use of PRMS and the United Nations Framework Classification. Recommended additional reading at OnePetro: www.onepetro.org. IPTC 21458 The Dusk of the Minimum Economic Field Size in the Digital Era of Exploration Value Creation by Dmitry Surovtsev, Schlumberger, et al. OTC 30941 Pathway to Decarbonization and Maximum Value Recovery for Remote Offshore Gas Fields by Lee Thomas, Intecsea, et al. SPE 205688 Integrated Subsurface Study To Convert Upside Intrabeta Subzone Stakes Into Additional Main Targets in Tunu Gas Field, Mahakam Delta, Indonesia by Dwiki Drajat Gumilar, Pertamina Hulu Mahakam, et al. SPE 207055 The United Nations Framework Classification Concept and the Possibility of Its Application in Azerbaijan by Narmina Garayeva, Baku Higher Oil School, et al.
Haryasukma, Kresna Prabu (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Nurmida, Arrofi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Saputra, Rangga (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Saptawirawan, I Gede Suryana (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Andhika, Lutfi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hutahaean, Ray Henry Jimmy (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
Abstract Mahakam block is a concession area of oil and gas fields currently operated by Pertamina Hulu Mahakam. This block is located across the Mahakam offshore and delta in East Kalimantan. Mahakam block has been producing oil and gas since more than 40 years ago and is categorized as brownfield due to its marginal reserves. Coming from that situation, new wells are required to sustain field production. With limited available slots on existing platform, drilling thru re-entry wells is introduced. However, conventional re-entry drilling operation is still not satisfactory to meet the economical cut-off for the remaining marginal reserve. A comprehensive re-entry well drilling strategy is continuously developed to optimize re-entry well drilling operation and significantly reduce the well cost. The strategy involves various optimizations from all drilling aspects. The first phase of re-entry well drilling evolution aims to eliminate invisible lost time from conventional re-entry drilling operation, by implementing rigless Plug and Abandonment (P&A) of parent well, eliminating BHA trips for milling casing & rathole during sidetrack preparation, and performing direct logging thru sidetrack window with wireline for reservoir data acquisition. After the first phase of re-entry well drilling evolution is established, the second phase of re-entry well drilling evolution is implemented to further reduce the well cost to meet the economic cut-off for the remaining marginal reserve, by focusing on optimization of drilling performance aspects, such as BHA optimization, fit to purpose bit selection, enhanced drilling parameter and fast connection. The result of comprehensive optimization of re-entry well drilling operation is very promising and shows a positive impact. At the beginning of re-entry well introduced in Mahakam, the well was completed within 32.3 days of well duration for 1 section drilling interval. The implementation of optimizations was performed in stages to assess the feedback thoroughly for better results thru the first phase and second phase of re-entry well drilling evolution, resulting in gradually reduction of well duration and also the well cost. The latest implementation in Peciko field where the well can be successfully completed within 7.2 days and becoming the fastest development well drilled in Offshore Mahakam area. The well cost is also significantly reduced by up to 60% compared to the first re-entry well performed with conventional method. The most important thing, all the initiatives have been executed in a safe manner without any major operation issues and successfully unlocked remaining marginal reserve to prolong the sustainability of Mahakam. The result of comprehensive optimization of re-entry well drilling operation significantly boosts the confidence for offshore field development, unlocking the way towards the Second Life of Mahakam. This strategy will become the new standard in drilling new development wells in Offshore Mahakam area to better adapt to the economic challenges. Furthermore, all the initiatives are also very feasible to be applied in other areas outside of Mahakam for the re-entry well campaign.
