Coiled-tubing drilling (CTD) can be very effective in certain situations. Coiled-tubing drilling (CTD) has a rather extensive history and received a large amount of press and hype from the 1990s to date, a significant amount being less than positive. There have been numerous highly successful applications of CTD technology in such regions as Alaska and the United Arab Emirates, yet CTD is still considered an immature new technology. One example of exaggerated expectations is CTD's reputation for offering certain advantages, including small footprint, high mobility, and quick operations. However, when more complex CTD services are planned, including directional drilling and cased completions, these advantages may no longer apply. These materials are typically not required for conventional CT services. Numerous truckloads of equipment can take days to rig up in preparation to drill with CT. Figure 1 shows a purpose-built CTD rig working in Oman. Because so much equipment is necessary to handle completion pipe, allow fluid recirculation, and provide for UBD operations, the small footprint and high mobility commonly associated with CT may no longer be a valid assumption.
Petroleum has been an internationally traded commodity since the late 1800s. In the early 1900s, Standard Oil Company of New Jersey held a near-monopoly on domestic oil supply and price. Specific judicial and legislative action by the United States government caused this monopoly to break up, and various large, integrated oil companies were formed, which participated in all petroleum industry segments from exploration to marketing. These major companies sought mineral development opportunities both domestically and abroad. At the same time, European oil companies also sought to capitalize on mineral development opportunities beyond their borders.
The last few decades have seen an evolution in robotics in drilling systems. But more recently fully automatic and fully robotized systems are being introduced into the industry. Robotics traditionally used to duplicate manual labor but now more companies focus on fully automatic or robotized systems. Robotics itself has been around since as early as 4 BC, with the first programmable mechanism created by Muslim inventor Al-Jazari in 1206. The earliest industrial robot came about in 1937, but until the invention of the computer robotics did not truly take off.
The Burgan field is an oil field situated in the desert of southeastern Kuwait. Burgan field can also refer to the Greater Burgan--a group of three closely spaced fields, which includes Burgan field itself as well as the much smaller Magwa and Ahmadi fields. Greater Burgan is the world's largest sandstone oil field, and the second largest overall, after Ghawar. The Greater Burgan field includes two smaller fields the Magwa and the Ahmadi. Chief Executive of the Kuwait Oil Company reported that Burgan produced half of Kuwait's oil.
Steam generation for the purposes of thermal recovery includes facilities to treat the water (produced water or fresh water), generate the steam, and transport it to the injection wells. A steamflood uses high-quality steam injected into an oil reservoir. The quality of steam is defined as the weight percent of steam in the vapor phase to the total weight of steam. The higher the steam quality, the more heat is carried by this steam. High-quality steam provides heat to reduce oil viscosity, which mobilizes and sweeps the crude to the producing wells.
Ghawar / Al-Ghawār /الغوار is an oil field located in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. It measures 280 by 30 km (174 by 19 mi), it is by far the largest conventional oil field in the world. It is entirely owned and operated by Saudi Aramco, the state run Saudi oil company. Blue wells are waterflood injectors, red are production wells. In April 2010, Saad al-Treiki, Vice-President for Operations at Aramco, stated, in a news conference reported in Saudi media, that over 65 billion barrels (10.3 km3) have been produced from the field since 1951.
Kirkuk is a supergiant oil reservoir located in Iraq. From 1961 to 1971, 3.2 billion bbl of oil were produced under pressure maintenance by waterdrive using river water. The 1971 production rate was approximately 1.1 million barrels of oil per day (BOPD). Since then, the field has continued to produce large volumes of oil by voidage-replacement water injection; however, few production details for recent years appear in the technical literature. The primary pay interval for the Kirkuk field is the 1,200-ft-thick Main Limestone.
Schumi, Bettina (OMV E&P) | Clemens, Torsten (OMV E&P) | Wegner, Jonas (HOT Microfluidics) | Ganzer, Leonhard (Clausthal University of Technology) | Kaiser, Anton (Clariant) | Hincapie, Rafael E. (OMV E&P) | Leitenmüller, Verena (Montan University Leoben)
Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery leads to substantial incremental costs over waterflooding of oil reservoirs. Reservoirs containing oil with a high Total Acid Number (TAN) could be produced by injection of alkali. Alkali might lead to generation of soaps and emulsify the oil. However, the generated emulsions are not always stable.
Phase experiments are used to determine the initial amount of emulsions generated and their stability if measured over time. Based on the phase experiments, the minimum concentration of alkali can be determined and the concentration of alkali above which no significant increase in formation of initial emulsions is observed.
Micro-model experiments are performed to investigate the effects on pore scale. For injection of alkali into high TAN number oils, mobilization of residual oil after waterflooding is seen. The oil mobilization is due to breaking-up of oil ganglia or movement of elongated ganglia through the porous medium. As the oil is depleting in surface active components, residual oil saturation is left behind either as isolated ganglia or in down-gradient of grains.
Simultaneous injection of alkali and polymers leads to higher incremental oil production in the micro-models owing to larger pressure drops over the oil ganglia and more effective mobilization accordingly.
Core flood tests confirm the micro-model experiments and additional data are derived from these tests. Alkali co-solvent polymer injection leads to the highest incremental oil recovery of the chemical agents which is difficult to differentiate in micro-model experiments. The polymer adsorption is substantially reduced if alkali is injected with polymers compared with polymer injection only. The reason is the effect of the pH on the polymers. As in the micro-models, the incremental oil recovery is also higher for alkali polymer injection than with alkali injection only.
To evaluate the incremental operating costs of the chemical agents, Equivalent Utility Factors (EqUF) are calculated. The EqUF takes the costs of the various chemicals into account. The lowest EqUF and hence lowest chemical incremental OPEX are incurred by injection of Na2CO3, however, the highest incremental recovery factor is seen with alkali co-solvent polymer injection. It should be noted that the incremental oil recovery owing to macroscopic sweep efficiency improvement by polymer needs to be taken into account to assess the efficiency of the chemical agents.