The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Chevron and its partners have made a final investment decision (FID) to proceed with Phase One of the Tamar gas field expansion offshore Israel, a 673 million project which, together with production from the nearby Leviathan gas field, will aide Egypt's quest to build a regional hub for liquefied natural gas (LNG) export and hydrogen production. The working interest partners are Noble Energy, now Chevron Mediterranean Ltd. (25%), Mubadala Petroleum (22%), Isramco (28.75%), The expansion's first phase envisions construction of a third, 150-km pipeline to the offshore Tamar platform from the Tamar field, facilitating delivery of up to 1.2 Bcf/D of natural gas by 2025, according to Chevron's 8 December announcement which appeared in The Times of Israel and The Jerusalem Post. Phase Two Will Boost Gas Transport to Egypt Phase Two hinges on an expected gas sales agreement with Tamar's existing customer in Egypt and transportation agreements via enhanced gas transport routes between Israel and Egypt. Completion of the second phase is expected in the second half of 2025 after receipt of required regulatory approvals, including an export permit from Israel's Energy Ministry.
All natural gas will be gradually emptied from the Leviathan offshore platform after a fault was identified in its production system, Israel's Energy Ministry said in a The Jerusalem Post article. The procedure, which will require burning off gas via the platform's flare boom, will enable necessary tests to be carried out. In February, Reuters reported the Energy Ministry limited production at the Leviathan natural gas field to 60% after a malfunction was discovered in the project's subsea pipeline. The problem was found by an underwater robot that detected vibrations along pipelines near the well's drill sites. The ministry then said production would not rise above 60% until an investigation was completed for the February malfunction.
UPDATE 2: A court in Jerusalem reportedly lifted the temporary injunction on 18 December, allowing Noble Energy and its partners to continue test works on the Leviathan gas platform. The Times of Israel reported that the court ruled that "the petitoners had failed to provide professional testimonies to refute the opinons of state professionals who deemed the test safe." UPDATE 1: On 17 December, the Jerusalem District Court issued a temporary order barring any gas emissions from the Leviathan gas field, effectively putting the project on hold, in the wake of environmental and public health concerns. Reuters reported that Noble Energy and Delek Drilling, the companies developing the project, are working to get the injunction cancelled. It is unclear how long a delay would last should the injunction be upheld.
Elmo, Davide (University of British Columbia / NBK Institute of Mining Engineering) | Mitelman, Amichai (University of British Columbia / NBK Institute of Mining Engineering) | Rozen, Arnon (A. Rozen Engineers (consulting firm)) | Tzuker, Dan (A. Rozen Engineers (consulting firm))
ABSTRACT: Due to the worldwide process of quick urbanization, there is a growing demand for the utilization of underground space for various purposes. Different innovative uses for underground space create challenges for researchers, designers and contractors. One such unique tunneling project is the construction of an underground burial site in Jerusalem. In this project, a layout of large caverns was planned. Along the cavern sidewalls, an array of drilled holes with a 75cm diameter and depth of 230 cm was to be designed. This created a dual-scale problem, which had to be given special consideration during the prefeasibility project assessment and latter design stages. Accordingly, two separate sets of numerical models were used for assessing the overall stability of the caverns with the perforated walls, and the stability of the drilled holes within the cavern walls. For the latter, weaker rock mass properties were assumed due to the localized effects of rock joints cutting through the intact zones between holes. Currently, the project is in its final stages of excavation. A review of the challenges during the construction stage is given, and the validity of the initial assumptions is discussed by adding a hybrid Finite-Discrete Element modeling (FDEM) approach to investigate the stability of the burial holes.
