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Vincenzo De Gennaro has thirty years' experience in theoretical and applied geomechanics, including eighteen years' experience in O&G industry related projects. He graduated as Civil and Geomechanical Engineer in 1992 and has been consultant engineer, PhD fellow then lecturer and lastly associated professor (research director) in geomechanics at the Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées - ParisTech (Paris, France). He joined Schlumberger in 2009 as Geomechanics and Unconventional Gas Specialist. His activities encompass exploration, appraisal and production related projects, onshore and offshore drilling integrity studies, coupled reservoir geomechanics analysis (including compaction/subsidence studies), geomechanics for unconventional (completion quality evaluation and hydraulic fracturing modelling), sanding, underground gas storage (natural gas and anthropogenic CO2).
Mikkola, Jyrki (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd.) | Bellot, Alexandre (LMG Marin France) | Haxhiu, Arber (ABB) | Angrisani, Maria Luisa (Ballard Power Systems Europe) | Laravoire, Victor (Compagnie Fluviale de Transport) | Saeter, Hilde-Kristin (Norled) | Berg, Pavel (LMG Marin )
Ever-tightening regulations has caused shipping industry need to look for alternatives for conventional fuels. Hydrogen is seen as one of the key contributors in mitigation of emissions from shipping. The FLAGSHIPS project is an EU funded co-operative which aims to raise the readiness-level of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in shipping by deploying two hydrogen fuel cell powered vessels. One of the vessels is a self-propelled barge in Paris, France and the other one is passenger and car ferry in Stavanger, Norway. This paper presents the status of the project and discuss the key learnings in the project so far.
Wielemaker, Erik (Schlumberger) | Cavalleri, Chiara (Schlumberger) | Dahlhaus, Leon (Schlumberger) | Reynaldos, Alejandra (Schlumberger) | Sosio, Giovanni (Schlumberger) | Ungemach, Pierre (Geofluid) | Antics, Miklos (Geofluid) | Davaux, Melanie (Geofluid)
ABSTRACT Geothermal projects are rapidly developing in Continental Europe to provide an alternative energy source. These projects typically involve a doublet of a producer and injector well, which are typically vertical wells drilled with minimal measurement technology. We discuss how advanced wireline measurements guided the decision making for completion strategy in a sub-horizontal geothermal well in the suburbs of Paris, France, which at the time was a world premiere in geothermal well design. In addition, we will describe how these measurements aided understanding of the overall structural model. The project provided a 150% increase in geothermal productive/injective capacity vs. previous conventional approaches. The study was conducted in the Cachan project in the Paris Basin, which was developed to provide a city on the outskirts of Paris with geothermal heat. The project targets thin porous oolitic layers within a dolomite formation as an excellent geothermal target to produce from. The well was geosteered with Logging While Drilling (LWD) density images after which wireline Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and dipole sonic measurement tools were operationally efficiently conveyed on tractor throughout the long horizontal drain section. A multi-physics approach combining the density images, high resolution magnetic resonance poro-permeability data and oriented sonic measurements was applied to study the homogeneity of the layers along the well and determine the flow properties and possible compaction effects. NMR logs were primarily used to assess the porosity and permeability variations of the oolitic reservoirs with high resolution, highlighting the intervals with the highest fluid movability through the thin layers. NMR measurements were also applied to describe the pore system and assess the fluid movability through the thin layers. NMR carbonate porosity partitioning analysis was used to classify rock type with similar reservoir quality and assist with the definition of rock properties cutoffs for development strategy. In addition to typical applications for rock mechanics and petrophysics, the sonic data in combination with the azimuthal density helped explore any possible effect of the proximity of the adjacent layers within the thin oolitic section (in the order of 1 meter). By combining measurements from different spacings and taking the opportunity to analyze the non-standard individual azimuths from the sonic technology, a more detailed structural model was obtained after integration with the density image. This enabled understanding whether permeability variations are truly related to layer variations or a result of the measurements sensing properties of an adjacent layer and defining the heterogeneity of the oolites. Moreover, the lateral continuity of the layers and structures were captured by exploring the far field sonic reflectors imaged with a dipole sonic source. Multiple reflectors could be traced over hundreds of meters providing not only a good picture of the overall homogeneity but also how layers extended away from the wellbore. This enabled obtaining a detailed understanding of the structures along the horizontal well. Reflectors could be observed up to 40 m away from the wellbore.
