|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Kornishin, Konstantin A. (Arctic Research Centre) | Efimov, Yaroslav O. (Arctic Research Centre) | Tarasov, Petr A. (Arctic Research Centre) | Kovalev, Sergey M. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), St. Petersburg) | Bekker, Alexander T. (Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok) | Polomoshnov, Alexander M. (Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok)
Abstract The article investigates dependences of level ice strength properties in the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas on ice structure and physical parameters (primarily the ice temperature). Research was based on an array of experimental data on the level ice properties studied during expeditions in the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas in 2013–2017 and work on a research site in the Khatanga Bay of the Laptev Sea in 2016–2019. Analysis of various ice strength characteristics showed similarity of ice in the Russian Arctic seas and the Sea of Okhotsk. The differences in the ice strength properties at different loading rates were determined, and the variation coefficients of ice strength parameters were estimated. Dependences on ice temperature were obtained for all ice strength characteristics and show a good approximation that can be described by a linear law. Introduction Information on level ice strength properties is essential for the assessment of ice loads on vessels’ hulls and offshore facilities. It can be obtained either during large-scale field studies across the seas or at a special ice research site. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages (Timco and Weeks, 2010). Expeditionary surveys accumulate significant statistics on ice properties but are time limited to one or two months (mostly by economic factors). At a research site, it is possible to study ice for seven or eight months but in one geographical location; only one type of ice can be studied. For a high-quality numerical assessment of the level ice strength properties under various environmental conditions, a combination of both of these methods is required. At the same time, there is an important scientific problem: achieving a trustful correlation between expeditionary results obtained with icebreaker and site results. In 2013–2015 and 2017, we carried out expeditionary ice studies in the Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian Seas (Pavlov et al., 2016; Smirnov, Kovalev, Chernov, et al., 2019; Smirnov, Kovalev, Znamensky, et al., 2019). During 2016–2019, ice studies were conducted at these research sites: “Khastyr” (Khatanga Bay of the Laptev Sea), “Baranova Cape” (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago along the Kara Sea), and “Nogliki” (Sakhalin Island in the Sea of Okhotsk). Locations of ice stations studied for a duration of one or two days each and research sites of continuous ice study are shown in Fig. 1. Detailed descriptions of these works can be found in Kovalev et al. (2019), Buzin et al. (2019), Bekker et al. (2020), and Guzenko et al. (2020). This paper focuses on the study of combined data and on the development of adequate correlations for arctic ice. The main goal of the work is to determine the sea ice strength as a function of its temperature and salinity.
Exxon Mobil Corp. has declared force majeure on its Sakhalin-1 operations offshore Sakhalin Island in the Russian Far East, attributing its decision to a disruption in crude oil shipments and a subsequent slowdown in production following the West's imposition of sanctions against Russia over the ongoing conflict in Ukraine. Exxon subsidiary Exxon Neftegaz Ltd. (ENL) operates Sakhalin-1 under a production-sharing agreement (PSA) in which it holds a 30% stake in partnership with the Japanese Consortium, Sakhalin Oil and Gas Development (SODECO), which holds another 30%; India's ONGC Videsh Ltd. with 20%; and a further 20% held by Russia's state-owned Rosneft. In its Q1 earnings call on 29 April, ExxonMobil announced that it had recorded a $3.4 billion charge related to its Sakhalin-1 investment, reflected as an unfavorable identified item which "mainly impacts the upstream segment." The company estimated its Q1 earnings at $5.5 billion ($1.28 per share assuming dilution) and reported that the $3.4 billion charge related to its planned exit from Sakhalin represented $0.79 per share assuming dilution. Exxon's chairman and CEO Darren Woods told investment analysts participating in the analysts call that Sakhalin-1 operations represented "less than 2% of our total production" in 2021, "about 65,000 oil equivalent barrels per day, and about 1% of our corporate operating earnings."
The governor of Russia's Far East region of Khabarovsk said that ExxonMobil has suspended its long-anticipated Russian Far East LNG (RFE LNG) project to deliver pipeline gas produced offshore Sakhalin Island to a proposed processing facility for LNG exports from the port of De-Kastri on the Russian mainland. In an interview on the regional radio station Komsomolskaya Pravda, Khabarovsk governor Mikhail Degtyarev said that RFE LNG had "been frozen" pending any "further decision by them" ("them" being ExxonMobil), Russia's Interfax news service reported on 4 April. "This is shooting oneself in the foot," Degtyarev told radio listeners whose region had stood to benefit from the economic development that would have flowed from the project. On 1 March, ExxonMobil had issued a statement reacting to Russia's military incursion into Ukraine, stating that its Russian subsidiary Exxon Neftegaz Limited (ENL) would exit its 30% equity stake and role as operator of the Sakhalin-1 offshore oil and gas production project after more than 2 decades and that it would not be investing in any "new developments in Russia." ExxonMobil's next investment would have been RFE LNG, a key component of Russia's state-controlled oil major Rosneft's strategy to realize its ambition of competing head-on with rival Gazprom which began delivering LNG from its Prigorodnoye plant on the southern tip of Sakhalin Island to Far East markets in 2009.