Coli, M. (Florence University) | Sani, F. (Florence University) | Livi, E. (Florence University) | Coli, N. (Florence University) | Moratti, G. (Institute for Geoscience e Georesources of National Research Council (CNR))
ABSTRACT: This paper deals with the geomechanical characterization of the Lalibela (Ethiopia) rock-mass within which the famous UNESCO cultural heritage hewn churches were excavated. The churches were excavated into a layer of ignimbrite embedded between basalts flows. On the base of a detailed field survey, geological and geomechanical data were collected in order to perform experimental stability analysis (by a FEM code) on one of the hewn churches (Biet Gabriel Rufael church). For this purpose, the church has been considered as a rock-mass excavated for a quarry or mining site. Due to the high seismicity of the near Ethiopian Rift, stability analysis also took into account the seismic input, according to the indication of Eurocode 7 and Italian rule NTC 2008. The results of the experimental FEM stability analysis points in favor of a positive verification for the stability of the Biet Gabriel Rufael church even in the event of input from the expected earthquake in the Ethiopian Rift. In presence of interest, this positive result can be applied to all the hewn churches of Lalibela. 1 INTRODUCTION Roha (the ancient name of Lalibela) was settled in a strategic position on the Ethiopian plateau (at an altitude of 2,500 m a.s.l.) along the ancient historical N-S road leading to the Red Sea coast. Peaks encircle this area and deep gorges that channel the monsoon into seasonal violent rains; that, and the presence of meagre springs of water, gave sufficient water supply to the settlement, all the yearlong. Lalibela is the main center of the Ethiopian Christian Coptic Church,whose inception took place during the IV century A.D; Lalibela is also known as the Little Jerusalem, according with the tradition, the Arc of Alliance is conserved at Lalibela. The hewn churches, which constitute standing examples of rock-carving architecture, have a corridor all around because, according to the Copt's cult, believers must talk around the church (Fig. 1).
Hatzor, Y. H. (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) | Tal, Y. (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) | Yagoda-Biran, G. (Ben-Gurion University of the Negev) | Feng, X. T. (The Chinese Academy of Sciences)
Abstract When studying jointed rock mass deformation around underground openings it is of great importance to model correctly the excavation sequence during the numerical simulation. This is because for effective arching mechanism to develop in the roof minute block displacements must take place and some of the available discontinuities shear strength must be mobilized. If from the beginning of the simulation the underground opening already exists in the numerical model, block displacements into the excavation space will initiate and develop from time zero, before the initial stresses in the model have attained their actual initial level in the field. These initial block displacements are therefore artificial and exist only in the numerical model, not in the physical reality, and may lead to erroneous assessment of the stability of the designed structure, typically on the conservative side. We have introduced sequence excavation capabilities both in the numerical manifold (NMM) and the discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA) methods and show here the advantages of this modification using three different case studies, each illuminating a different aspect of this enhancement. We begin with the 25 meter deep 2000 year old underground Zedekiah limestone quarry below the old city of Jerusalem, Israel, which is still standing today unsupported with a free span of 40 m. We show that when the opening exists from the beginning of the numerical simulation the required friction angle for roof stability is 25 degrees, whereas when the opening is removed after all stresses and displacements in the model have been stabilized the required friction angle for stability is only 15 degrees. We then model the excavation sequence of a tunnel model representing a 2500 meter deep research tunnel in the Jinping hydroelectric project, China, in order to determine the in situ stress field at this depth by a grid search inversion of displacement data obtained using the sliding micrometer technology in the course of tunnel excavation. Thus we are able to constrain the in situ stress field at these depths where standard in situ stress measurement procedures are extremely difficult to execute properly. Finally, we use sequence excavation modeling capability to find the total height of the expected loosening zone around tunnels excavated through columnar jointed basalts which pose a great engineering challenge because of the characteristic dense network of slender prismatic blocks that transect the opening at a steep inclination. We use MPBX data obtained during excavation of a deep tunnel through such a rock mass to validate our numerical results and show that application of standard empirical guidelines for dimensioning rock bolt reinforcement in such rock masses may in fact result in very un-conservative design because existing empirical approaches typically ignore the anisotropic nature of the structure of such rock masses which, as we show, plays a very significant role in determination of the extent, shape, and geometry of the loosening zone around the opening.
