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ABSTRACT Engineering and construction of geotechnical structures in northern regions of the Far East and Yakutia are always connected with high risks. It is especially true about linear transport projects that require greater level of reliability and are considered of high criticality rating. Reinforced ground structures are constructed and projected in mountainous tight working space near the Vostochnaya Khandyga river bed during reconstruction of a motor road from Yakutsk to Magadan. Reinforcing geogrids are made of high-density polyethylene according to the international requirements; they are protected from corrosion environment and their specific rates are stable and high. Numeric modeling of the automobile road structures behavior allowed to detail with high precision the theoretical calculations and basic project parameters of the structures. Professional use of properties of high-tech and high quality geomaterials ensures effective construction of projects in remote regions with cold climate. It helps minimize geological risks, provides quality of design and construction works as well as safety of structures.
Abstract The naphthides are considred as promising sources of extraction of various metals: V, Mo, U, etc. The idea emphasized in this paper is completing this list with the gold. The authors had a chance to study this problem when making a geological map and searching for the gold ores and placers for the Yagodnoye Geological Survey Department, in the Magadan region, North-Eeast Siberia. Here, high absorption abilities of petroleum with respect to gold was used in laboratory analyses. Later on, the research was continued at a natural object: the Talin Oil Field in the Middle Ob area, West Siberia. Here, the rocks of the oil collector are represented by the alluvial quartz sands and the gravelites of the Sherkalin horizon (J1) of the Tyumen set (J1+2). Accumulation material of the horizon oil deposits is the upper paleosoic rocks of the Ural-Siberian folded region. In the other similar deposits, significant industrial ore bodies and placers of gold are known. Hence, it was natural to assume a gold presence in the ancient alluvium of the Sherkalin horizon due to a buried gold placer. The testing verified these assumptions. In all three samples taken from this oil field, the atomic-absorptional method showed concentrations of gold much higher than 1 g/t. This is quite comparable to the average industrial gold concentrations, which are 4 to 10 g/t for ore mines, and 0.2 to 1 g/t for placers. Introduction Following a tradition, petroleum is used as a power source. However, it was in the end of the XIX century that in the ash of petroleum it was found a presence of small concentrations of metals, e.g., V and Ni (0.02 to 0.04%). By now, the number of such metals, commonly called as "micro-elements", is no less than 50. In today realities of frustration of the natural mineral deposits, petroleum can be considered as a non-traditional source of various metals. Analysis of the published materials reveals that all the deposits of petroleum and bitumens are enriched with V, Ni, Re, Mo, Se, U, Sb, As, AU, Cd, Zn, Ag. The concentrations of the latter in ten and more times exceed their clarkes and reach the levels of industrial ore concentrations. Their concentration coefficients, i.e., the ratios of the element concentration in naftides to its clarke in the earth core, sometimes reach the following levels: 75-1000 (Re), 2.5-9.1 (Mo), 1.5-20 (Sb), 2-12 (Cd), 2-10 (As), 12-200 (Au). In the USA, Canada and Venesuela, V, Ni, and U are industrially produced from heavy oils and bitumens. The estimations2 show that only in the bitumen deposits of the Canadian asphalt belt (Atabaska, Ins-River, etc.), the reserves of V are around 36 millon tones, and of Ni it is around 17 million tones. Here, we recall that the overall prognostic estimation of the global reserves of V (without the Former Soviet Union) are around 56 million tones. According to the data of the Russian researchers, the reserves of V in the petroleum of only two deposits of the Timano-Pechora petroleum-gas province (PGP): the Usinskoye and the Yarechegskoye, are considerably greater than the ore deposits of this area that are already exploited. Calculations show that extracting the metals from only 10% of all petroleum produced in Russia could cover major national needs in such metals as V, Ni, Re, Ga, Ge, Hg, Zn, and others. The study of presence of metals in naphthides has enabled one to consider various types of petroleum-metallogenic provinces (PMP) (Table 1). Theory and Background The study of micro-elements in the naphthides enables one to solve a number of problems (Fig. 1). For us, the major interest is making an industrial reserve estimation. Here, we shall discuss it in details relatively to the gold-extraction prospectives of a concrete natural object. In fact, the absorptional abilities of petroleum with respect to gold have already been used in the preparation of ore samples for an atomic-absorptional analysis. This was the point that gave the authors an idea of a possible existence of such an absorption in the nature, in the case of a lasting contact of petroleum with the rocks enriched with the gold.
