|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
There are different definitions of what is Well Integrity. The most widely accepted definition is given by NORSOK D-010: "Application of technical, operational and organizational solutions to reduce risk of uncontrolled release of formation fluids throughout the life cycle of a well." Other accepted definition is given by ISO TS 16530-2 "Containment and the prevention of the escape of fluids (i.e. Well Integrity is a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, well integrity engineers need to interact constantly with different disciplines to assess the status of well barriers and well barrier envelopes at all times. Wells that are used for steam injection or steam soak production or Geothermal heat are subject to high differences in thermal cycling and also referred to as Thermal wells.
The 2021 Offshore Technology Conference (OTC), to be held 16–19 August in Houston, will honor this year's Distinguished Achievement Award recipients during an awards luncheon on 16 August. The conference will recognize Joe Fowler for individual achievement, ADNOC's Panorama for institutional achievement, and Russell Hoshman and Edward Heerema for the Heritage Award. Joe Fowler will be honored with the Distinguished Achievement Award for Individuals for his extraordinary technical leadership in risers and pipelines, industrial leadership and entrepreneurship, significant contributions in higher education, and his substantial contributions to the societies that organize OTC. As principal investigator for the American Gas Association and Gas Research Institute, his achievements in offshore and land pipelines specifically focus on the collapse behavior of pipelines, the effects of dents on pipeline life, strength of tee and elbow fittings, repair procedures for damaged pipelines, and the development of a diverless pipeline repair clamp. As cofounder of Stress Engineering Services in 1972, and president from 1984–2015, Stress Engineering was selected twice on the Aggie 100 for the fastest-growing companies run by a Texas A&M alumni, best place to work in Texas by the Texas Association for Business in 2011, best place to work in Ohio from 2012–2014, best place to work in Houston in 2011, and best place to work in New Orleans from 2013–2015.
The United States and the United Arab Emirates will work together on coordinating finance to decarbonize the economy, focusing on areas including hydrogen, renewable energy, and low-carbon urban design, a joint statement said on 5 April. US climate envoy John Kerry, who is leading efforts to get countries to step up commitments to cutting emissions, during a visit to UAE took part in a Middle East and North Africa climate dialogue in Abu Dhabi on 4 April. "We will particularly focus our joint efforts on renewable energy, hydrogen, industrial decarbonization, carbon capture and storage, nature-based solutions, and low-carbon urban design," a joint statement from the United States and the UAE carried on state news agency WAM said. On 4 April, the climate dialogue concluded with another statement that was signed by Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Sudan, the UAE, and the United States pledging to accelerate climate action, mobilize investment in a new energy economy, and help the world's most vulnerable cope with climate change.
Aramco and the American Concrete Institute (ACI) have launched a center of excellence for nonmetallic materials to develop and promote the use of nonmetallic materials in the building and construction sector. Dubbed NEx, the venture will be based at ACI headquarters in Farmington Hills, Michigan, and will leverage ACI's role as an authority and resource for the development, dissemination, and adoption of consensus-based standards for concrete design, construction, and materials. Aramco is a leader in the use of nonmetallic materials in oil and gas facilities to reduce corrosion, weight, and the cost of construction and operation. The initiative with ACI is part of the company's broader strategy to enter new markets, leveraging its hydrocarbon resources and technology to deliver advanced polymeric materials solutions across industries. The operator has laid over 6,000 miles of nonmetallic pipelines and integrated the use of a glass-fiber-reinforced polymer rebar in place of conventional steel in the construction of a flood mitigation channel at one of its refineries in Saudi Arabia.
Qatar Petroleum (QP) revealed this week that from 1 January 2022 it will take over 100% ownership of Qatargas Liquefied Natural Gas Company Ltd. (QG1) following a decision not to renew the joint venture agreements that expire on 31 December 2021. QG1 was established in 1984 and comprises the first three LNG trains in Al Khawr, Qatar. The project has an annual capacity of 10 million tonnes of LNG. It is a joint venture between QP, which holds a 65% stake, and current partners Total (10%), ExxonMobil (10%), Marubeni Corp (7.5%), and Mitsui & Co Ltd. (7.5%). QG1 was the pioneering LNG project to be developed in Qatar, whose success has paved the way for the development of Qatar's LNG industry, which is targeting production of 126 mtpa by 2027 via new production from the planned North Field expansion project.
