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Martin Voigt is a post-doctoral researcher working on the Carbfix method at the University of Iceland. He is currently involved in the geochemical monitoring of the ongoing Carbfix CO2 injection at the Hellisheidi geothermal power plant. Furthermore, he is working on advancing the Carbfix CO2 mineralization method, evaluating the feasibility of using seawater instead of freshwater through a combination of laboratory experiments and modeling approaches. He holds a master's degree in geosciences from the University of Freiburg and a PhD in geochemistry from the University of Toulouse.
Caesar Systems appointed Jean-Claude Goyon as region director of Europe, Middle East, and Africa. Before joining Caesar, he served as senior business opportunity manager for Shell’s new exploration and production (E&P) business and vice president of E&P at Shell Russia. He holds an undergraduate degree in engineering, hydraulics, and fluid mechanics from the École Nationale Supérieure en Electrotechnique, Electronique, Informatique, et Hydraulique de Toulouse and MS degrees in petroleum engineering from the École du Pétrole et des Moteurs and the University of Tulsa.
Abstract Published data show that the O&G industry has been very successful in reducing occupational accidents, but not as successful in larger scale process safety accidents. The EU has pioneered an approach using barrier diagrams, called bow ties, to identify and communicate barriers effectively, and thereafter to manage these through life. In North America, IADC offers these as the basis for demonstration of safety for MODU facilities which travel between regulatory jurisdictions. Ongoing safe operations in the UK and Norwegian offshore sectors have shown that comprehensive barrier management improves safety performance. However, communicating the information from hazard and risk registers and bow ties is essential to make sure that everyone understands the full set of barriers in use, their personal responsibilities, that these barriers are operational, and meet their effectiveness requirements. This paper provides an example demonstration combining bow tie risk management tools with a Sharepoint interface for communications as applied for a large upstream company. Two versions were created - a simpler Pull interface and more complex Push interface. Operations Safety Needs It is clear that Process Safety - particularly preventing major accidents - is not yet a solved problem for the process industry globally. A prior paper (Pitblado, 2008) highlighted that while the industry has been very successful in reducing occupational accidents over the past 15-20 years, trends on process safety have been flat or even getting worse. In fact this very success can mislead site management into thinking that process safety is under control as the more frequent occupational incidents have reduced so much. Kleindorfer et al (2007) note that early hopes for process safety improvement have not occurred. The EPA published reduction in accident frequencies and impacts based on the combined effects of the OSHA PSM standard and the EPA RMP Rule was estimated to be 75% of the baseline accident/impact rates over the first 5 years of implementation. In fact no statistically valid reduction was found. Following the Texas City accident, the Baker Panel (2007) identified many problems with today's implementation of Process Safety Management (PSM) programs and with Process Safety Culture, not only in BP but the whole industry. The CSB identified similar issues in its assessment (CSB, 2007) as well as important technical integrity issues, beyond the terms of reference of the Baker Panel. In the USA, two major regulations address process safety, OSHA 1910.119 Process Safety Management and the EPA Risk Management Plan regulations (part of the Clean Air Act amendments). These are broadly similar regulations, but OSHA focuses on onsite personnel and EPA focuses on offsite impacts. These regulations have been relatively static since their development in the late 1980's and early 1990's, and enforcement has been less emphasized until after the CSB recommendations to OSHA. A National Emphasis Program is addressing the enforcement issue now for refineries falling under OSHA regulations (Lay et al, 2009). In the EU, by contrast, the primary regulations are driven by the EU Seveso Safety Case Directives and these have been more dynamic, being updated several times in response to the ongoing series of events. The Seveso Directive is implemented differently in every EU country, and thus local incidents also drive regulatory changes (e.g. in France after the Toulouse explosion and in Belgium after the Antwerp pipeline explosion).
Summary This paper presents an experimental study performed to characterize the stability of emulsion samples collected from different Gas/Oil Separation Plants (GOSPs). The first part of the study (Al-Ghamdi et al. 2007) focused on the analyses of separated phases. Many techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, Karl Fischer titration, rheology, optical microscopy, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) were applied to analyze and characterize the separated phases: crude oil, emulsion, and free water. In the second part of this study, the stability of residual emulsions was investigated against several chemical demulsifiers by using bottle tests and an automated vertical-scan macroscopic analyzer (Turbiscan; Formulaction; Toulouse, France). This instrument is used to obtain kinetics of separation of concentrated and opaque dispersed systems such as emulsions, suspensions, and foams. Interfacial tension measurements were also made to obtain information about the interfacial behavior of samples including viscoelasticity properties of the film. The results of transient emulsion-separation experiments provide some useful insights into their behavior, stability, and tightness. The study highlights the main physicochemical parameters responsible for the varying tightness of these emulsions and should help provide recommendations to optimize their treatment costs and resolve emulsion issues in the GOSPs.
