The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Ali Daneshy is the recipient of the 2022 Legends of Hydraulic Fracturing award. He is a consultant in the oil and gas industry best known for his expertise in well completion, hydraulic fracturing, and geo-mechanics. He received an engineering degree from the University of Tehran in 1964, an MS in Mineral Engineering from the University of Minnesota in 1968, and a PhD in Mining Engineering from the University of Missouri -Rollla in 1969. His work experience includes Director of Petroleum Engineering and adjunct professor at the University of Houston, VP of Integrated Technology Products, and multiple other technology management positions in US and international locations for Halliburton. He was the co-editor-in-chief of Hydraulic Fracturing Journal from 2014–19.
Natural gas is almost certain to be the fastest-growing fossil fuel in the global energy mix for decades to come, comprising 28% of the global energy mix by 2050. Together with renewables, natural gas will likely fuel 60% of global electricity production, be it as pipeline gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG), or blue hydrogen. These are among the forecasts that appear in the 2020 edition of the GECF (Gas Exporting Countries Forum) Global Gas Outlook 2050 released in February 2021 and providing short-, medium-, and long-term energy projections based on assumptions regarding macroeconomic conditions, energy prices, and policies. The report is updated yearly and is the flagship publication of the organization, which represents countries that control 71% of global gas reserves. It is unique in that it focuses exclusively on the global gas industry, which today is providing for 23% of global energy needs. Headquartered in Doha, Qatar, the GECF is an intergovernmental organization comprising 11 member countries and nine observer states, established in 2001 by Russia and Iran. Moscow and Tehran had hoped that GECF would eventually morph into a “Gas OPEC” but that never happened. The organization’s analyses and forecasts do, however, present a worthwhile snapshot of how the world’s largest gas producers see the industry. Member states in GECF include Algeria, Bolivia, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Russia, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela. Observer countries are Angola, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Norway, Oman, Peru, and the UAE. Unconventional Gas To Play Growing Role In its report, the GECF noted that unconventional resources will be playing a growing role in the market and that gas producers will need to emphasize unconventional projects to satisfy growing demand, as well as to invest heavily into exploration to identify and tap into new gas reserves and develop greenfield projects. “It is also important to highlight the increasing interest in hydrogen as a lever to support the deep decarbonization of the world’s economies,” Yury P. Sentyurin, GECF’s Secretary General, wrote in his introduction to the annual outlook. In mentioning hydrogen, Sentyurin is speaking about “blue hydrogen” which is produced from natural gas, and which, when combined with CCUS (carbon capture, utilization, storage) can marry commercial and environmental interests, further positioning natural gas as a transition fuel to bridge the gap between fossil fuels and renewable sources of energy. Blue hydrogen is in fact expected to satisfy half of the hydrogen demand projected worldwide by 2050, Sentyurin points out. Policies being set by countries in the European Union have focused more on costly “green hydrogen” produced from renewable sources; but not in the policies of other nations in regions of the world where growth in energy demand is expected to be the highest. Growth in European energy demand is largely flat.
Iraq and Total expect to finalize a contract by July to implement one or more dual-energy megaprojects to ramp up gas production, end flaring, and produce electricity from solar energy. Iraq's oil minister, Ihsan Abdul Jabbar, gave an update on the negotiations with Total in an interview 27 March with the Arabic-language news outlet, AsharqNews. The US is pressuring Iraq to produce more gas to reduce its dependence on Iran for gas and electricity imports. Iraq has received waivers to continue to import Iranian energy since the US imposed sanctions on Tehran in 2018, but these waivers are temporary. Iraq's problem is that most of the gas it produces is associated gas from produced oil, and that associated gas is currently being flared.
