The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Abbood, Husam Raad (Basra oil company, Basra, Iraq) | Khalil, Dr.Ethar (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Miftah, Karrar Riyad (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Khalaf, Amgad Hamad (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Abdullah, Ibrahim Salim (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Khudhaier, Muhammed Adnan (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Jaber, Ali Hassan (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq) | Hamad, Zamzam Neama (Petroleum Engineering, University of Basra, Basra, Iraq)
Abstract The oil and gas industry is witnessing an increasing demand for more cost-effective well design and operations. Thus, the scope of the operator company's planned new processing capacity aims to attain a competitive cost and schedule. In this work, slim versus fat casing designs are evaluated in price and technical challenges, including removing rig/skidding, drilling, and ensuring well suspension. Data from ten (five slim design and five fat design) wells in southern Iraq was quantitatively analyzed. Attaining the project's target requires that the well be drilled as a deviated well (S-type). The analysis includes the cost of CSG, lost circulation, lost curing, lost circulation materials, volume of the cement plugs to cure losses, non-productive time, stuck pipe and differential sticking, and cement bond quality. Moreover, a cost analysis is conducted by considering all of a project's relevant factors—including economic and technical considerations—to ascertain the likelihood of completing the project. The finding emerged that the amount of lost mud and the average cost of addressing losses were higher in slim than fat designs. The slim design is associated with higher volumes of cement plugs for curing losses than the fat design. As per NPT analysis, the time required to fix losses emanating from slim design was 62% higher than fat design. A critical observation emerged from the study that while differential sticking failed to occur in both designs, stuck pipes happened in some of both designs. The cost analysis of slim and fat designs focused on the cost of drilling, CSG, wellhead, diesel, and fueling is also done. The total cost of the fat design amounted to approximately 53.67%, while the total cost of the slim design was about 46.33%. This made the slim design's cost savings ratio of roughly 7.34%. Meanwhile, given that similar issues may occur in the proposed well design, the following measures have been isolated to help tackle such problems. (1) Optimize mud design to inhibit Tanuma formation Clay swelling issues (2) Reduce OH time to avoid Tanuma's time-dependent clay swelling. (3) Reduce the inclination across Tanuma to 20 degrees. Finally, this paper describes how two casing designs are successfully engineered and executed and serves as a guide for selecting proper candidates for this design. Also, it is an operational guide for two casing designs, slim and fat, to ensure that these challenging long open holes will be successfully and economically drilled while minimizing risks and ensuring compliance with the well delivery process.
Chunpeng, Wang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Yucai, Wang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Weixiang, Cui (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Liangyu, Rao (CNPC Abu Dhabi) | Xueqin, Huang (Abu Dhabi, UAE) | Shuzhe, Shi (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Zhen, Nie (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Bohong, Wu (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China) | Yanna, Zhang (Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development CNPC, Beijing, China / University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, China)
Abstract Horizontal wells in the Middle East are mainly completed with 6-inch open hole, and some wells are put into the screen in the horizontal section. This kind of wellbore structure can meet the production demand in the early stage. But it is not conducive to the later fracturing or acid fracturing, because the open hole section cannot be effectively segmented, and the targeted injection control or segmented production control cannot be carried out after stimulation. In order to realize the segmented stimulation of the open hole, the secondary completion string is run in on the premise of keeping the existing string unchanged, which is used for segmented fracturing and segmented injection or production control after fracturing. The string consists of open hole packers, switchable sliding sleeves, toe anchor, etc. Each part is connected with 4-1/2 inches’ base pipe. All sliding sleeves are closed when they are lowered, and are opened through soluble rubber plugs. After fracturing operation, the sliding sleeve can be opened by coiled tubing with switch tools and the horizontal pipe string remained as the production pipe string. Through the laboratory test, the switchable sliding sleeve and open hole packer can be used under the conditions of no more than 180 °C and pressure difference no more than 60MPa, and are resistant to hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide corrosion. From 2012 to 2020, the switchable sliding sleeve has been used in 187 wells in the eastern oilfield of China, including 36 vertical wells and 151 horizontal wells, with a total of 1449 sets of sliding sleeves. The maximum pumping rate of hydraulic fracturing is 12 m³/min with up to 21 fracture stages. The maximum temperature is 135°C with up to 12989 m³ of fracturing fluid and 1018 m³ of sand injected into a single well. The maximum well depth is 4995 m (MD) and the maximum vertical depth is 4200 m (TVD). The technology realizes the segmented stimulation of low permeability reservoirs in the Middle East under the existing horizontal open hole completion conditions, realizes the segmented control of water injection wells and segmented production of production wells, saves the operation cost and prolongs the life cycle of old wells. However, in order to reduce fracturing investment, casing completion is still recommended for new wells with low permeability reservoirs.
