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Chevron has shut down the Tamar natural gas platform off the Israeli coast at the instruction of the country's energy ministry, the company said on 12 May, following the wave of unrest in the region. The Israeli energy ministry said all of Israel's energy needs will continue to be met despite the shutting down of Tamar, the main source of natural gas for the local market. "In accordance with instructions received from the Ministry of Energy, we have shut in and depressurized the Tamar Platform," Chevron said in a statement. The Tamar platform is located some 25 km off the city of Ashdod along Israel's southern Mediterranean coast. Israel carried out hundreds of air strikes in Gaza on 12 May, and Palestinian militants fired multiple rocket barrages at Tel Aviv and the southern city of Beersheba in the region's most intense hostilities in years.
Sloan, Steven D. (XRI Geophysics) | Peterie, Shelby L. (Kansas Geological Survey) | Miller, Richard D. (Kansas Geological Survey) | Snow, Thomas L. (U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center) | McKenna, Jason R. (U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center) | Metheny, Owen M. (XRI Geophysics)
Depths range from approximately 1 m beneath the surface and reinforced with concrete slabs to 350 m deep. Near-surface seismic data were collected at multiple sites in These tunnels are blasted through granite using explosives, Afghanistan to detect and locate subsurface anomalies, running well into the 4-km wide DMZ and south of the including clandestine tunnels. Examples shown here demarcation line. Another example includes a tunnel include data collected over the escape tunnel discovered at reported in 2006 that was dug from Gaza into Israel which the Sarposa prison in Kandahar, Afghanistan, that allowed was used to attack an Israeli military position and kidnap a over 480 prisoners to escape (data were collected postdiscovery), soldier who was subsequently held hostage for over 5 data from another shallow tunnel recently years.
In late December 2010, Noble Energy confirmed one of the world’s largest gas finds of the decade—the 16-Tcf (450-Bcm) Leviathan field—located in approximately 5,400 ft of water approximately 80 miles offshore Haifa, Israel. The find is 29 miles southwest of the Tamar field, which is approximately 56 miles offshore west of Haifa and which yielded the world’s largest gas discovery in 2009: an estimated 8.4 Tcf. (See Fig. 1.) Noble Energy (39.66%) operates Leviathan, with Delek Drilling and Avner Oil Exploration (22.67% each) and Ratio Oil Exploration (15%). Noble also operates Tamar and Dalit, with 36% working interests. Supported by 3D seismic acquisitions in 2009 and 2010, Noble has identified a number of additional prospects and leads on its significant acreage position offshore Israel and Cyprus. Israel now faces the unprecedented prospect of at least partial energy independence—that afforded by the domestic presence of natural gas offshore in the subsalt and Plio-Pleistocene reservoirs of the Levant basin province. The Gas Bonanza: Sudden or Gradual? While news of the gas bonanza appears dramatic, the shift in Israel’s energy stance represents the continuation of a trend building since the discovery offshore Ashqelon in 1999 of the Noa gas field and the Mari-B area in 2000. The impact of this trend started to be felt early 2004 when Mari-B—Israel’s first offshore natural gas production facility—began supplying significant quantities of natural gas to the country’s domestic market. According to online Israeli state records, Israel has produced gas since 1958. However, the largest annual amount—5.2 Bcf in 1969—represents only 12.4% of 2004’s 42.1 Bcf. And between 2004 and 2008, the entire production of 401 Bcf was 5.5 times greater than all the gas produced in Israel between 1958 and 2003. By 2009, more than half the natural gas consumed in the country was pro-vided by Israel’s Yam Tethys consortium, with the remainder supplied by Egypt-based East Mediterranean Gas Company (EMG). The Levant Basin Province A report issued by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in March 2010 assessed the undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Levant basin province (Fig. 2) in the eastern Mediterranean. The area, encompassing approximately 32,000 sq miles, covers onshore and offshore territory including the Gaza Strip, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and Cyprus. The USGS estimates the area holds a mean of 1.7 billion bbl of recoverable oil and a mean of 122 Tcf of recoverable gas. The assessment relies heavily on work done in the prior decade by Michael A. Gardosh of the Geophysical Institute of Israel, and Yehezkel Druckman and Binyamin Buchbinder of the Geological Survey of Israel.