Reports 20 June that Iran shot down a US Navy drone over the Strait of Hormuz--the global oil market's most critical transit point--exacerbated tensions in the region following a pair of attacks on oil tankers in the Gulf of Oman just a week earlier. The US had accused Iran of attacking the Japanese- and Norwegian-owned tankers, releasing a video showing, it says, Iran's Revolutionary Guard removing an unexploded mine from one of the vessels. The traditionally strained relationship between US and Iran became even more turbulent when US President Donald Trump last year withdrew from the 2015 Tehran nuclear deal and reimposed sanctions on the country. Those sanctions primarily target oil exports in a move meant to cripple the country's economy just as its oil production rebounded after the 2015 deal. Iranian output fell to 2.37 million B/D in May after averaging 3.81 million B/D in 2017, according data from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, of which Iran is a founding member. The International Monetary Fund projects Iran's economy to shrink 6% this year.
Mohammad O. Eshkalak is a Ph.D. candidate in petroleum engineering at The University of Texas at Austin. He is working under the supervision of professors Larry Lake and Kamy Sepehrnoori on developing the next generations of reservoir simulators for unconventional resources. Eshkalak holds a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in chemical engineering from Tehran Polytechnic and Sharif University of Technology, as well as a master's degree in petroleum engineering from West Virginia University. Prior to moving to the United States, Eshkalak worked at an energy company in Tehran. He has published several journal papers and has presented at Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) conferences.
Tavanaei, Fatemeh (University of Tehran) | Hassanpour, Jafar (University of Tehran) | Memarian, Hossein (University of Tehran) | Kamranzad, Farnaz (University of Tehran)
ABSTRACT: In this paper, the importance of urban noises effects on soil was considered. To investigate the soil behavior of a case study in Tehran, as the capital and most crowded and populated city in Iran, the urban noises data were being recorded for 52 minutes by a microtremor as the cyclic loading. To evaluate the possible different impacts of regular and irregular cyclic loading on soil behavior, the irregular (real) urban noises data were converted to regular (modified) data. The result showed that although the total amounts of stress were equal in both regular and irregular data, the caused displacements were fairly different. The maximum displacements were about 0.254 and 0.501 mm for real and modified data in 52 minutes. On the other hand, using Li and Selig's equation and employing modified data in numerical analysis, the constant parameters for each soil type of the case study were determined by the Li and Selig's equation using modified data. The results showed that numerical analysis results agreed well with the former investigations which have been done using lab tests.
ABSTRACT: This paper describes an evaluation of the optimum number of reinforced concrete segments per ring that can best fulfil the tunnel lining function to support the design loads. Hence, the effects of number of segments in the ring were investigated among which the worst case has been selected for further investigation. Subsequently, the influence of Key-segment location has been considered in-depth. To construct the required models, the beam-spring concept has been employed. The required input data was obtained from Line-4, Tehran subway tunnels. Abaqus, a finite element program, was used to analyze the problem. This program has the capability of analyzing tunnel structures by considering the effect of two-dimensional rotational behavior of intersegmental joint condition. The results demonstrate that as the number of segments per ring increases, the corresponding maximum bending moment within the lining system decreases. Consequently, the related displacement due to the lining flexibility increases. Finally, it has been concluded that due to increase of the number of segments per ring, the importance of position dependency of the Key-segment within the lining system is significantly reduced. 1. INTRODUCTION
Abstract Iran has discovered a considerable amount of oil and gas reserves at its territory in the Caspian Sea. The reserves are estimated to contain of about 10 billion barrel of crude oil and 50 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. After some exploration studies, Iran may start production from the said resources. In this article, after reviewing the petroleum activities of the Caspian Sea region, some conceptual approaches have been made on production, refining, and distribution of the above reserves as follows:–It is estimated that priority will be given to the four Iranian coastal provinces at Caspian Sea to be fed from the above sources. Therefore, an oil and gas refinery will be constructed at one of these states. –In case of higher oil production rate, the excess of extracted oil may be sent to Tehran and Tabriz refineries