This article, written by Senior Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper SPE 117645, "How In-Situ Combustion Process Works in a Fractured System: Two-Dimensional, Core- and Block-Scale Simulation," by H. Fadaei, Institut Francais du Petrole; M. Quintard and G. Debenest, l'Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse; G. Renard, SPE, Institut Francais du Petrole; and A.M. Kamp, SPE, Open and Experimental Center for Heavy Oil, prepared for the 2008 SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, 20-23 October. The paper has not been peer reviewed. Simulation of an in-situ-combustion (ISC) process was performed for a fractured system at core and matrix-block scales. The aim of this work was to predict the ISC ignition/propagation conditions, understand the mechanism of oil recovery, and provide guidelines for ISC scaleup for a fractured system. The study was of a fine-grid single-porosity multiphase multicomponent system and used a thermal-reservoir simulator. Introduction Heavy-oil recovery from fractured carbonate reservoirs (one-third of global heavy-oil resources) has been low because of the complexity of such reservoirs. The recovery mechanism and the reservoir and operational conditions at which combustion can propagate in fractured systems are not understood clearly. This study investigated ISC-propagation conditions and oil-recovery mechanisms at the fractured-core scale, and investigated the process at the block scale to address the 2D behavior of ISC at large scale. The objective was to determine the dominant processes in combustion propagation at the block scale and the characteristics of different fronts that exist. Model Four phases exist in crude-oil combustion in porous media: oil, gas, water, and solid. The oil and gas phases are multicomponent (i.e., hydrocarbon components), the water is a vapor, and the solid phase contains inert solid and coke. Reactions take place in the oil, in the gas, and on the surface of the solid phase (when coke is present). Coke is formed by pyrolysis and deposited on the solid surface. Reactions in oil and gas phases are homogeneous, but the coke reaction is heterogeneous. Simulation Oil Combustion in a Fractured System. Ignition/propagation conditions of the combustion front in a fractured system and the governing production mechanisms were studied. The simulation model is presented in Fig. 1, and the input data for the model are detailed in Table 1 of the full-length paper. A vertical core was used to mimic a top-down process. The core had no temperature losses at its boundaries, and the top row of blocks was heated with a constant heating rate. Heat injection was maintained for 24 minutes, until ignition occurred. This time was considered to be approximately that used in a nonfractured core.
Abstract A novel three-phase cyclonic separator has been developed to remove solids and oil from produced water in a single unit. This new cyclone configuration combines the functional characteristics found in both desanding and deoiling hydrocyclones. The result is a lighter and more compact system that performs as well as existing hydrocyclones and Is particularly adapted to off-shore use. Introduction During the production of oil and gas, water is the largest volume waste stream (ref. 1). Produced water may contain dispersed and dissolved hydrocarbons, dissolved organics and dissolved inorganic compounds (ref. 2). In addition, it may also contain a significant amount of suspended solids of different origins (formation, precipitation, corrosion, etc.) and thus, different in nature (sand, clay, carbonates, sulphates, etc.). Before produced water can be reused or disposed, it must be treated to remove some of the contaminants listed above. Typically, this produced water has been separated from the production stream in multistage separation drums. If the produced water is to be discharged, dispersed hydrocarbons must be reduced to comply with the environmental regulations of the region. Currently, dispersed oIl has been removed by gravitational processes ranging from settling and flotation to deoiling hydrocyclones, and in extreme cases centrifugation. If the produced water is to be discharged into disposal wells or re-injected into the formation, suspended solids need to be reduced to prevent potential blockage of the receiving medium. In this case, oil is removed from the process stream by one or more of the methods mentioned above followed by a desanding step. This desanding has been accomplished with filtration in the past and desanding hydrocyclones more recently. In special cases, oil and solids have been removed in a single step either by deep bed filtration or solid/liquid/liquid centrifuges. Recently, cross flow membrane filtration has been tried with some success (ref. 3, 4). The equipment and process described in this paper has been designed to remove suspended solids and dispersed oil from large volumes of water in a single step while minimizing installed space and weight. It is the result of studies conducted jointly by Elf Aquitaine Production's research group in Boussens (France) and the Department of Industrial Process Engineering (GPI) of the "Institut National des Sciences Appliquees" in Toulouse (France). Hydrocyclones for the separation of two phases Two-phase hydrocyclones have been extensively studied and are widely used. P. 193^