Summary The first 3D seismic data in the deep water offshore Cyprus and Lebanon have been acquired, processed and interpreted. Despite the lack of exploration well data a] consistent chronostratigraphic framework has been built across Cyprus and Lebanon and implications for prospectivity assessed. Several petroleum systems were identified, and potential prospect types include four-way dip closure structures and stratigraphic traps. Direct hydrocarbon indicators including amplitude and frequency anomalies are associated with many of the identified prospects. Amplitude maps have been extracted on offset stacks, and a good correlation between amplitude anomalies and the closures was found. The recent 3D seismic is considered to reduce the exploration risk in this unexplored frontier area. Introduction The offshore areas of Cyprus and Lebanon in the eastern Mediterranean Sea are currently unexplored with respect to hydrocarbon resources. The first 3D seismic surveys were acquired to obtain an improved understanding of the geological structures and the petroleum potential in these frontier deep water areas. The regional tectonostratigraphic framework of the area is influenced by the relative movements of three adjacent continental tectonic plates; the African plate to the south, the Arabian plate to the east and the Anatolian sub-plate to the north. The Levantine Basin, containing up to 10km of Mesozoic- Cenozoic sediments is situated on the north-east edge of the African plate. The basin is bounded to the north by theLatakia Ridge (LR), part of the Cyprus deformation zone (Hall et al.2005), to the west by the Eratosthenes Seamount (ES) and to the south by the Nile Delta Cone (NDC) (Figure 1). Two areas considered highly prospective were selected for acquisition of the 3D seismic data. The surveys were acquired late 2006/early 2007 and cover approximately 1550km² (Phase 1 to the south) and 1350km² (Phase 2 to the north) (Figure 1). Phase 1 covers the central part of the Levantine Basin. Phase 2 covers the northern part of the basin, the Latakia Ridge, and several other large Syrian and Cyprus-Arc deformation folds. The pre-stack time migrated 3D seismic data sets have a high signal to noise ratio and a very high reflectivity at both shallow and deeper levels. Although no exploration wells have yet been drilled offshore Cyprus and Lebanon, valuable information can be extracted from some excellent geological exposures and data from seven Lebanese onshore exploration wells (Walley, 1998). Analogues can also be drawn from the proven hydrocarbon producing provinces of the Nile Delta, North Sinai, Gaza and Israel. ES Seismic interpretation and hydrocarbon plays Nine key regional horizons have been interpreted to evaluate the prospectivity of the area. By tying the key reflectors from Cyprus in the west to Lebanon in the east a consistent chronostratigraphy was established. The following horizons were interpreted; Seabed, Intra Pliocene, Base Pliocene, Base Messinian Evaporite, Upper Miocene, Mid Miocene, Base Miocene, Eocene Unconformity and Senonian Unconformity (Figure 2). The area contains a number of potential hydrocarbon plays and a variety of structural and stratigraphic trapping styles exist.
Abstract In November 2006, a geophysical and geotechnical survey was performed in the Eastern Mediterranean as part of the FEED for the proposed GAZA Marine Subsea Development. A number of deepwater landslides and possible fault hazards were detected. This paper describes the findings of the survey, the possible impact on the development, the detailed assessment of the various features, and the strategy for achieving a stable route for the subsea pipeline. Seabed and sub-bottom data are interpreted for the region, identifying the age and origins of the apparent geohazards. The integration of the high-resolution geophysical survey with 3D exploration seismic is a key aspect to successful geohazard assessment. State-of-the-art techniques are described for visualization of seabed topography and pipeline routing. Seabed faulting in the area is found to be largely due to salt tectonics; the structures are not deep rooted and are not considered seismogenic. Movements on the faults are expected to be slow creep that would not affect the pipeline. Large slope failure features are also present in the field and have infrequently, but persistently formed over the last 5 million years. Adequate setback distances from the scarps were used to limit the hazard. Fast analysis of the survey data enabled an alternative pipeline corridor to be identified before the survey vessel was demobilised, enabling further data gathering to confirm the selection. This route was 15km shorter than the route around the apparent geohazards, and the saving on pipeline and umbilical costs was considerable. Introduction In 2006 INTEC (UK) executed the FEED study for the GAZA Marine subsea development in the Eastern Mediterranean. The development was included 4 subsea wells in approximately 650m water depth, manifolded to a single 16?? export pipeline to shore. The location of the onshore processing facility was not defined, with export options to Israel and to Egypt. The route described in this paper relates primarily to an option to land the export pipeline in Ashquelon in Israel. At the time of writing, this development is on hold, with no clear definition of the export route. No commercial or political inference should be taken from the contents of this paper.
Abstract Synergism is demonstrated among several bicomponent water soluble polymer systems used to thicken water for improved oil recovery. Extensive screening experiments indicate viscosity and screen factor synergisms are unpredictable from chemical nature and structure of the polymers. In some cases screen factor synergism carries over to improved oil recovery in Berea core floods under Maraflood TM process conditions. Several synergistic polymer systems offer potentials for economic savings and potentials for economic savings and operational flexibility together with improved oil recoveries under both secondary and tertiary flooding conditions. Introduction Our attention is largely directed toward tertiary recovery systems using the Maraflood process. This paper summarizes our laboratory investigations and results with bicomponent water-soluble high molecular weight polymer mixtures for improved oil recovery under enhanced recovery conditions. A review of the literature suggested the potential of significant synergism in viscosity. We were impressed by the disparity between the viscosity and screen factor measurements in some systems and decided to give more weight to the latter measurement. We found that screen factor measurement is a useful screening tool that has led us to a number of synergistic systems which give improved oil recovery under laboratory conditions. Studies of many systems indicated that screen factor synergism in bicomponent polymer systems is very rare, unpredictable and not directly correlated with the chemical nature and structure of the polymers under investigation. EXPERIMENTAL REAGENTS. Materials investigated are summarized in Table 1. Viscosities and screen factors were determined in deionized water and a soft water formulation (Palestine water).