Wu, Jiwei (East China University of Science and Technology, Harvard University, Yangtze University) | Pan, Jiake (East China University of Science and Technology) | Wang, Hualin (East China University of Science and Technology (Corresponding author) | Wang, Lixiang (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Liu, Wenjin (PetroChina Southwest Oil & Gas Field Company, Chengdu Natural Gas Chemical General Plant) | Zhang, Le (Sinopec, SJ Petroleum Machinery)
Summary With the flourishing shale gas exploitation producing more oil-based mud (OBM) cuttings, the hard-to-treat hazardous wastes heavily burden the local environment. However, the problems of treating OBM cuttings, such as huge energy consumption, tremendous treatment costs, and high risk of secondary contamination, still remain unsolved with the current treatment technologies, such as thermal desorption, incineration, and chemical extraction. In this study, we introduce a new method and equipment based on cyclone desorption to recover oil from OBM cuttings. The technological process includes viscosity reduction in heated gas, cyclone deoiling, condensation and recycling of the exhaust, and separation of oil and water in the coalescer. Based on the analysis of the physicochemical properties and the oil distribution inside the OBM cuttings samples collected from the Chongqing shale gas field, we designed this cyclone oil desorption technology and built the pilot-scale equipment to conduct the deoiling experiments. The results showed that the deoiling efficiency of OBM cuttings improved as the processing time increased. To be precise, after 2.7 seconds of treatment, the oil content of the cuttings samples fell sharply from 17.9 to 0.16%, which is about one-half of the maximum allowable oil content in pollutants of 0.3%, specified in the national standard (GB 4284-84 1985) promulgated by the People’s Republic of China. The foundation of the technology is that the particles have a high-speedself-rotation (more than 30,000 rad/s) coupled with a revolution in the cyclone in which a generated centrifugal force removes the oil from the pores of the particles. This process is purely physical and involves no phase change of the oil, so it is free of chemical addition and high heating temperature. The application of this newly developed cyclone oil desorption technology is expected to lower the treatment costs, enhance the processing efficiency, contribute to the energy development, and eventually benefit the local environment where the shale gas exploitations take place.
The Rumaila Field is in southeast Iraq and contains multiple reservoir intervals, including the Upper Cretaceous Mishrif carbonate reservoir, one of the major reservoirs in the world, that has been producing for more than 50 years. One of the key challenges in the Mishrif is to characterize the pore-structure distinction between primary and secondary porosity. The secondary porosity in the form of large pores, if present, dominates the petrophysical properties, especially permeability. Advanced logs, e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and image logs, can be used to understand the variations in pore structure, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this paper, we focused primarily on four new wells with very comprehensive logging and coring programs. NMR logs were acquired using different tools and pulse sequences. This resulted in uncertainty in porosity and T2 distributions and, consequently, complications in the NMR interpretation. We observed two key issues: porosity deficit due to lack of polarization and T2 distribution truncation due to the low number of echoes. We used a single pore model to reproduce the NMR response in different pore sizes and fluid types for different pulse sequences. The results showed that the NMR response, especially in water-filled (water-based-mud filtrate) large pores, is sensitive to polarization time, echo spacing, and tool gradient strength. NMR log data confirmed the modeling results. We recommended an optimum pulse sequence and tool characteristics to fully capture the heterogeneous rock and fluid system in this carbonate reservoir. NMR logs, when available, were the primary tools to identify the large pores. We present a consistent workflow for NMR log analysis that was developed to identify and quantify large pores and extended to all wells in the field. We used advanced NMR interpretation techniques, e.g., factor analysis (NMR FA) (Jain et al., 2013), in a series of oil wells drilled with water-based mud. Using factor analysis, we identified a cutoff value of 847 ms for large pore volumes. In this manuscript, we also present an integration of laboratory measurements, e.g., NMR, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) data, whole-core CT scanning, and thin-section analysis, in our interpretation workflow. We also compared the large pore volume from image logs with NMR logs and other laboratory data and observed very consistent results. All the available information was integrated to build an “NMR-based” petrophysical model for porosity, rock type, permeability, and saturation determination. The NMR-based model was very comparable with the classic flow zone indicator (FZI) rock typing. The results of this study were used to modify the NMR acquisition program in the field and to build a petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we will discuss NMR modeling and corresponding log data from various wells to confirm the results. Furthermore, we will present a novel interpretation workflow integrating laboratory measurements and log data, which led to the modification of the NMR acquisition program in the field and the creation of a data-driven petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs.
