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Almost every vessel, barge, or floating object, including mobile offshore drilling units (MODUs), must have classification and registration certificates of compliance to the rules and regulations, as dictated and published by the classification society and country of registration. Most insurance underwriters require classification for the vessel to qualify for marine insurance. If the vessel is not fully classified, underwriting insurance companies will not insure the property, leaving the owner and his financial institution "self-insured." The vessel owner may consider the risk of a financial loss resulting from self-insurance, but his bank will not. Most operators will also require a drilling contractor to have classification on the MODU to show the unit's condition and seaworthiness.
The growth and evolution of offshore drilling units have gone from an experiment in the 1940s and 1950s with high hopes but unknown outcome to the extremely sophisticated, high-end technology and highly capable units of the 1990s and 2000s. In less than 50 years, the industry progressed from drilling in a few feet of water depth with untested equipment and procedures to the capability of drilling in more than 10,000 ft of water depth with well-conceived and highly complex units. These advances are a testament to the industry and its technical capabilities driven by the vision and courage of its engineers, crews, and management. From an all-American start to its present worldwide, multinational involvement, anyone involved can be proud to be called a "driller." Since the beginning in the mid-1800s until today, the drilling business commercially has been very cyclic. It has been and still is truly a roller-coaster ride, with rigs being built at premium prices in good economic times and ...
Intelligent wells are downhole flow control devices, sensors, power and communication systems, and associated completion equipment. This equipment is used to optimize production, improve recovery, and manage well integrity. Developing an intelligent-completion solution requires the clear definition of well and/or project objectives. Initially flow control devices were based on conventional wireline-operated sliding-sleeve. These valves were reconfigured to be operated by hydraulic, electrical, and/or electrohydraulic control systems to provide on/off and variable position choking.
Managers and engineers alike are concerned about the bottom-line indexes net present value (NPV) and return on investment (ROI) and use these measures to aid in their decision-making, but they also worry about capital requirements and, in our business, reserves. Of course it is the uncertainty in these estimates that makes the "solution" of these problems and making a decision, based on the prediction, so interesting.
It is often used interchangeably, especially in the oil and gas industry, with the term "sustainable development," with the latter being the more accepted of the two. The concept has since expanded and become increasingly important to the oil and gas industry. Although sustainability seems to be a recent concern, it has been discussed and developed for many years. There have been many summits, meetings, and conferences that have focused on sustainability and sustainable development in both the broad sense and one that is more specific to certain industries (see Figure 1). The most recent conference took place in 2012, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, or Earth Summit 2012, whose objectives were (1) securing renewed political commitment for sustainable development, (2) assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting previous commitments, and (3) addressing new and emerging challenges. Discussions focused on two main themes: (1) How to build a green economy to achieve sustainable development and lift people out of poverty, including support for developing countries that will allow them to find a green path for development.
Tender Assist Drilling (TADs) units are drilling units constantly challenging the status quo in drilling. By being in a red ocean market, Tender Assisted had to always find its way to evolve to deliver cost efficient drilling and well intervention solution for the operators. They are focussing mainly on two areas of activity: factory drilling of marginal field and Deepwater Drilling, however due to its flexibility, tender assisted is being considered for various other application. Marginal oil and gas reservoir requires drilling efficiency and an optimisation of any associated costs. The drilling package are fit-for-purpose and optimized for rig move and skidding and are generally opperated by experienced crews who developed themselves on this type of unit.
Numerous continuous-length tubular service concept trials and inventions paved the way for the creation of present day coiled tubing (CT) technology. The following discussion outlines some of the inventions and major milestones that directly contributed to the evolution of the continuous-length tubular products used in modern CT services. The origins of continuous-length, steel-tubing technology can be traced to engineering and fabrication work pioneered by Allied engineering teams during the Second World War. Project 99, code named "PLUTO" (an acronym for Pipe Lines Under The Ocean), was a top-secret Allied invasion enterprise involving the deployment of pipelines from the coast of England to several points along the coast of France. The reported dimensions of the conundrums were 60 ft in width (flange-to-flange), a core diameter of 40 ft, and a flange diameter of 80 ft.
Pseudo-steady state (or pseudo steady-state), is also referred to as "stabilized," or as "steady state in a bounded drainage area." This type of reservoir flow occurs much more frequently than steady-state flow or unsteady-state flow with an expanding drainage radius. Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow occurs during the late time region when the outer boundaries of the reservoir are all no flow boundaries. This includes not only the case when the reservoir boundaries are sealing faults, but also when nearby producing wells cause no flow boundaries to arise. During the PSS flow regime, the reservoir behaves as a tank.