This paper presents a multidomain integrated workflow that combines geophysics, borehole geology, fracture modeling, and petroleum systems analysis for characterization and resource assessment of basement plays. A 3D fracture model is developed by integrating image log interpretation and seismic data to assess the reservoir potential of fractured basement. The 3D fracture modeling is done using the discrete fracture network (DFN) approach with image log interpretation and other fracture drivers serving as the main input. The DFN is upscaled to generate fracture porosity and fracture permeability properties in a 3D grid. The upscaled fracture porosity is used to estimate the petroleum initially in place (PIIP) for the prospects. Multiple 2D petroleum system modeling is performed where large fault throws are identified from seismic interpretation. The petroleum system study helps in identification of areas with most prolific hydrocarbon generation and expulsion centers, which, coupled with the cross-fault juxtapositions, are the main locales of charging for basement reservoir. Further analysis of all the elements of basement play (i.e., source, reservoir, seal, trap, and migration) is done, and prospective areas within the basement play are delineated with high geological chance of success.
Digital core generated from micro CT images of rock sample cutting and results obtained from digital core analysis are presented in this work as a substitute of conventional core study for Petrophysical evaluation. Conventional core extraction during drilling, core preservation and analysis are expensive, time consuming processes and often unavailable for small size fields. Moreover, routine and special core analysis results are a critical input for petrophysical characterization. In this situation, digital core study appears to be a cost effective substitute to ensure and validate petrophysical evaluation results.
High resolution 3D micro CT imaging and analysis was done on rock samples cut during drilling or on sidewall core plugs cut by wireline logging tool. Segmented micro CT image slices when combined in 3D space in three orthogonal directions, can be termed as digital core. Solid rock matrix, clay filled and porous rock portions are distinctly separable using micro CT images and their volume fractions can be estimated. Detail textural analysis in terms of Grain and pore throat size distribution of the rock is possible from digital core which controls storage capacity and flow behavior. Two critical petrophysical input parameters for fluid saturation (Sw) estimation are cementation exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n). These parameters are commonly computed from special core analysis (SCAL) on conventional core plugs. But digital core study can provide the estimates of ‘m’ and ‘n’ which replace the need of SCAL.
Digital core study has been carried out in three different reservoirs in west and east coast of India and the results were analyzed. Porosity and permeability data obtained from digital core was first compared with log analysis results and then used to identify different petro physical rock types (PRT). Fluid saturation (Sw) was estimated from resistivity log by using ‘m’ and ‘n’ exponent obtained from digital core seems to be more realistic and corroborates with well test results. Porosity, permeability, water saturation and rock types (PRT) were helped to build geo-cellular model (GCM) for small and marginal reservoir.
Enhanced reservoir characterization by using digital core study result has helped in better understanding and decision making for small and marginal fields where limited well data is available. Finally this leads to the preparation of field development plan (FDP). Digital core technique is less expensive, having quick turnaround time than conventional coring which has translated into high value business impact for any development project.
The novel nanomaterial composition described in this paper has been designed to treat moderate to severe losses. The nanomaterial composition comprises an environmentally friendly nanoparticle based dispersion and a chemical activator. The design is based on a delayed activation chemistry to gel up a nanoparticle based dispersion.
Three different types of nanoparticles were used in the study to develop the novel loss circulation material. Two different types of negatively charged nanoparticle based dispersion and one positively charged nanoparticle based dispersion were used in the study. An inorganic activator has been used for the study. The effect of this inorganic activator on the gelation properties of the nanoparticle based dispersion was investigated. The gelling times were evaluated at different temperatures up to 300°F. The effect of activator concentration on the gelling time of the new composition has also been studied. The effectiveness of the newly developed composition as a loss circulation treatment was also evaluated by performing permeability plugging tests to test the plugging capacity of this novel system.
The novel nanomaterial composition is designed so as to have a controllable gelation time under a variety of downhole conditions to allow accurate placement of the treatment fluid inside the wellbore without premature setting of the fluid. It was shown that the gelation time of the treatment composition could be controlled by adjusting the concentration of the activator. The system is designed so as to give a predictable and controllable pumping time, ranging from a few minutes to several hours at over a wide range of temperatures. This is an important advantage as it allows the loss circulation composition to remain pumpable for sufficient time for placement and develops the network structure that leads to gelation, over a predictable period of time. The set gel, which appears as a crystalline solid, could remain homogenous and stay in place thereby preventing loss circulation.
Drilling in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) deep gas reservoirs, with multiple shallow different pressure horizons, requires special techniques which include application of Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), revising casing setting depths, improving casing strength, and refining mud design. This paper focuses on application of MPD in HPHT gas wells and also describes briefly other techniques which can improve drilling performance and reduce nonproductive time.
