The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Baker Hughes has signed a contract with Iraq's state-owned South Gas Company to build a modular natural gas liquids (NGL) processing plant to recover up to 200 MMcf/D of flared gas from the Nassiriya and Al Gharraf oil fields in the southern province of Dhi Qar, the country's oil ministry and Baker Hughes have announced. Once operational, the plant is expected to reduce OPEC's second-biggest oil producer's reliance on Iranian gas imports for electricity generation while also reducing the country's carbon footprint. Iraq ranks second to Russia in the volume of associated gas it flares--nearly 18 Bcm in 2020, according to the World Bank. Baker Hughes reported in a news release on 17 September that its contract calls for a two-step deployment of its NGL solution. In the first stage, Baker Hughes will develop an advanced modular fast-track gas processing plant at Nassiriya to dehydrate and compress flared gas to generate more than 100 MMcf/D of dry gas.
Weatherford signed an 18-month contract with the Iraqi Drilling Company (IDC) to provide services and project management for the drilling and completion of 20 wells in the Al-Nasiriyah oil field in southern Iraq's Dhi Qar province. IDC will provide four rigs, civil works, and drilling services, and Weatherford will provide associated services. Basim M. Khudair, general director for IDC, said the contract "sets the right ground for mutual and constructive joint cooperation in the future." The Iraq oil minister ordered state-run Dhi Qar Oil Company and IDC in 2018 to develop the Al-Nasiriya oil field, for which it budgeted $140 million to raise production from 90,000 B/D to 200,000 B/D. A media report in September 2019 said IDC signed a contract with Dhi Qar Oil to drill 20 new oil wells in the Al-Nasiriyah field for $128 million.
Abstract The compositional flow simulation model was frequently used to evaluate the miscible water alternating CO2 flooding (CO2-WAG). The uncertainty and sensitivity analysis have to be conducted to examine the parameters mostly affecting the performance of the process. Accordingly, multiple simulation runs require to be constructed which is a time-consuming procedure and finally increase the computational cost. This paper presents a simplistic approach to assess the miscible CO2-WAG flooding in an Iraqi oilfield through developing a statistical proxy model. The Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to build the proxy model to determine the incremental oil recovery (ΔFOE) as a function of seven reservoir and operating parameters (permeability, porosity, ratio of vertical to horizontal permeability, cyclic length, bottom hole pressure, ratio of CO2 slug size to water slug size, and CO2 slug size). In total, 81 compositional simulation runs were conducted at field-scale to establish the proxy model. The validity of the model was investigated based on statistical tools; the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), R-squared statistic and the adjusted R-squared statistic of 0.0095, 0.9723 and 0.9507 confirmed the reliability of the model. The most influential and the optimum values of the parameters that lead to the higher ΔFOE during miscible CO2-WAG process were identified through proxy modeling analysis. The developed model was created based on the Nahr Umr reservoir in Subba oilfield and can be applied to roughly estimate the ΔFOE during the miscible CO2-WAG process at the same geological conditions as Nahr Umr reservoir.
