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The cliffs and beaches of Normandy in France were the scene of the D-Day invasion on 6 June 1944 during World War II. One of the landing site was Pointe du Hoc where the German defense was set up on top of 30 m high limestone cliffs. The infrastructure of this defense included canon bunkers back from the front of the cliff and an observation post near the edge of the cliff. In 1944, the Observation Post was 20 m away from the edge but in 2004 that distance was down to 10 m. The reason was the continued erosion process by the sea and associated failures of very large blocks of cliff. The situation became precarious enough that the French administration closed the Observation Post to visitors. In 2006, the American Battle Monument Commission cooperated with the French admin-istration to slow down the erosion process in order to save the historic monuments from falling into the sea. The study conducted by Texas A&M University included field tests with geophysical equipment, coring and sampling of the rock, laboratory testing, and numerical simulations. The study showed that the failure mechanism was the development of deep caverns at the base of the cliffs followed by collapse of the overhang when the depth of the caverns reached a point where the tensile strength of the rock mass was insufficient to carry the rock mass in cantilever. The repair scheme consisted of two parts: backfilling of the cav-erns and tying the periphery of the foundation of the observation post to deep micropiles. In 2011, the repairs were effected using esthetic concrete to backfill the caverns and deep micropiles around the Observation Post. The Observation Post was reopen to visitors after a ceremony in the presence of D-Day invasion soldiers as well as US and French dignitaries. 1 INTRODUCTION The Pointe Du Hoc site, in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important battles of D-Day on 6 June 1944. The Pointe du Hoc cliffs are being eroded by the waves of the Channel between France and England, especially during winter storms. The Observation Post (O.P.), for one, located at the northern-most position of the site (Cliff Head), appears most vulnerable due to its proximity to the edge of the cliff and was closed to tourists in 2004 (Fig. 1).
In BriefAll-terrain vehicle crashes have killed more than 10,000 and injured hundreds of thousands of riders since 1985; most were related to overturns. Behavior-based interventions have been implemented over decades reaching their limit of success. As with tractors, engineering controls have the potential to mitigate or prevent most of these fatal and nonfatal injuries. In this regard, much controversy has surrounded a single potentially effective crush prevention device. On June 6, 2014, in Scottsdale, AZ, Amy Van Dyken-Rouen, an Olympic gold-medal-winning swimmer, was driving an all-terrain vehicle (ATV) in a restaurant parking lot when the machine hit a curb. It tipped over a 5- to 7-ft drop-off. She was seen lying on the ground unconscious next to the machine and received help from a firefighter and off-duty emergency room doctor, both of whom were at the restaurant. The ambulance arrived 15 minutes later. She had a severed vertebra. Vikas Patel, a doctor at the University of Colorado hospital, said, "It's a huge amount of force required to, basically, take on half of the spine and go one direction and the other half go the other direction…. To me, to have a fracture like this means that most likely there was so much force involved that the ATV was on top of her" (Stanley & Zelinger, 2014). She was paralyzed from the waist down. By August 2014 with a powered exoskeleton, she was able to stand up and walk (Mazza, 2014). Such events are part of a modern epidemic: injuries from ATV-related overturns. CDC (2011) defines an epidemic as: [T]he occurrence of more cases of disease, injury or other health condition than expected in a given area or among a specific group of persons during a particular period. Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way. Once upon a time (perhaps many times), a farmer who survived death from a tractor overturn said, "Well, that never happened before." That is an individual's perspective, but with a broader, population-based perspective, studies have shown that tractor overturns occur often. Indeed, they were the highest cause of death from injury on farms for many years, including up to the present. Like tractors, Garland (2014) found that ATV overturns are the highest cause of death associated with crashes of these machines at 60.6%. From 1985 to 2009, 10,561 people were killed by ATV-related incidents (Figure 1, p. 38). One possible explanation for the decrease in the number of fatalities during 2008 and 2009 is the recession, which may have reduced the number of new ATVs purchased (Clapperton, Herde & Lower, 2013). Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is still collecting decedent data beyond 2009. This article addresses the problem and controversy that surrounds the epidemic of serious injury and death regarding the design, manufacture and use of ATVs. Consumer Product Safety Commission CPSC defines an ATV as an off-road, motorized vehicle having three or four low-pressure tires, a straddle seat for the operator and handlebars for steering control (Topping & Garland, 2014). In 1985, CPSC commenced rulemaking to address hazards associated with ATVs, declaring that ATVs are an "imminently hazardous consumer product" (CPSC, 2006). By 1988, the final consent decree included the prohibition of the sale of three-wheeled ATVs, which were known to be more unstable regarding rollovers than four-wheeled ATVs (David, 1998). The consent decree included other agreements for providing labeling and education programs.