AbuSneineh, Jamal (City of Portland) | Ashok, Garlapati (Kuwait Oil Company) | Bernish, Kelly A. (SeaWorld Orlando) | Brito, Dale (First Insurance Company of Hawaii) | Medina, Rixio E. (CITGO Petroleum Corporation Houston) | Norris, Terrie S. (Bickmore Risk Services & Consulting Long Beach) | Rhodes, Linda G. (Chicago Transit Authority Chicago)
Introduction To effectively manage today's workforce, leaders must understand that diversity has many facets and is not limited to gender or race. To ensure safety in the workplace and to improve the quality of life in all of its aspects, we need to understand diversity, to embrace our diversity, and respect our differences as much as we accept our similarities. The American Society of Safety Engineers is committed specifically to supporting diversity within The Society itself. To that end, The Society formed The Diversity Committee. While not a committee of diversity experts, they are members of ASSE from a variety of backgrounds that bring their experiences together for the benefit of The Society. The specific purpose of The Diversity Committee is to provide inclusion without regard to race, ethnicity, religion, personal beliefs, age, gender, sexual orientation, nationality, or physical challenges by providing advice and guidance to the Society to:Encourage an inclusive and diverse membership, leadership and staff Promote a global culture of inclusion and cooperation Address diversity related issues for the safety, health and environmental professional, workforce, and community The Committee continues to discuss the challenges of protecting people, property and the environment in a diverse world. Overcoming language barriers is one example of these challenges, as is accommodating variations in physical stature. In many respects, these are some of the easiest challenges to overcome; the more difficult challenges reside in the unseen differences – those of attitude and education. Today's leaders must understand cultural norms and traditions, disabilities, religious traditions and practices, and the influence history has had in shaping generations. The Diversity Committee and guest member, Garlapati Ashok, have chosen to share insights and personal experiences relating to diversity in an interview format. Meet the Panelists Jamal M. AbuSneineh is a Risk Specialist, Loss prevention consultant with the City of Portland. Jamal was born and raised in the old city of Jerusalem, Palestine. Growing up in an ancient tourist bound City allowed for exposure to many people. He spent a great deal of time participating in athletics from Soccer to Tennis. Jamal earned his BA in 1986 from Bethlehem University which is located in the west bank and in 1992 he earned his MST from Portland State University which is located in Oregon. Mr. AbuSneineh has coached several sports and worked with young and old, white and African American. Currently, he is President of the Columbia-Willamette ASSE Chapter. He is interested in history and human interaction, as well as, diversity issues. Jamal has been involved at the City of Portland's affirmative action committee and has helped with monthly celebration of cultures. Garlapati Ashok was born in the State of Andhra Pradesh, India. His studies and work in different States of India exposed him to different languages and cultures of India. He moved to the State of Kuwait in the year 2000 to work with the Kuwait Oil Company.
A brief history of the pipeline leaks The Republic of Yemen experienced a civil war almost 10 years ago resulting in unifying north and south Yemen. However, even today, animosities among the various tribal factions continue. There are deep, negative, tribal feelings and attitudes toward the new unified government. After reunification, the Bedouins were never awarded their share, as they believe, of the hydrocarbon wealth being removed from their country. The Bedouins are nomads in the desert of Yemen, which have survived through the ages by extorting a livelihood from people that cross the desert. This has been going on from the time of Christ and the Queen of Sheeba (Sheba), when trade routes took caravans through these hostile areas. It is still being done today. Legend has it that the biblical Queen of Sheba reigned from the ancient city of Marib, near Hunt's 1984 discovery. In Arabic legend, the Queen of Sheba visited Solomon in Jerusalem in the 10 century BC after hearing of his wisdom. The word "Sheba" is the Hebrew spelling of "Saba." The Sabean civilization, at its height from the 9 to the 5 century BC, was situated in present-day Yemen and Ethiopia. Evidence of the Sabeans can be seen today at the Marib dam. In 572 AD, Sheba became a Persian province. Eventually, with the rise of Muhammad, the area came under Islamic control and lost its distinct identity. Sana'a is the capital of Yemen and is one of the oldest cities in the world. It was established 3000 BC by Sam (Shem in Hebrew), the son of Noah, after the great flood. A firm wall from all sides surrounds the "old city". All these factors contribute to a national attitude that striking out against the power in Yemen is the primary method for self-expression. Also, it can be used as a way to extract some of the riches of the oil and gas revenues. Sabotage, kidnappings, tribal killings are all a way of life in the present day Republic of Yemen. Hunt Oil Company operates a 300 plus mile pipeline from Marib in the desert to a storage vessel anchored on the Red Sea at Ras Isa. The storage vessel is called the FSO (Floating Storage Offloading) Safer Tanker. It is referred to as the Safer because the field from which the crude oil is produced is named the Safer field. It is a twenty-five year old Exxon tanker that was refurbished to be a storage facility. At the peak of its career, it was considered the largest tanker in the Exxon fleet. It is the length of two football fields. It is still captained by part of the original Italian crew. In 1998, the tanker became ISO 9000 Certified. Senior staff members were trained to perform ISO and ABS audits. All the YHOC senior safety staff was also trained to participate in the audits.