TechnipFMCplc today announced its board of directors has unanimously approved its plan to separate into two independent, publicly traded companies: RemainCo, a fully-integrated technology and services provider, continuing to drive energy development; and SpinCo, an engineering and construction (E&C) player, poised to capitalize on the global energy transition. The separation would enhance both RemainCo's and SpinCo's focus on their respective strategies and provide improved flexibility and growth opportunities. The transaction is expected to be structured as a spin-off of TechnipFMC's onshore/offshore segment to be headquartered in Paris, France. The separation is expected to be completed in the first half of 2020, subject to customary conditions, consultations, and regulatory approvals, at which time all outstanding shares of SpinCo will be distributed to existing TechnipFMC shareholders. The 2017 merger of Technip SA and FMC Technologies Inc. established TechnipFMC as the only fully integrated subsea provider, the company said in a press release.
Occhiena, C. (Politecnico di Torino) | Pirulli, M. (Politecnico di Torino) | Scavia, C. (Politecnico di Torino) | Astolfi, A. (Politecnico di Torino) | Puglisi, G. E. (Politecnico di Torino) | Shtrepi, L. (Politecnico di Torino) | Nadim, C. E. (Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS)) | Bigarré, P. (Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS))
Abstract The presence of abandoned and unstable underground cavities can give rise to a potential risk of surface collapse, particularly alarming when the presence of buildings is attested on the surface. The INERIS (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France) has carried out many studies, in recent years, investigating the effectiveness of several methodologies to monitor the evolution of the damaging mechanisms. During 2012 the Brasserie quarry, an old limestone mine (Paris, France) was instrumented with microphones to detect the acoustic waves generated by the collapse of blocks from the roof and the walls of the cavity. A series of tests were carried out to determine the propagation characteristics. Preliminary data processing concerned the event classification and the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In the present paper, after the description of the case study, the preliminary results and the description of the upcoming works and expectation will be outlined. Introduction Many anthropogenic (mines, quarries, storage facilities, etc.) or natural (as karsts) underground cavities are responsible for surface instabilities, due to different mechanisms, depending on the cavity: global mechanisms as the subsidence or the collapse of the overburden, or more local mechanisms as sinkhole (Didier, 2008). In France, especially in the northern regions, the closure and abandonment of many mines, largely exploited in the XIX and XX centuries, has evidenced the necessity of the management of these phenomena: monitoring the evolution of the triggering mechanisms plays a major role in the risk reduction, which is especially important when the presence of stakes is attested on the surface (Nadim, 2009). Local phenomena as sinkholes cannot be easily monitored neither by the classical geotechnical or geophysical methods. Therefore, the INERIS (Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France) carried out several studies in recent years to identify the correct methodologies for the detection of the damaging processes that could lead to consequences at the surface. Recent studies evidenced that, among other possible methodologies, the acoustic monitoring can be adopted as a useful technique to detect and record rock falls and thus to monitor the evolution of sinkholes and/or localized collapses inside quiet cavities.
Gomez, Carmen T. (Stanford University, Currently Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Dvorkin, Jack (Stanford University, Currently Shell Exploration and Production Company) | Vanorio, Tiziana (Stanford University, Currently Shell Exploration and Production Company)
Summary The objective of this study was to experimentally revisit the relations among the resistivity, elastic-wave velocity, porosity, and permeability in Fontainebleau sandstone samples from the Ile de France region, around Paris, France. In our resistivity measurements, we partially saturated the samples with brine. We used Archie’s equation to estimate resistivity at 100% water saturation, assuming a saturation exponent of 2. Using self-consistent approximations (SC) modeling with grain aspect ratio 1, and pore aspect ratio between 0.02 and 0.10, the experimental data fall into this theoretical range. The SC curve with the pore aspect ratio 0.05 appears to be close to the values measured in the entire porosity range. We also measured elastic-wave velocity on these dry samples for confining pressure between 0 and 40 MPa. We used a loading and unloading cycle and did not find any significant hysteresis in the velocity-pressure behavior. For the velocity data, using the self-consistent model with a grain aspect ratio 1 and pore aspect ratios 0.2, 0.1, and 0.05 fit our data at 40 MPa, while pores aspect ratios ranging between 0.1, 0.05, and 0.02 are a better fit for the data at 0 MPa. Both velocity and resistivity in clean sandstones can be modeled using SC approximation. In addition, we found a linear fit between the P-wave velocity and the decimal logarithm of the normalized resistivity, with deviations that correlate with differences in permeability. Introduction Velocity and resistivity of rocks depend on porosity, texture, mineralogy, and pore fluid. Studies by Wyllie et al. (1956, 1958) showed that porosity is the primary factor affecting P- and S- wave velocities. Later studies (Nur and Simmons, 1969; Domenico, 1976; Mavko, 1980; Murphy, 1984) have refined our understanding of rock properties showing how pore type and pore fluid distribution (i.e., saturation heterogeneity) may contribute to variations in the P- and S- wave velocities. Pore geometry, in particular, affects pore stiffness which, in turn, influences the velocity sensitivity to pressure (Mavko, 1980; Mavko and Nur, 1978; O’Connell and Budiansky, 1974) as well as to saturation (Mavko and Mukerji, 1995). In this study, we measure porosity, resistivity and velocity in Fontainebleau sandstones. We examine the porosity and resistivity relation using effective medium models, such as differential effective medium (DEM) (Bruggeman, 1935; Berryman, 1995) and self consistent (SC) (Landauer, 1952; Berryman, 1995), and a semi-empirical model by Archie (1942). We follow a similar procedure for P- and S-wave velocities as a function of porosity, using effective medium models, including also DEM and SC, and semi-empirical models, including the stiff sand model (Gal et al., 1998), the Raymer-Hunt-Gardner relation (Raymer et al., 1980), and Wyllie’s time-average equation (Wyllie et al., 1958). Elastic and electrical methods can contribute in different ways to characterizing rock. We examine the relation between resistivity and velocity. Both properties in this study were not measured in the same pressure, temperature, and saturation conditions due to limitations in the laboratory setups; therefore, the derived cross-property relations must be used with caution.