Abstract The application of nanoparticles (NPs) to improve oil recovery is gaining wide acceptance in the petroleum industry in recent times. Due to their size and set chemical characteristics, NPs can be used to enhance oil recovery in carbonate reservoirs by altering the rock wettability and reducing oil–brine interfacial tension (IFT). Also, when used with surface-active agents like surfactant (cationic, anionic or non–ionic) in low–salinity waterflooding (LSWF), NPs can enhance the performance of surfactant. This study focuses on the implications of combining green NPs with surfactant and low–salinity water for EOR applications in carbonate reservoirs. A NP was synthesized from a green source, rice husk, and then characterized using XRD, FTIR, TGA and SEM analyses. A cationic surfactant, Aspiro S 6420, was added in the nanoemulsion of silica nanoparticle (SNP) and 1% diluted seawater (dSW). The SNP-Surfactant-1%dSW nanoemulsion was investigated for its beneficial effects for EOR applications. Zeta potential measurements were carried out for various brine dilutions, then for 1% dSW and surfactant, and finally 1%dSW–Surfactant–SNP nanoemulsions. The measurements showed that the zeta potentials are highly positive, confirming the stability of the nanoemulsions and alteration of rock wettability. Interfacial tension (IFT) between oil and brine were measured at a temperature of 86°C. The addition of surfactant (Aspiro S 6420) led to significant drop in IFT between oil and brine. Finally, when SNPs were added to the 1%dSW–Surfactant emulsions, the IFT reduced significantly, confirming that the combination of low salinity brine–cationic surfactant (Aspiro S 6420)–SNP can be used as a promising injection fluid to recover oil from carbonate reservoirs.
Al-Sahlanee, Dhuha T. (BP) | Allawi, Raed H. (Thi-Qar Oil Company) | Al-Mudhafar, Watheq J. (Basrah Oil Company) | Yao, Changqing (Texas A&M University)
Abstract Modeling the drill bit Rate of Penetration (ROP) is crucial for optimizing drilling operations as maximum ROP causes fast drilling, reflecting efficient rig performance and productivity. In this paper, four Ensemble machine learning (ML) algorithms were adopted to reconstruct ROP predictive models: Random Forest (RF), Gradient Boosting (GB), Extreme Gradient Boost (XGB), and Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost). The research was implemented on well data for the entire stratigraphy column in a giant Southern Iraqi oil field. The drilling operations in the oil field pass through 19 formations (including 4 oil-bearing reservoirs) from Dibdibba to Zubair in a total depth of approximately 3200 m. From the stratigraphic column, various lithology types exist, such as carbonate and clastic with distinct thicknesses that range from (40-440) m. The ROP predictive models were built given 14 operating parameters: Total Vertical Depth (TVD), Weight on Bit (WOB), Rotation per Minute (RPM), Torque, Total RPM, flow rate, Standpipe Pressure (SPP), effective density, bit size, D exponent, Gamma Ray (GR), density, neutron, and caliper, and the discrete lithology distribution. For ROP modeling and validation, a dataset that combines information from three development wells was collected, randomly subsampled, and then subdivided into 85% for training and 15% for validation and testing. The root means square prediction error (RMSE) and coefficient of correlation (R-sq) were used as statistical mismatch quantification tools between the measured and predicted ROP given the test subset. Except for Adaboost, all the other three ML approaches have given acceptable accurate ROP predictions with good matching between the ROP to the measured and predicted for the testing subset in addition to the prediction for each well across the entire depth. This integrated modeling workflow with cross-validation of combining three wells together has resulted in more accurate prediction than using one well as a reference for prediction. In the ROP optimization, determining the optimal set of the 14 operational parameters leads to the fastest penetration rate and most economic drilling. The presented workflow is not only predicting the proper penetration rate but also optimizing the drilling parameters and reducing the drilling cost of future wells. Additionally, the resulting ROP ML-predictive models can be implemented for the prediction of the drilling rate of penetration in other areas of this oil field and also other nearby fields of the similar stratigraphic columns.