Russia's Gazprom Neft and Rusatom Overseas (RAOS) have agreed to cooperate on joint projects in hydrogen energy and various other initiatives to reduce carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. RAOS plans to incorporate Gazprom Neft technologies in closed-cycle CO2 capture and injection at depths of several kilometers at a plant it will build on Sakhalin Island to produce between 30,000 and 100,000 tons of hydrogen per year from natural gas, the companies announced in separate news releases. The partners will also examine prospects of recycling CO2 emitted during hydrogen production, according to an agreement signed at the St. Petersburg International Gas Forum in October. A subsidiary of Rosatom Group, RAOS is charged with promoting integrated nuclear power plant construction projects and nuclear science and technology centers on the international market, as well as for opening new business markets for Rosatom--such as hydrogen energy and energy storage. As Russia's No. 1 electricity generator, Rosatom supplies 20.28% of the country's power and is first in the world in terms of the number of nuclear reactors it is currently constructing (three new units in Russia and 35 new reactors outside of Russia); it also controls 17% of the global nuclear fuel market, owns the world's only fleet of nuclear icebreakers, and is involved in wind energy.
Marketz, Franz (Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd.) | Brown, David (Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd.) | Alyabiev, Roman (Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd.) | Khudorozhkov, Pavel (AKROS LLC.) | Sychov, Oleg (AKROS LLC.)
Abstract The cuttings re-injection (CRI) well in the Astokh area of Piltun-Astokhskoye field offshore Sakhalin Russia is one of the longest operating drilling waste disposal wells in the oil and gas industry worldwide. The Astokh area has been developed as a waterflood and is operated by Sakhalin Energy, a joint venture between Gazprom, Shell, Mitsui, and Mitsubishi. The Astokh CRI well has been utilized for waste injection for over 16 years. About 300,000 m3 of waste has been disposed into the main injection zone of the CRI well. Monitoring and modelling the CRI process to understand the evolution of the disposal domain is paramount for safeguarding further disposal operations. The disposal domain can be described as a complex system of multiple hydraulic and natural fractures due to injection under fracturing conditions. CRI domain evaluation includes analysis of historical injection pressures to identify the reasons of continuous injection pressure increase with increasing cumulative waste volumes disposed, to confirm domain containment, and to predict remaining domain capacity. Transient pressure analysis has revealed that the fracture closure pressure, driven by pore pressure increase and the accumulation of injected solid-phase waste, is the key parameter affecting injection pressures. Injection intensity, periods of shut-in, large overflushes, and solids-free liquids injections with corresponding solids and stresses redistribution are the other factors that affecting the pressure trends. CRI domain mapping was carried out with history-matched time-lapse 3D hydraulic fracture models. Injection pressure history matching results reveal the fracture geometry evolution during well life. The distribution of the injected liquid phase in the sand layers was modeled with a 3D dynamic reservoir sector model, matched with injection pressures and with formation pressure data in two offset wells, located at a distance of 1 and 2 kilometers, respectively. A matched model was then used to assure fracture containment for future waste disposal and to estimate remaining domain capacity. High-precision temperature and spectral noise logs were acquired in seawater injection and shut-in modes. The log-derived fracture height confirmed the domain size predicted by the matched model. 4D seismic data processing revealed that dimensions of Geomechanically Altered Rock Volume (GARV) were also in the same range as predicted by the model p. The integration of CRI domain evaluation with matched 3D hydraulic fracture models, well logs and 4D seismic demonstrated that injection pressure data collected during every injection cycle may be sufficient to characterize disposal domain evolution and to estimate domain capacity.
Russia's market influence as an exporter of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is growing, possessing the world's largest reserves of natural gas and the logistical options to deliver it at competitive prices to Asia and Europe along the now-navigable Northern Sea Route (NSR). The country became a player in the LNG market when it shipped its first cargo in 2009 to Japan from what was then Russia's first offshore gas project, Sakhalin-2 in the Far East, operated by Sakhalin Energy Investment Company Ltd. and owned by Russia's pipeline gas monopoly Gazprom (50% plus one share), Shell (27.5% minus one share), and Japan's Mitsui (12.5%) and Mitsubishi (10%). Sakhalin Energy operates three oil and gas platforms producing its current resource base from the Piltun-Astokhskoye oil field and the Lunskoye gas field off the northeastern coast of Sakhalin. To date, Sakhalin Energy has sold all the LNG produced at its 11.49-mtpa-capacity Prigorodnoye LNG production complex on the southern tip of Sakhalin Island, under long-term contracts to buyers in the Asia Pacific and North America, according to Shell's website. In 2024–2026, the partners say they will add a third train to expand capacity by 5.4 mtpa, though they have repeatedly delayed this expansion for years due to a lack of investment capital to develop a new resource base and low gas prices in Asia.