Abstract Managing wastes in remote oil and gas operations for PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Holding B.V. in the field of Garraf, Iraq presents a multitude of challenges including unavailability of an approved waste disposal facilities, incompetent wastes management contractor and land acquisition issues requires PETRONAS to establish a Five Years Waste Management Blue Print. The objective of the blueprint is to provide strategic guidance for approaches in resolving the waste management issues in Garraf. Primary problem statement from the forecast of the cumulative impact of waste generation since day one of operation until the completion of Garraf Field Development Plan warrants the need of significant change in day to day waste management practices in Garraf. The method used in establishing this blue prints includes, eliminating and/or minimization of waste generation from source, optimizing each waste stream including reuse & recycle towards zero discharge and disposal through deployment of fit for purpose and green technologies which are environmental friendly. Additionally, PCIHBV also takes into consideration challenges of medium-skilled operator, support by stakeholder and authorities and environmental health impact. Since it has been launched in 2016, significant value creation identified as follows: Support from host authority to invest on technology deployment. Host authority accepted and acknowledge the blue print and support by approving significant environment budget despite low oil price based on long term value gain. Hazardous Waste Treatment and Disposal Prior to establishment of this blue print, all hazardous waste are stored in our HWS which will poses us to long-term liability due to mismanagement and integrity of the HW container. Various engagement and discussion were conducted between PCIHBV and host government to resolve this issue since 2016. PCIHBV established the contract with Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) on hazardous waste treatment and disposal and being the first International Oil Company (IOC) in Iraq to establish as such contract. Cost Saving/Optimization The implementation of the blue print produced some significant value creation which includes cost saving by reusing some of the waste and optimization of the raw material and resources e.g. Land acquisition for landfill area, disposal cost etc. Capability development Development of local nationality on environmental technology and inculcate mindset change on the environmental awareness
Abstract Working in remote oil and gas operations of PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Operation in Garraf, Iraq presents a multitude of health challenges including significant delays to medical diagnosis and treatment. In addition, remote areas like Garraf are susceptible to significant environmental exposures, predominantly risks of communicable diseases with limited access to basic necessities, extreme temperatures during summer (up to 55°C); limited medical expertise and communication as well as security threats. These factors further post risks to personnel working in the area to suboptimal medical care – including unnecessary and delayed medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) as well as suboptimal care during transport. This paper describes the challenges faced at Garraf Operations as well as the Occupational and Industrial Hygiene (OH/IH) strategies adopted to minimize and manage associated risks. Planning and preventive controls discussed in this paper includes but not limited to, fitness to work, fatigue management, heat stress management, food and water hygiene, health and wellness programmes as well as substance misuse programme. Proactive and comprehensive identification of a country's limitations is essential in determining the most effective and efficient recovery plan. Additionally, site location, situational factors as well as thorough Health Risk Assessment shall be considered when establishing Medical Emergency Response Plan (MERP). In short, plans and strategies adopted by PETRONAS Carigali Iraq Operations in managing OH/IH challenges could be replicated and/or referenced as lessons learnt when operating in remote locations.
Abstract Developing the offshore oil and gas resources on an artificial island is relatively economical compared to a drilling platform, thus it is adopted widely by oil companies. Nevertheless, it still has higher construction, maintenance and development costs than onshore field developments as well as added technical issues. To overcome those challenges, a proper contract, management and technical proposal would benefit artificial islands projects, especially with current low oil price circumstances. To establish a proper project mode for reservoir development on the artificial islands, this paper describes cases in 3 different aspects: first of all, the principal activities in the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contract of Garraf drilling project in Iraq are introduced, including the complete service system, organization structure and human resources, health, safety and environment (HSE) management, cost and risk control, project period, research and technical support. After that, the batch operations in Weiyuan shale gas project in China are presented to demonstrate the production process. Finally, the experience of technical optimization of extended reach drilling (ERD) in Cuba is shared.
Abstract Carbon dioxide flooding is considered one of the most commonly used miscible gas injection to improve oil recovery and its applicability has grown significantly due to its availability, greenhouse effect and easy achievement of miscibility relative to other gasses. Therefore, miscible CO2-injection is considered one of the most feasible methods worldwide. For long term strategies in Iraq and the Middle East, most oil fields will need to improve oil recovery as oil reserves are falling. This paper presents a study of the effect of various miscible CO2-injection scenarios on the performance of the highly heterogeneous clastic reservoir in Iraq. An integrated field-scale reservoir simulation model of miscible CO2-flooding is accomplished. The compositional simulator, Eclipse-300 has been used to investigate the feasibility of miscible CO2-injection process. The process of the continuous CO2-injection was optimized to start in January 2056 as an improved oil recovery method after natural depletion and water flooding processes have been performed, and it will continue until January 2063. The minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) for CO2 was determined using empirical correlation as a function of crude oil composition and its properties. Ten miscible CO2-injection options were undertaken to investigate the reservoir performance. These options included applying a wide range of the CO2-injection rates ranged between 1.25 to 50 MMScf/day. All development options were analyzed with respect to net present value (NPV) calculations to confirm the more feasible CO2development strategy. The results showed that the application of CO2-injection option of a 20 MScf/day attained the highest recovery of 28% by January 2063 among the others. The recovery growth was so minor by the increasing the CO2-injection rate above this level. Based on economic findings the option of 20 MScf/day also attained the highest net present value (NPV). The results showed that after January 2063, the oil recovery attained by the different CO2-injection options are less than the one attained by the waterflooding process. Therefore, the miscible CO2-injection became unviable economically after January 2063.