Ahmed, Mohammed A. (University of Baghdad) | Abdul-Majeed, Ghassan H. (University of Baghdad (Corresponding author)) | Alhuraishawy, Ali K. (Ministry of oil-Iraq)
Summary Asphaltene is a solid oil component with a wide range of molecular compositions and structures, making it one of oil’s most complicated components. The deposition and precipitation of asphaltene in several places along the oil production line, such as the wellbore, reservoir, flow lines, tubing, and the separation unit at the surface, of the most prevalent flow assurance challenges. Changes in pressure, composition, and temperature cause asphaltene to precipitate out of the oil continuum. Variations in operation condition are caused by various recovery processes (gas injection, natural depletion, and chemical injection) in addition to the creation and blending of various oils during transportation. This paper presents a complete review of asphaltene precipitation (AP) and deposition (AD), which in turn helps in understanding the governing mechanisms and thermodynamic behaviors in this field. This study consists of several stages: analyzing the current state of asphaltene research (asphaltene characteristics, chemical nature, molecular structure, asphaltene crude oil phase behavior, solubility factors, and other factors); describing the phases of asphaltene (from its stability through its deposition in the reservoir pores, facilities, wellbore path in addition to the reasons for their occurrence); clarifying the rheology and asphaltene flow behavior in the reservoir; and finally examining the advantages and disadvantages of most widely used strategies for determining onset AP. In addition, some measured Iraqi asphaltene data are demonstrated and analyzed. This work will contribute to better knowledge of asphaltene and will serve as a reference for future studies on how to properly investigate and simulate asphaltene.
Al-Obaidi, Dahlia A. (University of Baghdad) | Wood, David A. (DWA Energy Limited) | Al-Mudhafar, Watheq J. (Basrah Oil Company) | Wojtanowicz, Andrew A. (Louisiana State University) | Merzoug, Ahmed (Texas A&M University)
Abstract Gas and downhole water sink assisted gravity drainage (GDWS-AGD) is a promising gas-based enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process applicable for reservoirs associated with infinite aquifers. However, it can be costly to implement because it typically involves the drilling of multiple vertical gas-injection wells. The drilling and well-completion costs can be substantially reduced by using additional completions for gas injection in the oil production wells through the annulus positioned at the top of the reservoir. Multi-completion-GDWS-AGD (MC-GDWS-AGD) can be configured to include separate completions for gas injection, oil, and water production in individual wells. This study simulates the MC-GDWS-AGD process applied to the synthetic reservoir (PUNQ-S3, based on a real North Sea Field) by placing multiple completions in two wells, which include a gas injection loop, and 2-horizontal wells with a diameter of 2⅜ inch, first one for producing oil located above the oil/water contact and the second one for water sink placed below the oil/water contact. Hydraulic packers are positioned to isolate the multiple completions and an electric submersible pump are positioned to produce the water zone. These results compare to a base case involving no MC-GDWS-AGD wells, which achieved 55.5% oil recovery and 70% water cut.
TotalEnergies and the Iraqi government have struck a deal to salvage an estimated 27 billion in energy projects designed to boost the country's electricity production, but whose launch has been delayed for nearly 2 years by a conflict over the size of Baghdad's stake in the deal. The agreement announced on 5 April followed months of negotiations, including four personal meetings between Iraq's Prime Minister Mohammed Shia al-Sudani and TotalEnergies' Chairman and CEO Patrick Pouyanné, to break the deadlock over a development and production contract signed by the two parties in September 2021, TotalEnergies said. The Iraqi government and TotalEnergies have now agreed that Baghdad will hold a 30% stake through the Basrah Oil Company in what is called the Gas Growth Integrated Project (GGIP). Also, after agreeing with the Iraqi government, TotalEnergies has invited QatarEnergy to take a 25% stake in the consortium. TotalEnergies holds a 45% operator interest.