Abstract On the Girassol project, an integrated project team was responsible for subsea well completions from conceptual design through to installation. This paper summarizes experiences to date with equipment delivery, installation and early operations including production start-up. Future developments and challenges are discussed with a focus on subsea aspects of well completions. Non-productinve time (NPT) results are presented and analyzed. Examples are given of specific successes and problems. Introduction A project life-cycle (Life of Field) approach was taken for Girassol subsea well completions. This approach required consistency and continuity through all project phases: equipment delivery, installation and operations. Trade-offs between these phases must be evaluated and managed. Subsea well completion equipment and services was supplied as part of a comprehensive lump-sum contract for the Girassol subsea production system (SPS). This SPS package consisted of subsea well equipment (including tooling packages), subsea manifolds, production control systems, workover control systems, and tree-to-manifold jumpers. Conceptual equipment design was the result of a design competition between four major subsea contractors. Following this design competition, the winning contractor was selected as supplier for the entire SPS package. Major adjacent, ie interfacing with SPS, contract packages proceeded in parallel with the SPS contract.Drilling rigs (RIG). Downhole well equipment (WELL). Umbilical and flowline (UFL). Floating, production, storage, and offloading (FPSO). This approach, parallel engineering and manufacture of all contractual packages, was a consequence of the "fast-track" development strategy adopted for Girassol. Total time from SPS contract award to installation of first subsea Xmas tree was 32 months. First oil production was achieved 13 months later. Actual delivery of first xmas tree was 12 months later than planned. This "fast-track" approach posed unique challenges for managing interfaces between contract packages. The geographical spread of project participants accentuated this challenge. The SPS team was based in Kongsberg, Norway, during equipment design and construction. Subsea well equipment was manufactured, assembled, and tested in Kongsberg and Dunfermline, Scotland. During this time, the drilling team, which was also managing the rig construction, was based initially in Paris, France, and later in Luanda, Angola. The rigs were being constructed in Korea and Brest, France. UFL and FPSO teams were based in Paris. Downhole equipment was manufactured in USA and UK. The physical location of the Girassol field presented special challenges for subsea well completions. The wellheads are installed in average water depths of 1,400 m, which imposed many design constraints and priorities. The remote location of Girassol, added to the fact that this was the first major subsea development offshore Angola, meant that support capabilities - onshore base, logistics, engineering, spare parts, machine repair, etc - were either distant or had to be established in Angola. Management of rig NPT during well completions was a critical project objective. This objective drove many strategies, starting from design and continuing through construction and installation.