Though expensive and complex, extended-reach drilling (ERD) is moving more into the mainstream as the industry is driven to develop frontier reserves in fragile environments like the Arctic where drilling from shore to offshore targets reduces a project's infrastructure costs and environmental footprint. A form of directional drilling, ERD is also being used increasingly to tap into hard-to-produce reservoirs, making viable projects that might otherwise be written off as noncommercial. This article highlights how the Russian Far East became the ERD epicenter in the past decade, given ExxonMobil and Rosneft's extensive use of ERD in developing Arctic resources offshore Sakhalin Island, and how ERD is becoming more widely used in regions as diverse as the Gulf of Thailand, offshore Brazil, and the Arab Gulf. By definition, an extended-reach well (ERW) is one in which the ratio of the measured depth (MD) vs. the true vertical depth (TVD) is at least 2:1 (PetroWiki). An ERW differs from a horizontal well in that the ERW is a high-angle directional well drilled to intersect a target point, a feat requiring specialized planning to execute well construction.
Kornishin, Konstantin ?. (Rosneft Oil Company) | Efimov, Yaroslav O. (Arctic Research Centre) | Tarasov, Petr A. (Arctic Research Centre) | Kovalev, Sergey M. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI)) | Bekker, Alexander T. (Far Eastern Federal University) | Polomoshnov, Alexander M. (Far Eastern Federal University)
Abstract The article investigates dependences of flat ice strength properties in the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas on ice structure and physical parameters (first of all, on the ice temperature). Research was based on the array of experimental data on the flat ice properties studied during 2013-2017 expeditions in the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas and 2016-2019 work on the research site in the Khatanga bay of the Laptev sea. Analysis of various ice strength characteristics showed similarity of ice in the Russian Arctic seas and in the Pacific Ocean. The differences in the ice strength properties at different loading rates were determined, and the variation coefficients of ice strength parameters were estimated. Dependences on ice temperature were obtained for all ice strength characteristics, and show a good approximation that can be described by a linear law. Indenter and compressive strength correlations were reformed for various types of first-year ice. Regression equations were determined in order to estimate the bending strength of ice consoles; anomalous behavior of Young's modulus of ice was observed during tests of consoles. Results of the work can be used for calculating ice loads on offshore structures, as well as for assessing icebreaking capacity of vessels passing the Northern Sea Route. Introduction Information on flat ice strength properties is essential for assessment of ice loads on vessels hulls and offshore facilities. It can be obtained either during large-scale field studies across the seas or at a special ice research site. Each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages. Expeditionary surveys accumulate significant statistics on ice properties, but are time-limited to 1-2 months (mostly by economic factors). At research site it is possible to study ice for 7-8 months, but in one geographical location; only one type of ice can be studied. For a high-quality numerical assessment of the flat ice strength properties under various environmental conditions, a combination of both these methods is required. At the same time, there is an important scientific problem – to achieve a trustful correlation between expeditionary results obtained with icebreaker and site results. In 2013-2015 and 2017 authors carried out expeditionary ice studies in the Kara, Laptev and East Siberian seas. During 2016-2019 ice studies were conducted at the research sites "Khastyr" (Khatanga Bay of the Laptev sea), "Baranova Cape" (Severnaya Zemlya archipelago, Kara sea) and "Nogliki" (Sakhalin island, sea of Okhotsk). Locations of the studied ice stations (1-2 days each) and ice research sites of continuous ice study are shown in Figure 1. Detailed description of these works can be found in the articles (Kovalev et al., 2019) and (Bekker et al., 2020). This paper is focused on the study of combined data and on development of adequate correlations for the Arctic ice. The main goal of the work is to determine the sea ice strength as a function of its temperature and salinity.
Gorbachev, S. V. (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC) | Nikulnikov, A. Yu. (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC) | Kornev, A. S. (CGG Vostok LLC) | Nurmukhamedov, T. V. (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC) | Myasoedov, D. N. (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC) | Ulyanov, G. V. (RN-Shelf-Arctic LLC) | Samarkin, M. A. (Rosneft Oil Company)
In recent years, technologies of marine seismic data processing have made a huge leap due to rapid growth of computing power. Many algorithms for signal processing and depth imaging, which had no practical implementation before, now can be applied. Therefore, the question of their proper usage in the processing workflow and quality control of the results becomes as actual as never before. This paper shows an example of marine seismic data processing, acquired in different years offshore Sakhalin Island, which is characterized by complex geological conditions with the presence of near-surface gas in the upper layers of sedimentary rocks and variable acoustic characteristics of the water bottom. In the workflow various signal processing and imaging algorithms were used to improve the quality of data in order to increase the spatial and dynamic resolution for the prediction of reservoir characteristics. The ghost and multiple waves suppression, the results of the dynamic characteristics of different surveys matching are described in detail. Key results of velocity model building and prestack depth migration are also given. In conclusion, a comparison of the results of previous and new processing is given and allows to conclude that usage of modern technologies improved the dynamic characteristics and increased the resolution in the target intervals while preserving true signal characteristics. The processing approach implemented by Rosneft employees made it possible to significantly detail the geological structure of prospective deposits and identify new local prospecting targets.