Abstract With the increasing use of flexible pipe technology - driven by the move to deeper, more marginal and more challenging conditions - the need for systematic management of the flexible pipes is becoming more apparent. In particular, the full implementation of Riser Integrity Management (RIM) plays a vital role to ensure an efficient and safe operation. This paper will discuss issues regarding Riser Integrity Management raised by operators and addressed to NKT Flexibles (NKTF) as the supplier. The discussion will include measurements and tests of flexible pipes, assessment and repair of possible damages, as well as assessment of change of regime e.g. change of location/ bore contents/ pressure/ temperature/ souring. Riser condition monitoring and inspection form an important part of integrity management together with processing and analyses of the monitored data. The present paper identifies and discusses available and emerging options for condition monitoring and for engineering assessments and remedial actions, and discusses the recently developed technology of embedded optical fiber monitoring for quantifying the integrity of the flexible risers during their service life. Introduction Early Flexible Pipe Development The development and use of flexible riser and pipeline technology for offshore oil and gas production is relatively young, however, flexible pipelines were applied for other purposes, before the introduction to the offshore industry. The concept of a flexible armored marine pipeline was first introduced and applied at a significant scale in the World War II project codenamed PLUTO (PipeLine Under The Ocean) for transporting fuel under the British Channel from the United Kingdom to Normandy, France. The design was based on high voltage marine power cable technology. The first commercial marine pipeline was installed between two Danish islands in 1964, also based on marine power cable technology. The step on to high pressure pipelines, reinforced against collapse, for the offshore industry was taken in 1972, applying technologies developed by IFP, France. Early Experiences Initially, flexible pipelines have been considered maintenance free and not in need for regular inspection. Since their first introduction, a vast number of improvements have been introduced to the design and manufacturing of the pipes, end-terminations and accessories.
Abstract. The paper gives a short historic presentation of the ownership structure for tankers and the history of the tanker market and from its early beginning up to the 1970s. It explains some of the background for the increase in the tanker fleet experienced in the 1970s and the collapse in the tanker market in the mid 1970s. The paper also explains how the structurai imbalance created in this period sMi influences the present tanker market. Further the paper describes the development of the tanker fleet in the 1980s, the changing trading patterns with renewed optimism in the late 1980s and some of the commercial and technical challenges experienced by the ship owners and classification societies in this period. It presents the latest development in trading patterns and expresses a view how this may together with abundant shipyard capacity, and new IMO and OPA 90 regulations influence the tanker market and the availability of tankers. It further gives a presentation of the fleet development including a review of scrapping and ordering, and debates the role of the independent ship owners and the charterers in view of this scenario. 1. THE HISTORY OF THE TANKER INDUSTRY The tanker industry is probably most known to the ‘unknowing public audience’ for the fortunes created and lost. It is by many regarded as a casino solely, where you are playing with heavy chips called ships. The excessive attention the few but still fatal tanker accidents have drawn over past years unfortunately helps to support this view. Maybe it then is appropriate to again draw the attention to the fact that the tanker industry is a growth industry with long history of excellent industrial relations with its clients and improving safety records. Unfortunately, as more new players enter the scene as investors and charterers with little or no knowledge of the history, this tends to be forgotten. It should be kept in mind that every day tankers carry a total load equivalent to two weeks of oil production for the entire world. A similar capacity is empty, doing a ballast voyage to pick up a new cargo. The story of the tanker industry is more than 100 years old. It all started in 1861 when the brig Elizabeth Watts loaded the ‘dangerous’ cargo of oil in barrels from the U.S.A. to London. Years later, some sailing ships were fitted with tanks. The earliest predecessor to our modern tankers was the Norwegian Steam tanker, the Stat, which loaded the first bulk oil cargo in Philadelphia for Rouen in 1879. Standard Oil entered the scene as owners in the late 1880s, while Shell Trading and Transport was established in 1897-100 years ago. During the next 20 yr, oil majors and independent owners lived side by side sharing a growin