Abstract Production engineers frequently use back allocation to estimate actual production volumes from wells based on frequent well test data or theoretical calculations using well and reservoir characteristics. PETRONAS executed a centralized production data management system from early days of production to establish a scalable and reliable workprocess among the organization. The production and operation data management system of the field supports data collection, QC, validation and production back allocation as well as production downtime optimization. The new system provides a means to visualize complex networks, verify the production streams, track gathering systems functionality through time and derive the allocation networks. The various downtime coding and quantifications, helped Petronas to quantify the root cause of production shortfalls and optimized the unwanted shut downs. The new system has improved the data quality and reliability and has made the data transparently available to the various stakeholders in the organization. After the new back allocation system became fully operational, Petronas started to realize the following benefits from this successful implementation. Determine the production quantities of each well and reservoir for production accounting. Quality check and approval for the test data before being used for further calculations Ability to allocate production, where accurate measurements are not possible or cost effective. Ability to determine fluid flow quantities through every strategic point in the network The current paper describes the challenges and benefits of the subjected system implementation.
Abstract This paper presents an optimization analysis of different development options of Nahr Umr reservoir in Subba oilfield. Nahr Umr reservoir is a highly heterogeneous clastic reservoir with moderate edge a bottom waterdrive and it has a short production history for six months. Many different development scenarios have been conducted in this study to test possible predictive scenarios to determine the most significant development option. The black oil commercial software simulator, Eclipse-100 was used to study fluid flow in the reservoir and to predict the future behavior of reservoir. The prediction scenarios considered in this study include, natural depletion through the existing wells, determine the optimal number of infill producers, and waterflooding option through conducting peripheral and five-spot patterns. The development plan assumed to commence at January 2017, then couple of runs using simulator flow model were conducted for ten years. The waterflood sceneries startedup on January 2023 and January 2027 for inverted five-spot and peripheral patterns respectively with 58 producers and 66 injectors for peripheral pattern and 102 producers and 77 injectors for inverted five-spot pattern. The results are analyzed based on economic criteria to optimize the number of infill drilling. The optimization of development options was achieved based on net present values analysis.
Abstract The developing of an immature brown oilfield through determining the optimal number and locations of infill wells pose extreme challenges due to high costs of drilling wells and uncertainty of geological and reservoir characteristic parameters. The improper well placement may lead to project failure. This paper presents a methodology to identify reservoir layers with high potential opportunities for optimal infill well placement in Nahr Umr reservoir of Subba oilfield. A full field numerical flow simulation model was constructed to assist in simulation the opportunity index and generate opportunity index (OI) which has been determined depending on static and dynamic properties. The generated OI maps for each layer in the reservoir assist in delineating the reservoir regions with favorable infill wells placement. This methodology was efficient, easy to apply and less time consuming as well as it reduce the uncertainty inherent to infill well placement. The presence of water aquifer drive and needing for waterflooding after few years of field life to maintain the field pressure, make the infill drilling with economic viability very crucial element in the field development plan. The performance of new wells, tested at different places of the field in the simulation model, had produced high watercut. It is very important to determine the reservoir opportunities zones in order to enhance sweeping efficiency and increase oil production rate from infill well. In this study a combination of extracted parameters from both static and dynamic models were used to generate opportunity index maps through writing codes into classic property calculator in the Eclipse-FloViZ commercial simulator software. In this case study of Nahr Umr reservoir in Subba oilfield the results showed distinct identification reservoir potential regions for each layer at the reservoir at last time step of history match. These regions showed high OI values that reflected the actually mapped oil in each layer at that time.