Résumé. La présente communication porte sur I'identification des principaux constituants des coupes industrielles de dimères de propylène, de codimères de butènes et de codimères de propylène et de butènes. La constitution des coupes précitées a été établie à l'aide des techniques expérimentales suivantes:–distillation, hydrogénation catalytique, chromatographie en phase gazeuse et spectrométrie infra-rouge. Abstract. This communication concerns the identification of the main constituents of the industrial cuts of dimers of propene, of codimers of butenes and of codimers of propene and butenes. The constitution of these cuts has been established with the help of the following experimental techniques:–distillation, catalytic hydrogenation, gas-chromatography, and infra-red spectrometry. INTRODUCTION Jusqu'à ces dernières années, peu de travaux avaient été publiés sur l'identification des hydrocarbures oléfiniques de poids moléculaire moyen. Des études avaient été faites, en particulier par Mc Cubbin'), F. C. Whitmore2), H. Hoog3) et Terres4) sur des dimères ou trimères de propylène et de butènes obtenus dans des conditions particulières. Mais il a fallu disposer de la chromatographie en phase gazeuse pour aborder le Probleme de la constitution des mélanges complexes que constituent les produits pétroliers. H. S. Knight5) puis R. L. Martid) ont identifié, par des méthodes chromatographiques, les constituants oléfiniques en C5 et C6 des essences. Des publications très récentes ont apporté une contribution remarquable à la connaissance de la constitution des coupes oléfiniques. L. P. Lindeman7) a élaboré une méthode * Loewenguth, Jean Claude / Ing. Ecole Nationale Sup. Chimie (Strasbourg) / Centre de Recherche de la Cie Française de Raffinage. ** Leonard, Robert / Ecole Nationale Sup. Chimie de Toulouse, Licencié es-sciences / Chef de groupe -Analyses" au centre de recherche de la Cie Française de Raffinage. combinant la chromatographie en phase gazeuse, la spectrometrie de masse et l'hydrogénation catalytique pour l'étude des essences de cracking catalytique. A. G. Polgar et J. J. Holsta) ont fait une étude complète des oléfines en C 7 avec le seul secours de la chromatographie sur colonnes capillaires. Le présent travail constitue un essai pour identifier et doser les constituants principaux des coupes oléfiniques, à six, sept et huit atomes de carbone par molécule, produites industriellement par polymérisation du propylène etlou des butènes sur catalyseur phosphorique. METHODES D'ANALYSE La chromatographie en phase gazeuse, sur colonnes à remplissage, a servi de technique de base. On a utilisé les possibilités de séparation que procure l'emploi de deux colonnes de polarités très différentes. L'identif
Résumé L'article expose les principales phases paléogéographiques et orogéniques de l'Aquitaine en cherchant à en extraire les incidences sur la génèse, les migrations et l'accumulation du pétrole. I1 met en lumière l'importance du jeu des grandes masses du soubassement hercynien, dans l'évolution des phases subséquentes. I1 souligne enfin le rôle important du matériel plastique triasique qui a donné un aspect caractéristique final à la plupart des structures. Synopsis The paper discusses the principal palaeogeographic and orogenic phases of Aquitaine with a view to explaining the genesis migration and accumulation of oil. It emphasises the importance of the interplay of large masses of the Hercynian basement in the evolution of subsequent tectonic phases. It also stresses the important role played by plastic Triassic material which caused the characteristic aspect of the majority of the structures. * Cette étude, rédigée avec l'autorisation des Directions de la R.A.P. et de la S.N.P.A., fait une brève synthèse des résultats obtenus à ce jour d'après le travail en équipe de tous les géologues pétroliers d'Aquitaine. Nous nous excusons de ne pouvoir les nommer tous ici. Nous tenons à rappeler, parmi eux les noms des professeurs Ch. Jacob et L. Bertrand f et de D. Schneegans f qui sont à l'origine de la découverte du champ de St Marcet. Ce dernier fut jusqu'à sa mort, un fervent animateur du problème pétrolier en Aquitaine. Nous n'oublions pas non plus ceux qui ont suivi d'autres destinées: M. Dreyfus, R. Pomeyrol, H. Vautrin. ** Institut Français du Pétrole. *** Soc. Nat. des Pétroles d'Aquitaine. **** Régie Autonome des Pétroles. Introduction Plusieurs publications déjà ont été consacrées à l'exposé des problhes géologiques qui se situent, en Aquitaine, à propos des recherches de pétrole, soit dans le cadre restreint du champ de gaz de St Marcet, en Haute Garonne (1) * en exploitation depuis près d'une décade, ou du gisement d'huile, ré- cemment découvert à Lacq, en Béarn (2), soit dans le cadre de l'exploration plus générale du Bassin dont le regretté D. Schneegans (3) a donné une vision d'ensemble. La connaissance du domaine souspyrénéen et nord-aquitain, recouvert d'alluvions mio-pliocènes, étant à la base des lignes directrices de nos recherches, nous pensons utile de faire le point sur les faits qui y sont actuellement acquis. Nous rappellerons pour mémoire que le domaine pyrénéen est lié à une zone de moindre résistance du bâti hercynien de l'Europe moyenne et de la plateforme africaine et que les recherches de pétrole sont localisées sur le versant nord de la chaîne actuelle et une partie de son avant-pays, lequel s'étend à