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Cheng, Yao (Marine Design and Research Institute of China, Shanghai) | Gaidai, Oleg (Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai) | Yurchenko, Daniil (University of Southampton, Southampton) | Xu, Xiaosen (Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang) | Gao, Song (Marine Design and Research Institute of China, Shanghai)
ABSTRACT Polar research has important scientific value has brought attention of many countries and motivated further exploration of new technologies for enabling operations in the adverse unfriendly environmental conditions. In China researcher want to develop an new air cushion veicle(ACV). To deliver ACV and people to this region a ship will have to withstand the harsh conditions and interact with icebergs and large floating ice pieces. This interaction may result in impact type loading of a ship hull by ice, preventing a planned navigation and even causing to abort some routine operations like launch and recovery of cargo or other equipment (ACV, boats, cars, ROVs and AUVs, etc.). This paper studied the influence of such vibroimpact interaction between the ice and ship onto the recovery capabilities of the ship. The main goal of this study is to understand the influence of the vibroimpact motion onto the dynamics of the payload in order to prevent collision between the payload and the ship's hull. Results of the numerical simulations are presented. 1. INTRODUCTION Polar research has important scientific value. Moreover, the Arctic Ocean can also be considered as a strategic maritime shipping route, which is barely used so far since it remains covered by ice most of the time. To go from Europe to the China ships have to pass the Mediterranean SEA, cross Suez Canal and Malacca strait, which is the shortest distance, currently available to the ships. This distance could be significantly reduced if ships could go through areas covered with ice, saving time and cost of shipment. Thus, the importance of the Arctic region is hard to overestimate from different points of view, including scientific research, which has been conducted by a number of countries, which established small laboratories in different parts of the region. It is of great significance to develop an Air-cushion Ice-breaking platform with both ice-breaking and transportation function on the increase of the navigation tiom of the Arctic Passage and the improvement of the polar transportation, operation and rescue abilities. Because Air-cushion Ice-breaking/Transportation platform is carried by icebreakers, usually icebreakers have a crane, which is controlled by a crane operator to conduct launch and recovery air cushion vehicle(ACV). A payload connected to the crane hook and hanging on the cable usually is modelled as a mathematical pendulum, thereby organizing a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system.
Wang, Zhikang (Intelligent Transportation Systems Center, Wuhan University of Technology) | Zhang, Jinfen (National Engineering Research Center for Water Transport Safety, Wuhan University of Technology Wuhan) | Wu, Da (Intelligent Transportation Systems Center, Wuhan University of Technology)
ABSTRACT The continuous melting of Arctic sea ice has attracted increasing interest in the potential of navigation in the Arctic route. Most existing studies use the sea ice concentration (SIC) to evaluate the sea ice condition along the route. Based on the historical sea ice data (including sea ice area) in Arctic waters, this study investigated the annual sea ice changing trend in Arctic waters, especially in summer. The overall Arctic sea ice area has shown a decreasing trend with large interannual variability in the past two decades. The navigable capacity of Sonnikov Strait follows the overall ice change of Arctic waters. Nevertheless, the sea ice in Vilikitsky Strait fluctuates wildly with significant uncertainty. The results can help merchant ships evaluate their navigation capacity in Arctic waters. INTRODUCTION Due to the rapid economic development and the increase of human activities in the past century, global warming seems to be an inevitable trend of the climate system. In the high latitudes of the northern hemisphere, the warming of the surface is more pronounced, leading to a rapid decrease in Arctic sea ice, which makes the "Northern Sea Route (NSR)" in the northern coastal area of Russia expected to be fully opened in the not-too-long future. The Arctic Northeast Passage Route starts from Northeast Asia and passes through the Chukchi Sea, the Eastern Siberian Sea, the Laptev Sea, the Kara Sea, and the Barents Sea in the southern Arctic Ocean to the north. The main sea areas and straits that the NSR covers are present in Figure 1. The reduction of Arctic sea ice area and even seasonally ice-free phenomenon will improve the navigability of the Arctic region. The concept of Arctic waterways is becoming a reality. The Arctic Passage consists of the NSR and the Western sea route (WSR). The NSR is from Western Europe to the Bering Strait through the five sea areas of the Arctic Ocean in Figure 1. The WSR departs from the Bering Strait and reaches North America and Canada, containing two branches. The Arctic Passage has advantages compared with the Southern Passage through the Strait of Malacca, Suez Canal, or the Panama Canal in terms of economy and efficiency, saving approximately 20% and 40% of the entire voyage distance. In addition, because the Arctic waterway is less affected by unstable factors such as pirates, the cost of escort and insurance during the voyage of ships will be significantly reduced. The opening of the Arctic waterway will greatly change the pattern of world trade, fundamentally changing the pattern of the economic circle around the Arctic Ocean dominated by Russia, North America, Western Europe, and East Asia.