Lutfi, Andhika (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Ray Henry Jimmy, Hutahaean (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Rangga, Saputra (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | I Gede Suryana, Saptawirawan (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Arrofi, Nurmida (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Kresna Prabu, Haryakusuma (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
Abstract Offshore Mahakam Field development has reached a mature level. With almost 400 wells occupy all platforms fully. Finding target for new wells with adequate reserves to pass the economic cut-off limit has been a challenging task. Multiple reservoirs for a re-entry (side-track) from existing well in Offshore Mahakam field become a base case by targeting both shallow reservoirs with sand control requirement and deeper reservoirs at consolidated sandstone. Conventionally, side-track wells are drilled in two separated section to allow Gravel Pack completion inside 9-5/8" casing at the upper part for shallow reservoirs and then drill deeper section for tubingless completion with 4-1/2" liner. Completing these marginal wells using current conventional well architecture makes these wells uneconomical. Answering the challenge and align to cost culture program, Pertamina Hulu Mahakam launched a collaborative project aiming for cost-effective wells against well reserves. Extended drilling envelope was introduced as the outcome of well architecture simplification process. Both shallow and deep reservoirs are drilled in one long open hole section then cased and cemented with single string tapered casing and tubing. Considering sand risk production, unconsolidated shallow gas reservoirs are accommodated by gravel pack completion in the upper part. This new type of architecture has challenge related to hole stability for long open hole management and cementing strategy to ensure high quality cement sheath behind tapered string tapered casing and tubing. Then special equipment design and series of field test are performed prior to first application. This paper illustrates development this new architecture and success application result in Mahakam Offshore Field.
Siahaan, Edwin (Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur) | Mamat, Irwan (Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur) | Laksana, Senna Sun (Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur) | Setyowibowo, Agung (Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur) | Naufal, Aulia Ahmad (Schlumberger) | Wulandari, Octy Edriana (Schlumberger) | Metra, Sabrina (Schlumberger) | Nainggolan, Ardi Karta (Schlumberger) | Arinandy, Okky Idelian (Schlumberger) | Ellen, Livia (Schlumberger) | Pramita, Maharani Devira (Schlumberger) | Tjiong, Agnes (Schlumberger) | Wilian, Yus (Schlumberger) | Songchitruksa, Praprut (Schlumberger)
Abstract Advancements in technology, complemented with the abundance of static and historical data brought AI and digital automation adapted very well into the oil and gas industry. Specially to solve the challenges by the engineers in selecting well intervention candidates. In Attaka Field, a multi-layered offshore field in Indonesia, workover and well service (WOWS) have been one of the strategies to reduce production decline. With traditional workflows that absorb data from multiple unconsolidated sources and data format and resource limitation, reviewing 400+ wells that penetrates more than 200 reservoirs may take 2-3 months process with a reduced scope of review. As an addition, not all data and values are justified for the prioritization process. An intelligent automated solution termed as WEPON was developed to improve decision speed and quality in Attaka Field WOWS candidate screening. WEPON was built on top of a data science platform to ease the development, production and maintenance of the analytics engine and its data pipeline. More than 15 data sources, ranging from reservoir properties, allocated production data, up to well schematics were consumed and aggregated in this solution's flow. The main components for WEPON includes: 1. Technical analysis with analytics and ML plus multi-criteria decision-making process to identify high potential completions, both produced and virgin ones 2. Adopting from the field's old workflow, feasibility checks to surface and subsurface constraints for the proposed completions 3. Diagnosing the wells and determine the right workover/ intervention opportunities 4. Calculating each well's subsurface and surface risks, and historical success rate to be integrated with the well's NPV to produce its expected value (EV) 5. Running on-demand economic analysis accessible from the solution's UI, the engine is tied into the operator's economic analysis tool that contains the currently used calculation and scheme 6. A presentation of the results on a web-based application. As the main process is triggered to be run on a weekly basis, the automation of WEPON helps to increase Attaka Field review size to the whole fields, as well as reducing 89.7% of time from 3 days to review a well to hours of run to review the whole field, enabling engineers to spend more time on high-cognitive components of the existing workflows. Moreover, it has shifted the approach to a more data-driven one leading up to smarter decisions. The implementation of this WEPON is the pilot in the Indonesian National Oil Company, PERTAMINA. This is also the first time the solution developed on a data science platform, allowing the tool to be evergreen and extensible process. This implementation is also the first one to integrate an economic analysis tool through its API.