for supplying to other parts of Iran. –Ultimately, the surplus of higher rate will be available for export. However, construction of a large terminal including an oil & gas refinery and a petrochemical complex at Caspian Sea coast is proposed for all activities. The environment impact of the said changes shall also briefly be described. Author: Farrokh Kamali, Advisor at Iran LNG Company (ILC), Iran Inroduction At present, the requirements of petroleum products and natural gas of Northern states of Iran near the Caspian Sea are being provided from oil and gas supplied from South fields of Iran. The crude oil is refined in Tehran and Tabriz refinery and natural gas is processed in Bidbolad and Hasheminejad gas refinery and supplied to the Northern states. However, providing the petroleum products from these refineries and natural gas from far away gas fields are very costly because of consuming energy and heavy investments for transferring installations. Iran recent discoveries at Caspian Sea are an opportunity for the Northern states of Iran because of receiving petroleum products at low cost and being ensured of supply security. The estimated rates of productions, the required facilities for installations, environment impacts of changes and mitigation measures for environment protection are described in this article.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the different rock supports that have been installed in road tunnels of Tehran-Shomal freeway of Iran to choose efficiency rock supports from economic point of view. Tunnels pass through the Karaj green Tuff that moderately weathered and fractured with interlocked joint set in most part. Factor of safety using finite difference code, FLAC and RocSupport software is compared. The plastic zone radius and maximum displacement around the two D-shape tunnels are determined and new support system is proposed. In this project, the excavation and support system were not based on NATM or "build as you go" so the pre-deigned support by consultant engineers was challenged. According to the numerical stability analysis and monitoring of tunnels during excavation, it was observed that the four meters long rockbolts with twenty centimeter of shotcrete cover and lattice girders should be replaced with slightly light support include three meters long rockbolts and ten centimeters of shotcrete cover.
This article, written by Senior Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper SPE 144196, ’Reduction of Fines Migration by Nanofluids Injection - An Experimental Study,’ by A. Habibi, SPE, M. Ahmadi, and P. Pourafshary, SPE, University of Tehran, and Sh. Ayatollahi, SPE, Shiraz University, prepared for the 2011 SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 7-10 June. The paper has not been peer reviewed. Formation damage because of fines migration is a major reason for productivity decline. Many studies have characterized fines and their migration effect on permeability reduction. Nanofluids that contain nanoparticles (NPs) show specific properties including a high tendency for adsorption and being a good candidate for injection into the near-wellbore region because of the very small NP sizes. The study indicates that fines could adhere to the matrix grains, hindering their migration, when the porous materials are soaked with nanofluids. Introduction Fines are loose unconsolidated particles (smaller than 37 µm) that move with fluid flow and cause formation damage because of the filtering action of the porous media. The biggest drawbacks of this process are pore plugging and productivity-index reduction. Various surface forces have been found to be responsible for fines detachment and release from the pore surfaces. London/van der Waals attraction, double-layer and Born repulsion, and hydrodynamic forces are the dominant forces in the detachment of fines from porous media. When the total interaction energy between fines and pore surface becomes positive, the repulsive forces are bigger than attractive forces and fines detachment occurs. NP size ranges from 1 to 100 nm, and NPs have high specific surface area and unique properties, such as very high adsorption potential and heat conductivity. NPs have been used for formation-damage control, enhancing oil recovery, and wettability alteration. In the proppant packs, NPs strengthened the attractive forces and fixed the suspended fines in the porous media. In this experimental study, porous media were soaked with nanofluid for 24 hours and then the suspended fines were passed through porous media to determine the most efficient component. In the next step, a glass-bead-packed column containing uniformly distributed fines in the bed was flooded with distilled water. To investigate the main parameters in this process, the NP concentration and fluid-injection rate were investigated. The zeta potential of the treated models was measured, and the total interaction energy was calculated to verify the results. Finally, scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) images of the surface were obtained for qualitative observation of fines attachment to the pore surfaces.