Al-Dujaili, Ahmed N. (Amirkabir University of Technology/Petroleum Engineering Department) | Shabani, Mehdi (Amirkabir University of Technology/Petroleum Engineering Department (Corresponding author)) | Al-Jawad, Mohammed S. (University of Baghdad/Petroleum Engineering Department)
Summary This study considered the complexity of Mishrif geology and its effect on fluid movement within and across Mishrif reservoir intervals. For this purpose, we analyzed the following items: the multiple interval communication with high permeability contrast, the geological setting of the upper Mishrif (mA) interval, the channel structure in the Lower Mishrif-Part 1 (mB1) interval, the thin layers in the upper part of Lower Mishrif-Part 2 (mB2U) of very high permeability, and the microporous interval of the lower part of Lower Mishrif-Part 2 (mB2L); none of them were well defined before this work. The bottom interval of Mishrif or Rumaila (mC) is predominantly microporous, and the best reservoir is at the top of intermediate quality. Two high-porosity layers are systematically found in the mC unit, which is casually referred to as “rabbit ears.” The mB2L contains grainstones in the far north of the West Qurna/1 oil field (WQ1). In the south of mB2L, some of the toe sets from the clinoforms in a distal depositional setting have developed into rather important vertical pressure baffles and barriers to vertical flow. The mB2U generally consists of grainstones with thin streaks of mudstone high flow layers (HFLs), and the rocks underneath are described generally as grainstone shoals. About 80% of stock tank oil originally in place (STOOIP) in mB2U exists in grainstones. There are no known microporous reservoirs in mB2U. The pressure difference across the boundaries between mB1 and mA can be positive or negative. At the base, mB1 channels are always in pressure communication with the mB2U below. The best flow from the mA comes from HFLs, which are found around faults. Reservoir quality within mA is generally best in the first section of the upper Mishrif (mAa), and the majority of STOOIP in mA exists in microporous rocks, while some 30% of STOOIP is contained in grainstones.
Amir Alwazzan is the production assurance manager of strategy and planning of Dragon Oil based in Dubai. Prior to joining Dragon Oil in April 2015, he was the flow assurance advisor with OneSubsea based in Houston. He also worked for Schlumberger, McDermott Subsea, AMEC-Paragon, and other international companies, universities, and institutions in different locations worldwide. During his 34 years of corporate, managerial, and technical experience, he has been involved in offshore and onshore projects in the US, Canada, Middle East, Southeast Asia, North and West Africa, and in the Caspian Sea regions in different capacities. He has authored and coauthored several technical papers and has been serving as a reviewer for three peer-review international journals in the field of petroleum engineering, science, and technology. Alwazzan is a chartered petroleum engineer accredited by the UK’s Engineering Council and Energy Institute and a registered EUR-ING with FEANI. He holds a PhD degree in transient multiphase flow in flowlines from the University of Malaya, Malaysia, and MSc and BSc degrees in petroleum engineering from Baghdad University, Iraq. Alwazzan is a member of the SPE JPT Editorial Review Board, Distinguished Lecturer Committee, and the Production & Facilities Advisory Committee.
Abstract Cost and operation effective selection of drilling Bits to drill the HPHT Wells sections in Block-09 field in one run with optimum parameters. Improvement in drilling performance leading to reduction in drilling time and costs without compromising the deliverability of well, is the primary objective of drilling engineers. Some of the major challenges faced by drilling engineers are drilling of hard and abrasive formations and selection of durable bits lasting for long while drilling each hole section. Traditionally in this part of south Iraq multiple Tricones and PDC bits were used for each section resulting in long tripping and drilling time. With recent advancement in drilling bits designs and careful and systematic approach for bits selection, these issues have been addressed and tremendous time and cost benefits have been realized. This paper will provide insight into the drilling bits performance for HPHT Wells which have been used in Block-09 field and optimization of bits design to drill and tackle the issues faced in each section with achievement of one bit per section successfully. Dull grading comparison of the bits with offsets wells will be discussed. The optimum bits are then selected by performing a more through response- by-response comparison and how this comparison has been used for next bits selection and outcome of this selection will be presented, in addition the latest technology in bits industry has been benchmarked. The paper will also review the formation types drilled in this block of south Iraq and will help to understand drilled formations and bits design relationship for drilling problematic zones especially sections containing Chert, high strength rocks, anhydrates, Asphaltene and argillaceous Limestone. This paper will discuss the technical challenges which results in major borehole limiters, the engineering design and the Realtime practices that have been developed, as well as the field results. This paper presents the accomplishment, experience and lessons learned related drilling in block-9 field south Iraq area where reduction in drilling time from 141 days to around 63 days is an outstanding outcome of "Pushing the Limits" concept and achieving one bit, one section target.