The Oil Industry has been implementing Integrated Operations (IO), with several fields documenting value achieved from past and present IO initiatives. Largely, these documented IO initiatives have focused on well and equipment performance and general planning. However, Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) methods including thermal, chemical and gas injection which are increasingly being pursued in many fields globally require additional meticulous reservoir surveillance to understand and quantify the effectiveness of the EOR scheme which adds to the value of such projects. Interpretation and integration of all available data and processes into clear, structured and reproducible EOR well and reservoir management workflows to support decision making is still challenging due to the variety of disciplines, data acquisition, processing, analysis, and modeling techniques and technologies involved, and the level of collaboration required. Using an EOR-IO framework as a companion to the Reservoir Management Plan (RMP) can help address these challenges and increase the likelihood of project success. This paper describes such an EOR-IO framework which can be adapted for a wide variety of EOR processes as well as any general injection scheme (including water or gas) and presents a case study where this framework was implemented.
The framework is a system for generating a clear framing and mapping of the EOR equipment, data, required analyses and decision processes using an assessment involving all EOR stakeholders and based on the Reservoir Management Plan (RMP). The framework enables all stakeholders to unambiguously understand and agree on how EOR performance will be quantified, what surveillance methods are required and what decisions will need to be taken. The framework facilitates a way for EOR management decision processes to be mapped onto technology-and-people enabled workflows that will help organize data, streamline analysis, define roles and enable efficient management of the EOR implementation in 5 clearly defined layers: Physical, Technology/Infrastructure, Process/Computational, Visualization and Organizational. Depending on the asset and project, the number of workflows may vary but they should fall into one of 3 groups: Operational Group: a system to support implementation of strategy at the operational level using real-time and in-time data. Tactical Group: a system that supports quantification of the overall effectiveness of the EOR scheme in the subsurface in terms of sweep, displacement, pressure, chemical loss, etc. using in-time analysis results. Strategic Group: a system to support identification of situations when an adjustment in EOR strategy is required and enable optimization of the strategy adjustment.
Operational Group: a system to support implementation of strategy at the operational level using real-time and in-time data.
Tactical Group: a system that supports quantification of the overall effectiveness of the EOR scheme in the subsurface in terms of sweep, displacement, pressure, chemical loss, etc. using in-time analysis results.
Strategic Group: a system to support identification of situations when an adjustment in EOR strategy is required and enable optimization of the strategy adjustment.
This framework was successfully applied to a Field in Malaysia where a total of 6 EOR workflows were designed for managing the EOR scheme. The framework was flexible enough to enable design, development and implementation of the workflows to help ensure that the EOR is managed as an integrated, holistic system.
Ali Khan, Farhan (Weatherford) | Antonio Sierra, Tomas (Weatherford) | Gabriel Imbrea, Robert (Weatherford) | Robin Edwards, Michael (Weatherford) | Al-Rushoud, Ali (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Abdulhadi, Fahad (Kuwait Oil Company) | Shehab, Abdulaziz (Kuwait Oil Company) | Al-Ajeel, Fatemah (Kuwait Oil Company)
Project deliverables included gravel foundation preparation, concrete foundation installation, equipment reception and installation of conventional beam pumping units at 660 production wells in a remote field in Kuwait with a deadline of six months from equipment arrival. Equipment shipments schedules were sequential and therefore an execution strategy was required to successfully meet the project deadline. This paper describes the field operations strategy devised and adopted to successfully meet the deadline. A temporary operations base was set up at the remote field for coordination, equipment reception, inspection, consolidation, pre-assembly and dispatches. Operations were divided into six parallel processes as follows: 1. Equipment logistics 2. Gravel foundation preparations 3. Concrete foundation installations 4. Unit Pre-assembly 5. Pre-assembled units dispatches 6. Final unit installations Daily output targets were set for each process prior to the commencement of operations.
Wellbore integrity is very critical in oil and gas industry and needs to be maintained through the entire cycle of well's life. The most important item for well integrity is to set cement between two casings or between casing and formation. A good cement job provides isolation and protection for the well and a poor cement job can have cracks and allows corrosive fluids to migrate through micro channels.
Downhole casing repair is a common workover operations worldwide, especially in wells that have been producing over number of years. It is very challenging to control corrosive fluid migration which slowly corrodes casing and tubing over time. An innovative epoxy resin formulations has been developed and tested in the field to repair casing leaks which is extremely easy to handle and very economical. A cost-effective workover program can be developed and implemented depending on the severity of the leak.