Keinonen, Arno (AKAC INC) | Wells, Hal (Sakhalin Energy Investment Company) | Dunderdale, Peter (P.E. Dunderdale and Associates Inc.) | Pilkington, Roger (Canatec Consultants Ltd.) | Miller, Gordon (Coflexip Stena Offshore) | Brovin, Alexander (Calgary)
Abstract First ever in the World, dynamic positioning operations in ice were performed in the offshore Sakhalin, May - June 1999. The dynamic positioning operation in ice, in support of compression diving, was performed by CSO Constructor, a type B ice class vessel. The operation was supported by two icebreakers; Smit Sakhalin and Magadan. The ice operation was managed by an ice management team, which developed for this operation specific ice management techniques based on offshore ice operational experiences in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. The operation lasted six weeks in the presence of widely varying ice conditions, including, in several occasions ten tenths of ice cover and ice pressure. Basic level ice thickness varied in the range of 0.7 – 1.5 meters. The total ice down time was 22 %. During the worst ice conditions, around mid May, considerably higher percentage ice down was experienced. The operation was performed safely, on schedule. These operations, preparations for them, equipment used, ice and environmental conditions, operational procedures followed as well as the operational success are presented in this paper. Introduction As part of development of oil production by Sakhalin Energy Investment Company, for the Piltun Astokshkoye field, a construction operation was performed May 9 - June 20, 1999. The construction was required to enable fast oil production from this field in the beginning of July, 1999. The construction was mostly underwater, containing completion of pipeline, raising and completing installation of a SALM buoy, various repairs as well as testing the oil pipeline and tanker loading components of the system. The work was performed by divers, from a dynamically positioned (DP) vessel m 30 meters of water. Figure 1 shows location site map, offshore North East Coast of Sakhalm Island, app. 53° 20' North and app. 134° East.
Abstract Development of mineral resources in the Arctic is fraught with destructive environmental effects of currently used technologies. Therefore a protest arises with the public against deposit mining. Presently in use reclamation methods Presently in use reclamation methods are expensive cant provide complete restoration of initial landscape and reduce to a great extent numerous favourable effects of a technogenic landscape. Ecological problems of the Arctic might be successfully solved by designing technogenic landscapes before starting mining operations provided they are most fully adapted to environment. Maximum favourable result from technology adaptation might be reached in case of international cooperation of experience in mining and protecting mineral resources in the Arctic. Introduction Development of mineral resources in the Arctic, namely placer deposits, results in disturbed relief of vast territories, destroyed soils and vegetation, polluted surface waters. Such territories in the Magadan Region and Yakut (USSR) take more than 200 000 ha, more than 500 gold placer deposits are mined in Alaska (U.S.A.), similar situation is also characteristic of Yukon Province (Canada). Taking into account that the genesis of placer deposits is specific for river valley bottoms their mining lead to disturbance of most fertile and valuable natural landscapes of the Arctic. By present considerable practical-and-scientific experience practical-and-scientific experience in reclamation of disturbed lands in the Arctic has been gained. However critical analysis of the methods used shows that they are mainly based on conventional experience of southern regions and boil down to efforts of complete or partial restoration of natural landscape taking into consideration neither peculiar structure nor properties peculiar structure nor properties disturbed arctic territories. Such trivial approach to a solution of the problem results in doubtful economic and ecological consequences and doesn't contribute to searches for mutual benefits in mining industry and environment. Long - term complex studies of environment disturbances and its reclamation having been conducted in the North-East of the USSR using advanced foreign scientific-and-practical experience have confirmed the necessity of changing the principles of placer deposit mining and disturbed lands reclamation. P. 679