SPE is organizing a Young Exploration and Production Professionals (YEPP) Forum scheduled 13–16 September 2005 in Malacca, Malaysia, with the theme "How YEPPs Can Make a Difference in the Industry." The event is for oil and gas professionals under the age of 35 with fewer than 10 years of experience. In addition, senior executives who have a mentoring role in their organizations are encouraged to attend so that they have the opportunity to talk to young professionals about their careers, the future of the industry, and how to nurture their skills. The forum will try to capture the best practices in the attendees' respective organizations, and it will provide a platform for young professionals to network with their peers as well as higher level industry professionals. For more information, please contact the SPE Asia Pacific Office at Tel: 60.3.6201.2330,
Young industry engineers and professionals from the Asia Pacific region gathered at the Equatorial Hotel in Malacca, Malaysia, in September for a YEPP workshop with the theme “How YEPPs Can Make a Difference in the Industry.” A total of 97 attendees from Malaysia, Brunei, Australia, Indonesia, Vietnam, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Thailand, and Kuwait attended, representing a diverse set of operating and service companies including Petronas, Shell, ExxonMobil, Saudi Aramco, Kuwait Oil, Woodside, Schlumberger, PetroVietnam, Sinopec, and BJ Services. In addition, 10 students from U. Teknologi Petronas and U. Teknologi Malaysia were sponsored to attend the event.
Hetami, Gandhi (PT. Pertamina Hulu Energi NSO) | Cahyono, Sony (PT. Pertamina Hulu Energi NSO) | Mario Purwadiadji, Edhu (PT. Pertamina Hulu Energi NSO) | Fanani, Andri Rizky (PT. Pertamina Hulu Energi NSO)
Abstract The NSO-A Gas Field is a large gas field located in Aceh, Indonesia that has been producing since July 1999 and still continue producing gas with field depletion not as rapid as predicted, it was known that reservoir pressure measurements indicated the field was not depleting as rapidly as expected and wells were maintaining their plateau rates longer than earlier models, so that it necessary to re-evaluate the availability of oil and gas reserves contained in the NSO-A field structure. Previous studies were revisited, it is stated that geomechanical testing of Malacca limestone cores indicate that the rock has high compressibility and suffers elastic and significant plastic deformation when mechanical stresses are increased. This paper adopted the previous study and add updated mature production data to be used in material balance history match with field production to evaluate fluid initial in place estimation. This methodology uses the combination between GAP (Network Modelling Tool), MBAL (Material Balance Tool), and PROSPER (Well Modelling Tool) which gives satisfaction result in OGIP, Aquifer Size, and Controlling mechanism determination while using limited static data in the early production period. Without proper calibration, this models could lead to misleading of in-place estimation. The combination of these modelling tool has proved to be very reliable and has resulted in better reservoir evaluation. This approach requires the accuracy of of individual well testing and production history data in order to be reliable an accurate. The model shows a bigger OGIP to be around 3 TCF (11% higher than volumetric) with 220000 RB/PSI/DAY aquifer influx. Material balance model were very useful to giveses a credence that possibly aside from rock compaction mechanism, active aquifer influx as an other major drive mechanism that is essential to match with the field performance history. This paper should help the engineers step by step to perform reservoir evaluation using limited static pressure data availability, but still able to give a reliable result to achieve history matched for in-place volume estimation and well performance prediction.