Pancawisna, Gerardus Putra (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Khairunnisa, Khairunnisa (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Suprapto, Edy (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hutapea, Tioma (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Widhiyantoro, Anung (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Lie, Susanto (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Sumarhadi, Wisnu (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Ferdiansyah, Mohamad Iqbal (PT Pertamina Hulu Kalimantan Timur) | Armain, Armain (PT Elnusa, Tbk) | Andini, Amanah Suci (PT Elnusa, Tbk) | Safitra, Adika Fawaz (PT Elnusa Fabrikasi Konstruksi)
Abstract This paper is aimed to present the engineering design and execution of temporary abandonment operation for slot re-entry preparation in Mahakam swamp area. The case study shall cover the design and execution of temporary abandonment campaign in Tambora field of Mahakam swamp area with water depth ranging between three (3) meters to six (6) meters. This rigless operation for slot re-entry and side-track preparation includes permanent plugging, tubing cut, tubing retrieval, casing retrieval, casing scrapper run and cement plug. The design goes through the engineering calculation of axial load capacity of conductor pipe to support HWU operation, potential barite sagging due to solid content of oil based mud (OBM) in the annulus and the estimated free casing. Moreover, detailed planning is also crucial to improve the optimization with the utilization of wireline on smaller marine vessel such as landing craft tanks (LCT) or self-propelled boat and execute the slickline as well as electricline steps in the temporary abandonment sequence before big marine vessel with HWU comes. As a result, the campaign managed to prepare four (4) wells in Tambora field of Mahakam swamp area for slot re-entry and sidetrack in seven (7) weeks which included 9-5/8" casing retrieval in one (1) well. The direct cost optimization was up to 75% from the utilization of well intervention units instead of swamp rig in the process. In addition, this operation allowed to troubleshoot and identify possible operational problems including integrity issue prior to the drilling operation such as wellbore clean out, casing free point identification, cement and annulus integrity. Optimization is mandatory in matured field and drilling operation provides direct impact to the optimization. In addition, operation in swamp area is uniquely novel where it provides different kind of challenges in terms of engineering and operation particularly in rigless operation.
Umar, Khalid (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Rahman, Risal (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hidayat, Reyhan (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Kurniawati, Pratika Siamsyah (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Marindha, Rantoe (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Dahnil, Gitani Tsalitsah (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Sobirin, Muhammad (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Priyono, Subur (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Susilo, Didik (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Surahman, Adi (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Setyaji, Irwan (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Adibawa, Ngurah Candra (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Smaz, Nasuto (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Safitri, Yufa (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Setiawan, Dodi (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Handoko, Bayu Setyo (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hidayat, Danny (PT Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
Abstract The objective of this paper is to present the well revival strategy for gravel pack completion with liquid loading issue. Well NB-X is a high deviated gas well which was completed with 2 Sliding Sleeve Door-Gravel Pack (SSD-GP) zones and tubingless section. Since this well is a gas well with high water production, sudden unplanned shutdown can lead to a liquid loading issue. Revival well strategy by offloading the well to atmospheric was still not able to recover production as before the shutdown due to the high liquid column in the well. Therefore, a well intervention operation is needed to revive the well. The strategy was initiated by conducting a bottom hole monitoring survey to identify water sources. Production Logging Tool (PLT) was used to precisely monitor pressure, temperature, water holdup, and fluid rate along the wellbore for further water source and production allocation analysis. Once the water source zones have been identified, GP zone change for water shut-off (WSO) operation was requested. There are several means to execute zone change and unloading that are commonly used in Offshore Mahakam field each of which has selective economic consideration based on the expected well potential. A comparative study both for zone change (slickline, electricline tractor-stroker, and coiled tubing) and unload (N2 injection with coiled tubing) is performed to decide the most efficient way to revive the well. Operations started with a slickline zone change to close the water zone followed by production logging, however due to high inclination, it was found that the target zone was not fully closed. Based on the comparative study, zone change and unloading with coiled tubing (CT) was the most efficient strategy with cost saving for about 83% compared to the other means. Zone change and unloading can safely and efficiently be performed with CT followed by a production test via Multi-Phase Flow Meter (MPFM) while keeping the CT string inside the tubing to perform as a velocity string until gas production target is obtained. Well revival strategy on well NB-X was proven to be able to revive 100% well production of 18 MMscfd within a very short time period from the shutdown event. Comparative study between coiled tubing and electricline tractor-stroker for zone change and unloading was critical since the offshore area have many challenges such as unpredictable weather, limited availability of transportation units, efficiency of setting up units from and to the platform, and also the callout cost both for the equipment and personnel between the two which ends with the selection of coiled tubing as the most efficient way for this case.