This slip rate is.5-1 cm/yr. Jerusalem was damaged and destroyed. In 31 BC, a major earthquake and the possibility that Sodom and destroyed Qumran where the Dead Sea Gomorrah were destroyed by an earthquake. According to the Jewish historiar Josephus;...there was INTRODUCTION Uzziah about 760 BC:...and the mount of origin and magnitudes. And ye shall flee...like as ye epicenters cluster along a fault which CONCLUSION description of how the flow in the Jordan River was cut off;...and as they that Gomorrah were destroyed by an earthquake.
The paper describes the geological and geotechnical investigations and engineering design and execution for the construction of an LPG underground storage in an impermeabilized rock cavern in silicified chalk above the watertable. It explains the ecological, technical, economical and safety reasons which are the basis for this novel approach for hydrocarbon underground operational storage. INTRODUCTION A small operational storage in the vicinity of a suitable pipe network is under construction to supply the Jerusalem district and surrounding areas with LPG. Techno-economical, safety, security and ecological reasons made a novel approach for this task necessary. Terms of reference were to find a site for the excavation of cavern in suitable geological and hydrological conditions for the storage of 7,500 tons of LPG. The investigation of rock formations and hydrological conditions of Mesilat Zion area was made to find a suitable location for the excavation of a cavern in suitable rock. The area of study is located at the foothills of the Judean Mountains, 20 km west of Jerusalem, between two highways leading from Tel Aviv to the Capital. (Fig. 1). The landscape is built of rounded, nari encrusted, chalky hills of about 300–380 m height, covered with planted woods. Many dirt roads cross the area and accessibility is very good. Westwards, the hills become lower and gradually disappear into the Coastal Plain. Eastwards, there is a steepening of the slope into a prominent escarpment, building the west flank of the Judean Mountains. The area of study is part of Hashephela, which means in Hebrew, low land. DESCRIPTION OF REQUIREMENTS The rock formation required should have the following features: Thickness of Layer Thickness of relevant layer should be about 60 m, including a cover of 50 m over the hanging wall. Rock Strength The rock formation should be in the range of at least 100 kg/cm unconfined compressive strength, in order to achieve an economically viable profile without support. The rock quality should be suitable for mechanical mining without blasting. Hydrological Conditions The cavern should be located above any existing aquifers and above any clay layers with excessive swell factors. General Geological Setting The area of study is located in the centre of Hashephela Syncline flanked to the east by the prominent Judean Anticline and to the west by the Kefar Uriyya undulation (Fig. 2). The strata in the area are horizontal to subhorizontal (3°- 4°). Upper Cretaceous rock (Cenomanian, Turonian, Senonian and Maastrichtian) crop out at both highs, east and west of the area, whereas Tertiary rocks (Paleocene and Eocene) comprise the selected site. The upper Cretaceous rocks are of no direct interest for building the storage, nevertheless, they are of interest while discussing water levels, aquifers and the question of preventing active aquifer pollution. The area is considered to be stable tectonically and seismically, only few faults are observed in the margins of the area (2–3 km southwards).