ABSTRACT Sediment is a fragmented material, primarily formed by the physical and chemical disintegration of rocks from the earth's crust. These particles range in size from large boulders to colloidal size fragments and vary in shape from rounded to angular and vary in specific gravity, and mineral composition (Rijn, L. C. V. 1993). Sediment materials are classified and named based on their grain sizes. In a tropical peat coast, the sediment consists of sand, mud, and peat debris. The distribution of these grain size becomes very important because it connects to the sediment depository behind detached breakwater which leads to the recovery process of coastal erosion (mangrove replanting activity). This paper discusses the sediment grain size distribution behind detached breakwaters from the assessment of the field activity and numerical approach. The existing detached breakwater that was installed at the northern part of Bengkalis Island is called the Selatbaru coast. The measurements are based on geo-informatics composed of both terrestrial surveys and photogrammetry. For grain size measurement, we used image analysis and laser analysis methods. A 1D cross-shore profile model of Xbeach was chosen. The model used the option to define spatially varying sediment grain size. With this feature, it becomes possible to simulate the beach profile response to wave and tidal action in a variety of grain sizes. Analyzing the relationship between the field activity and numerical calculation of sediment grain size distribution will help determine recovery process to coastal erosion especially in the tropical coast of Bengkalis Island, Indonesia. INTRODUCTION Bengkalis Island is located 8 kilometers off the coast the main island Sumatra which lies along the west side of Malacca strait. The total land area is roughly 900 km, of which more than 70% of its area is covered by peat soil with the thickness more than 1 m. The island has relatively flat terrain with a maximum surface elevation of approximately 10–15 meters above mean sea level. Low-lying, swampy, and of peat formation, the island has heavy precipitation (Haidar, 2015). Problems began to arise when the island of Bengkalis experienced erosion which causing coastal retreat, specifically on the coastline which is directly adjacent to Malaysia. This severe coastal erosion has been an issue since 1955 when Bengkalis Island was protected by a mangrove forest (US Army Service, 1955). Typically, it has a function as a natural barrier against coastal erosion, due to deforestation carried by plantation company and local communities that change land functions to various other forms of land use, including agriculture, palm oil plantation, urban and industrial development. Currently, the condition of this area has been severely eroded. The local government of Bengkalis regency has taken several steps to reduce the erosion rate by constructing detached breakwaters in 2015. One of which has built at Selatbaru Beach. From the aerial images taken in July 2017 and March 2018, we see that there has been an increase in mangrove growth behind the detached breakwater of more than 222 percent (see figure 2). The largest growth occurred near the coastline. These results indicate that sedimentation occurs due to detached breakwater construction thus making the areas around breakwaters viable for planting mangroves to reduce the erosion occurring on the island of Bengkalis. As mention above, it is crucial role of the detached breakwater in holding the speed of the sediment transport rates and the sediment deposition rates to create a good environment for mangroves tree to grow.
ABSTRACT Using a multiple-nested domain wave model system, the third-generation wave model WaveWatch-III (WW3) was applied to study wave characteristics generated by the binary typhoon Sarika and Haima in the South China Sea (SCS) during October 2016. Binary typhoon induced complex waves are simulated in the SCS during this period. Distributions of wind sea and swell under the wave interactions between the binary typhoons are analyzed, and variation of the characteristics of wind sea and swell were discussed. Simulated directional wave spectra show complicated multiple spectral peak patterns under binary typhoon conditions, especially in areas where binary typhoon-induced waves interact strongly. INTRODUCTION South China Sea (SCS) is a semi-enclosed tropical sea, with the Philippine Islands to the east, Borneo to the southeast, and Indonesia to the South (Fig. 1). It spans about 2,000 kilometers from the north to the south and about 1,000 kilometers from the east to the west. The SCS connects to the East China Sea through the Taiwan Strait, connects to the northwest Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait, and connects to the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Malacca. The SCS also is an area which is attacked by intensive tropical cyclone (called typhoons in the Pacific Ocean). Their activities are characterized by frequent frequency, high intensity and long activity period. Compared with a single typhoon, waves induced by binary typhoons are not only stronger and have a wider range, but also have been shown to have more complicated behavior. Most of the binary typhoons are generated from summer to autumn. During this season, a large amount of warm seawater evaporates in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and these evaporated water vapors provide good conditions for the formation of single typhoons or multiple typhoons. Dong and Neumann (1983) analyzed data from 35 years, indicating that the average number of occurrences of the binary typhoons in the Pacific Northwest were 1.5 times per year, whereas the average number of occurrences in the Atlantic was 0.33 time. Nowadays, it is attracting more and more attention with increasing trend of disasters weather under climate change scenario.