Setiadi, Rahman (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Jong, Yulianto (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Mahfudhin, Nur (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Muwaffaqih, Mutawif Ilmi (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Dading, Albert Richal (Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
Abstract Tunu is one of Mahakam fields with majority gas production. The depositional nature of fluvial with minimum tidal influence results in the signature of delta sedimentation by hundred layers of gas-bearing sand lenses as pay zone. They are constructed of unconsolidated clean and shaly sand reservoirs at the shallower burial and higher consolidation at deeper burial due to compaction and diagenesis. The unconsolidated section requires sand control as mandatory means to unlock it safely. The combined challenge of numerous sand layers and marginal reserves makes it economically impossible to perform regular detailed physical sand grain assessment by individual conventional coring completed with Laser Particle Sieve Analysis (LPSA). An economic approach is through performing sand bailing. However, the bailed sand dry-sieve results were confusing with wide particle size distribution (PSD) curve variation from several well samples. Referring to this PSD uncertainty, installing straddled thru-tubing screen in front of the reservoir as sand control resulted in good production and plugged indication at the beginning of the initiative by utilizing a similar screen opening size. Thus, a new fit-for-purpose methodology was required. A study to predict sand grain size on each reservoir target was initiated by analyzing three available shallow reservoir cores in Mahakam, which could cover most of Tunu's shallow sedimentation type. The result was that most of the sand grain size distribution on each sample core correlated with their calculated shale volume content (v-shale). Lower v-shale is respected to larger sand grain size. Unconsolidated Tunu Shallow reservoir doesn't contain any specific radioactive minerals. Thus, v-shale could be easily calculated from gamma-ray logs, which are always available on each reservoir target at any drilled wells. The relationship between sand grain size and v-shale was gathered on a single map. The map was then validated by historical screen installation. Positive results were seen when screen size selection respects specific patterns on the generated sand map at the v-shale value of perforation intervals. Thru-tubing screen installation campaign was continued following the new sand map reference. It could deliver more than 80% successful installation with no plugging or sand at a new perforated reservoir when no screen integrity issue due to erosion was encountered. This novel approach allowed better prediction of thru-tubing screen opening size requirements and perforation interval selection in Tunu unconsolidated reservoir and was successfully expanded in offshore Mahakam field at similar facies.
Sayogyo, Bramarandhito (Pt. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Hermawan, Aditya (Pt. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam) | Andoni, Bastian (Pt. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam)
Abstract Mahakam Block is a huge oil and gas concession managed by PT. Pertamina Hulu Mahakam (PHM) and located in deltaic and offshore environment in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Until today, the field has produced oil and gas for more than 50 years and categorized as "brown field" due to its declining production and marginal reserve potential. This condition has led to numerous effort to boost efficiency in well delivery from drilling perspective such that the reserve could be produced more economically. One of the effort that has been done to create a well to be more economical is by increasing the Rate of Penetration (ROP). An increase in ROP would directly impact on well duration that could be finished faster in such that it would also impact on much lower well cost. There are several key factors that influence ROP, yet the most crucial part is coming from drilling bit design that is used to drill the formation. Incompatibility between bit design with formation and directional drive type would often result in slow drilling progress and thus would make a well less profitable. To support this idea, the operator has launched a campaign called MAXIDRILL with aim to have a persistent excellent drilling performance from ROP perspective. Selective approach to different bit designs and bit suppliers has brought the operator to conduct the first trial in Indonesia utilizing a one inch PDC cutter drill bit. Besides the effort to increase well economics by increasing ROP using various bit designs through MAXIDRILL Campaign, PHM also tries to implement new set of well architecture dedicated specifically for developing the shallow hydrocarbon zone in Mahakam in general, and in Tunu Field in particular. With this new type of architecture, it allows drilling with 9-1/2″ hole to be done straight from 20″ Conductor Pipe down to well final target depth in single phase, where next 3-1/2″ production tubing will be run and cemented in place. The new design of architecture is called "One Phase Well". This novel innovation was initiated in 2019, where to date, the operator has drilled more than 30 wells without any incident. With the learning curve that has turned into industrialization steps. More and more shorter well duration is born with these two initiatives, MAXIDRILL and One Phase Well. Ultimately, with the spirit of these two initiatives for bringing down well duration in gain for much better well economics has successfully set a two record breaking performance in Mahakam: 1) Being the fastest On Bottom ROP and 2) Being the fastest well ever delivered in Mahakam and Indonesia which is under two days.