Summary The ability of geochemistry techniques in reservoir-continuity studies has already been proved. Most of the traditional methods mainly involve analyzing nonpolar components of crude oil and overlooking polar components. Despite valuable information obtained from nonpolar components, these compounds are sometimes affected by various alterations or likely provide only a piece of the reservoir-compartmentalization puzzle. In this paper, an integrated geochemical approach that uses nonpolar (i.e., saturates and aromatics) and polar (i.e., asphaltenes) components of crude oil was performed to evaluate reservoir continuity efficiently. The Shadegan Oil Field in the Dezful Embayment in southwest Iran was investigated for reservoir-continuity studies to show the efficiency of this proposed technique. The selected interparaffin peak ratios and light hydrocarbons [the C7 oil correlation star diagram (C7CSD)] from whole-oil gas chromatography (GC) (WOGC) chromatograms were used to obtain oil fingerprints from the nonpolar fraction of crude oils. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of asphaltenes was applied to obtain oil fingerprints from the polar fraction of crude oils. The pairwise comparison of studied wells by each technique was summarized in a similarity matrix with green, yellow, and red colors to show connectivity, limited connectivity, and disconnectivity according to oil fingerprints. Finally, a compartmentalization model was prepared from the integrated results of different techniques considering the worst-case scenarios regarding the occurrence or absence of reservoir continuity when relying on individual methods for the studied field. Results show that the Shadegan Oil Field comprises three zones in the Asmari Reservoir and two zones in the Bangestan Reservoir. Reservoir-engineering data, including pressure data and pressure/volume/temperature (PVT), completely corroborated the obtained results from the geochemical approach. The consistency of results suggested FTIR oil fingerprinting of asphaltene as a novel and straightforward technique, which is a complementary or even alternative method with respect to previous geochemical methods.
Huque, Mohammad Mojammel (Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Imtiaz, Syed (Memorial University of Newfoundland (Corresponding author)) | Zendehboudi, Sohrab (Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Butt, Stephen (Memorial University of Newfoundland) | Rahman, Mohammad Azizur (Texas A&M University at Qatar) | Maheshwari, Priyank (Total Research Center–Qatar)
Summary Hole cleaning is a concern in directional and horizontal well drilling operations where drill cuttings tend to settle in the lower annulus section. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed with different non-Newtonian fluids in a 6.16-m-long, 114.3- × 63.5-mm transparent annulus test section to investigate cuttings transport behavior. This experimental study focused on understanding the cuttings transport mechanism in the annulus section with high-speed imaging technology. The movement of cuttings in the inclined annular section was captured with a high-speed camera at 2,000 frames/sec. Also, cuttings bed movement patterns at different fluid velocities and inner pipe rotations were captured with a digital single-lens reflex video camera. The electrical resistance tomography (ERT) system was used to quantify the cuttings volume fraction in the annulus. Different solid bed heights and cuttings movements were observed based on fluid rheology, fluid velocity, and inner pipe rotation. The mechanistic three-layer cuttings transport model was visualized with the experimental procedure. This study showed that solid bed height is significantly reduced with an increase in the inner pipe rotation. This study also identified that cuttings bed thickness largely depends on fluid rheology and wellbore inclination. The image from the high-speed camera identified a downward trend of some rolling particles in the annulus caused by gravitational force at a low mud velocity. Visual observation from a high-speed camera identified a helical motion of solid particles when the drillpipe is in contact with solid particles and rotating at a higher rev/min. Different cuttings movement patterns such as: rolling, sliding, suspension, helical movement, and downward movement were identified from the visualization of a high-speedcamera.
The government of Oman has transferred its stake in one of the Middle East's largest oil blocks to a newly established firm. By royal decree, the new, state-controlled Energy Development Oman (EDO) will hold the country's 60% stake in Block 6. The stake was moved from Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), another government-run company. Oman, which is struggling under a soaring budget deficit, is looking to finance its spending by leveraging its energy assets. Block 6 has a production capacity of 650,000 BOED.