Yoong, William Liew Sin (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Azmi, Fadzliana (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Rahim, Azral A (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ghani, Syazwan A (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Idris, M Faisal Rizal (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Idris, M Ramdan (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Ibrahim, W M Syazwan W (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Rahman, Hamdan Abd (PETRONAS) | Sawal, M Rizal (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Wan, Terrence Lawai (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
Abstract Straits of Malacca Exploration Campaign marks PETRONAS' first oil/gas well drilling in the region of West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Three (3) exploration wells were drilled in a period of four (4) months. This paper will highlight the challenges, lessons learnt and key to success of this fast track drilling campaign in a new region of operation. The team which was entrusted with the mission to drive PETRONAS' quest of oil and gas in this new region were then given six (6) months to deliver the first well out of three (3) exploration wells. Apart from the uphill task to set up staging base and logistics support in the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the team faced challenges of drilling in one of the world's busiest shipping lane. Navigational safety is one of the main concern here. Besides, two (2) of the three (3) wells were located close area where sea robberies and hijacking were rampant. In terms of drilling operation, two (2) of the wells were exposed to the risk of total losses. This paper will share the approaches taken by the project team in overcoming challenges in three (3) main areas - (1) logistics; (2) navigational and offshore safety and security; and (3) well engineering. Although faced with numerous challenges together with limitation of time and resources, the project team has managed to deliver all the three (3) wells successfully, meeting all the geological objectives within Authorisation For Expenditure (AFE) cost. On top of that, the drilling campaign was completed with zero Lost Time Incident (LTI) and zero accident. Another notable success in this project is setting up the modus operandi in a new region of drilling within six (6) months. Due to the fast track nature of this campaign, first of the three (3) wells was spudded concurrently with 3D seismic interpretation by taking the risk of relying on 2D seismic data. Halfway through the well construction, Well #1 (Well A) was re-sanctioned based on the findings while drilling and latest 3D seismic data received. Target depth of the well was revised to 3130m TVDSS from initial 2100m TVDSS. Despite all the challenges, the drilling team managed to complete drilling operation of three (3) wells ahead of time by 11 days in total. Apart from engineering and logistics challenges, this paper will share the experience of drilling in one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. Lessons learnt and key success factors of this fast track exploration drilling campaign will be beneficial to all oil and gas (O&G) operators, especially to those planning to operate in the Straits of Malacca or any other similar regions in the world.
Faizal, Ardi W (Energi Mega Persada) | Handoyo, Tri (Energi Mega Persada) | Panca, Suci W (Energi Mega Persada) | Pramudhita, Bayu Adhi (Energi Mega Persada) | Jafet, Jafet (Energi Mega Persada) | Mudayana, Riko (Schlumberger)
Abstract This is a case history of how aggressive well surveillance can increase oil recovery and dramatically extend well life. MSBK is a 20 MMSTB OOIP field in the Malacca Stait PSC, located on Padang Island, Riau Province, Sumatra (Figure-1). Oil has been drained from the Lower Sihapas G-3010 sand in two development wells: MSBK-1 for 22 years, and MSBK-2 for 13 years. Other sands were penetrated, but had low-resistivity or 2-3 ohm.m, which was similar to water sands and shale. Given this lack of resistivity contrast, these sands were not considered further. By 2011, oil production had declined and was approaching the economic limit. Facing the prospect of abandoning the wells, the team looked at ways to extend well life. Although the resistivity logs were not promising, oil shows were noted in the G-1010 and G-1020 sands in MSBK-2, with other oil shows in the G-1010, G-1015 and upper G-3010 sands in MSBK-1. This paper will elaborate the workflow used to find potential by-passed oil, covering wireline and mud logs, through-tubing perforation (TTP), surveillance logs and finally the workovers. The team successfully found and developed the by-passed oil. MSBK-2 had an oil gain of 150 Bopd, and the workover paid off in 12 days. MSBK-1 had oil gain 135 Bopd, and the workover paid off in 27 days.
Abstract Fractured basement reservoirs represent more than 20% of the world's oil and gas reserves. Because of their heterogeneity and complex, unconventional natures, the process of mapping the reservoir properties presents a monumental task. The identification of the high productivity zones in basement reservoirs presents a major challenge because of the drastic vertical and temporal variation in porosity and permeability. Reservoir characterization in terms of rock-forming minerals, multipore system analyses, hydrocarbon typing and quantification, and textural variations can be performed by combining quad-combo, elemental spectroscopy, and resistivity-imaging measurements, regardless of the conveyance technique, in an integrated workflow. Because fractures play a major role in hydrocarbon production, rapid reservoir decline, and undesirable fluids breakthrough, fracture description is crucial. Aside from conventional techniques to quantify matrix porosity and permeability, a workflow has been designed to provide additional unconventional techniques for multipore system analyses using high-resolution resistivity imaging. With one technique, the resistivity image is sculptured using an object-oriented filter that produces fracture density, aperture, and porosity. The other technique is based on a transformation of image conductivity to porosity that is classified into a matrix and secondary pores to estimate their contribution to permeability. The multipore system analysis is then used to determine the cementation exponent parameter needed for hydrocarbon quantification. Finally, critically stressed fractures are identified, using geomechanical analyses, to determine the production-contributing fractured zones. Although the technique/workflow used is relatively new and uncommon for data acquired while drilling, its results successfully met the objectives of the study with quality deliverables. This paper presents a basement reservoir characterization study with a discussion of the technologies used in the workflow, study results, conclusions, and recommendations for future work. Data used in this work were obtained from a well in Malacca, Malaysia.