The improved approach of using innovative resin can be used by mixing with cement blends to repair major casing damage and can also be used as standalone application to fix minor leaks. The system maintains extremely good rheological properties even when mixed with cement. The system has ability to withstand high differential pressure and is also resistant to acid, salts, hydrocarbons and most importantly various corrosive liquids. The precise application is determined by measuring the injectivity of the well. In the low injectivity wells, only epoxy resin solution will be spotted and repair the damaged casing. In the high injectivity wells, the chemical will be mixed with cement and completely seal the damaged zone. The chemical will enhance the mechanical properties of the cement and will be more resilient to extreme down-hole condition.
The paper will emphasize the added value and potential of the method in restoring the casing integrity. The paper will also discuss the laboratory test reports and application which will highlight effective and economical outcome.
Shiwang, Rahul (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Banerjee, Anirban (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Ramaswamy, Vijay (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Malik, Sonia (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Deshpande, Chandrashekhar (Baker Hughes, a GE company) | Kumar, Sanjeev (ONGC Ltd.) | Chadha, A. K (ONGC Ltd.)
The identification of fluid saturations in depleted reservoir sands is critical to understand the reservoir potential and field life. However, in case of water flooding, the formation water salinity of the reservoirs sands might be altered and fluid saturations from conventional petrophysical analysis can be misleading. This will have direct impact on the field economics. A salinity independent saturation computation from Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) log becomes a necessity in such development wells– a first of such application in a field under secondary recovery for this basin.
C/O well logging has been extensively used in cased hole environments to determine saturation behind casing. They are used essentially to determine oil saturation in cased hole conditions for depleted reservoirs. While their cased hole applications have been well established; for the study well, a pulsed neutron tool was used in an open hole environment to determine the fluid saturations to compare against the saturations computed from conventional resistivity logs. This study helped in the determination of fluid saturations in mixed salinity reservoir sands, which were to be explored from subsequent wells in the field.
The hydrocarbon-bearing sands in the field were water injected in nearby wells to enhance recovery. Development wells drilled in the field relied on petrophysical evaluation from conventional open hole data and pressure testing and fluid sampling depths were determined accordingly. A pulsed neutron tool was deployed in an open hole well after operational constraints were encountered with the formation testing tool. As an alternative, the pulsed neutron data were acquired in the well to compute salinity independent water saturation based on C/O log response as against the fluid saturation computation from resistivity logs. The determination of fluid saturations from C/O helped in determination of altered salinity for the sand intervals in the field. For the study well, C/O-derived water saturation was found to be higher than that from resistivity log computation. This was significant in identification of water breakthrough in the bottom interval of the reservoir sands.
This paper details the method and findings of C/O logging in open hole environment from Western Onland Basin in India. The critical solutions provided for the reservoir sands in the field and enabled the operator to save significant well cost and rig time by making informed decision of not lowering the casing in this well section.
Monitoring and reevaluation of petrophysical attributes in a mature field under production for many decades is crucial for optimizing production and further development planning. In this case study, a multidisciplinary approach is deployed for formation evaluation and reservoir characterization using logging-while-drilling (LWD) sensors spanning formation volumetrics, fluid analysis, high-resolution image interpretation, and geomechanics to confirm remaining oil saturations and help identify recompletion intervals. LWD technologies were used in four wells in Sahmah field of Oman to provide an integrated petrophysical and geomechanical field study using a bottomhole assembly (BHA) including gamma ray, resistivity, formation bulk density, thermal neutron, acoustic, high-resolution imaging, and formation pressure testing sensors. A deterministic multimineral petrophysical model was used to derive formation volumetrics and fluid analysis. Geomechanical interpretation used high-resolution microresistivity imaging, acoustic slownesses, and formation pressure data to verify principal stress orientations and to quantify pore pressure and horizontal minimum and maximum stress magnitudes. These data were then correlated with historical data to evaluate sweep efficiency and residual fluid saturations. LWD sensors have proven to provide robust geological, petrophysical, and geomechanical data compared to previous traditional wireline data acquisition.
We suggest two new thermodynamic models for the adsorption of ions to the brine/carbonate and brine/crude oil interface. We calibrate the model parameters to the ionic adsorption and zeta potential data. We then investigate the effect of the rock and oil surface charges on the dissolution, wettability alteration, and mechanical properties of the carbonates in the context of modified-salinity water flooding in the North Sea chalk reservoirs.
We modify a charge-distribution multi-site complexation (CD-MUSIC) model and optimize its parameters by fitting the model to a large data set of calcite surface zeta potential in presence of different brine compositions. We also modify and optimize a diffuse layer model for the oil/brine interface. We then use the optimized surface complexation models with a finite-volume solver to model the two phase reactive transport of oil and brine in a chalk reservoir, including the impact of dissolution, polar-group adsorption, and compaction on the relative permeability of chalk to water and oil. We compare the simulation results with the published experimental data.