Abstract AIDS (Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome) was first described almost 20 years ago. Transmission was found to be basically by blood, sex and eventually during pregnancy or breast feeding. Originally thought to be a disease which affected only drug users and homosexuals it has now become a predominantly heterosexual affection. AIDS will attain millions of individuals by the year 2000. With no known cure and no preventive vaccination, this disease has already reached epidemic proportions and will continue to wreak death and illness for many years to come, particularly in the poorer nations, where health campaigns and prevention are complicated by cultural and socioeconomic factors. A large oilfield service company working in a multitude of countries, with over 50,000 employees representing more than 80 nationalities is faced, just as all other employers, with the ever growing risk and consequences of the AIDS epidemic among its work force and their families. In this paper we have studied the attitudes with regards to this disease within our local and international staff population and detailed the measures taken by the company as well as its approach to this problem from a medical, legal, economic, and insurance point of view. Management has encouraged information campaigns, provided free condoms and disposable medical material, refused systematic testing of employees, refused discrimination of HIV+ people, and contracted Pasteur Institute in Paris to be a privileged partner in providing technical assistance and expertise. There is probably no ideal method for handling the AIDS problem, however, we feel that we have taken a broad stand which allows the employee to obtain preventive information, protects his confidentiality vis-a-vis management should he become HIV+, and provides an adapted work position based on his physical fitness in case of full blown AIDS. Ultimately the company provides the employee and his family with long term disability as well as a full and normal pension when he definitely can no longer work and/or after death. Unless a vaccination and a cure are discovered rapidly, AIDS will become one of the major problems facing the oilfield companies and the world within the years to come. Introduction Three million people have already died of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) since 1980. It is estimated that, to date, over 15 million people around the world are carriers of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which provokes AIDS. The disease is now found all over the world and will become the main cause of death in Africa and Asia in the years to come. In one Asian country alone, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there are at present 1.5 million HIV carriers and that by the year 2010 there will be over 30 million infected people in that country alone! A large oil field service company, working in a multitude of countries, with over 50,000 employees representing more than 80 nationalities is faced, just as all other employers, with the ever growing- risk and consequences of the AIDS epidemic among its work force and their families. A Short History Of AIDS AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, was first described almost 20 years ago. Professor Luc Montagnier, of Pasteur Institute (Paris, France) discovered the two different virus' (HIV 1 and HIV 2) responsible for the disease. Transmission was found to be primarily by blood and sex, although pregnancy and breast feeding were later discovered to be additional transmission modes. Originally reputed, in the early 1980's, to be mostly a homosexual and drug user's disease, it has since become a predominantly heterosexual disease. The HIV virus which provokes AIDS slowly destroys the body's capacity to defend itself against outside aggressions such as bacterial, parasitic and viral infections. It destroys the blood cells called lymphocytes which produce antibodies and ward off many diseases. P. 621
Dr. GOSSEN welcomed the audience and intro- duced the Vice Chairmen, Dr. BERNARD TRAMIER, Corporate Director of Environmental Affairs for Elf Aquitaine, Paris, France; Dr. MICHAL WILCZYNSKI, Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, Poland; and scien- tific secretary Dr. TRYGVE LARSEN, Senior Vice President, Det Norske Veritas, Hovik, Norway. Dr. GOSSEN then briefly introduced the forum authors who were later introduced more fully prior to their presentations: Mr. CHARLES DIBONA, President & CEO, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Mr. KLAUS KOHL- HASE, Head Health, Safety and Environment, British Petroleum Company, London, U.K. Mr. BJORN WEIBYE, Executive Vice President, Det Norske Veritas, Hovik, Norway. Mr. LUIS FERN- ANDO DE ANGULO, Community Affairs Manager, Occidental de Colombia, Bogota, Colom- bia. Mr. HEINRICH BONING, Head Safety and Environment, BEB Erdgas und Erdol, Hanover, Germany. Dr. GOSSEN also introduced the two forum par- ticipants who provided updates on two WPC Task Force activities: Mr. ARNALDO SALAZAR, Presi- dent & CEO of PDV Marina, Caracas, Venezuela and Chair of the WPCs Environmental Affairs Com- mittee Task Force 1, Analysis & Assessment of Codes of Environmental Conduct. Dr. GEORGE GOVIER, President, Govier Consulting Services Ltd., Calgary, Canada and Chair of the WPC's Environmental Affairs Committee Task Force 2, Survey of the Petroleum-related Environmental Poli- cies of the WPC Member Countries. Dr. GOSSEN then proceeded to introduce and frame the forum topic by providing an overview. He noted that the theme for the Congress, ‘Petroleum in a world of sustainable growth; challenges and opportunities’ is particularly relevant to the environ- mental forum because the concept of sustainable development is receiving global recognition as a key mechanism to guide future development through integrating environmental and economic decision- making. He stressed that this means striking an appropriate balance between environmental and eco- nomic considerations. Dr. GOSSEN noted that during the opening cere- monies President Mai recognized the need for eco- nomic growth in an environmentally sustainable way and Prime Minister Brundtland referred to the global challenge of achieving sustainable develop- ment. Dr. GOSSEN stated that each of the key sectors of our society that are engaged in the pursuit of sustain- able development have targeted specific objectives:–business is seeking meaningful, science-based environmental objectives established by regulators and the opportunity to achieve them in a voluntary, non-perscriptive and market-driven fashion. –Regulators are seeking widespread public acceptance of their decisions. –Non-governmental organizations NGOs repr