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The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Ntziachristos, Leonidas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) | Mamarikas, Sokratis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki) | Verbeek, Ruud (TNO) | Grigoriadis, Achilleas (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
This paper presents the measurement techniques deployed by the European funded SCIPPER project in order to identify their potential in assisting regulatory authorities to enforce the new emission limits for shipping. On-board sensors, sniffer remote and remote optical devices were extensively used in field campaigns to measure over 1000 ship plumes in major European seas, such as the ports of Hamburg and Marseille, a route in the Baltic Sea and the English Channel. Demonstration results revealed the operational characteristics of the techniques, further to their pollutant detection sensitivity. A preliminary evaluation is conducted in this study considering several criteria of technology maturity, operational capacity, ease of implementation and costs.
_ To measure loads induced by nonimpacting waves on a vertical piercing cylinder, tests were performed in a 17 m long wave tank at the École Centrale Marseille. Different configurations of the cylinder (shape and size of the section and length) were studied for two focusing waves. Wave loads as calculated by the Morison equation were compared with measurements. The context for this experiment is the assessment of the hydrodynamic loads as a result of sloshing on the pump tower in liquefied natural gas tanks on floating structures. The comparisons turn out to be good in all cases studied, provided the Morison equation is used with relevant time series of liquid velocities and accelerations. Introduction Liquefied natural gas (LNG) membrane tanks are largely used on different kinds of floating structures such as LNG carriers, floating liquefied natural gas vessels, floating storage regasification units, LNG-fueled ships (LFSs), LNG bunker vessels, and all small-scale related applications. In these tanks, the liquefied gas remains in conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium (-162°C at atmospheric pressure). Depending on the application, the volume of LNG tanks for floating structures ranges from a few thousand cubic meters for LFS or small-scale applications to about 55,000 m for tanks of the largest LNG carriers. Whatever the application, the shapes of these tanks are always prismatic, with large upper chamfers and smaller lower chamfers. The tanks do not include any structure that could mitigate LNG sloshing except a pump tower. As can be seen in Fig. 1, the pump tower is a tubular, vertical, stainless steel structure that enables the loading and unloading of the LNG, thanks to pumps located at its base. It is mainly made of three large vertical pipes: the emergency pipe at the front and two discharge pipes at the rear, connected together by struts. Located at the rear of the tank, in the central part but not necessarily exactly in the middle, it hangs from the liquid dome and is horizontally guided at its base by the pump tower base support.
_ This article, written by JPT Technology Editor Chris Carpenter, contains highlights of paper SPE 202775, “Application of Stratigraphic Forward Modeling to Carbonate-Reservoir Characterization: A New Paradigm From the Albion Research and Development Project,” by Jean Borgomano, Aix-Marseille University, and Gérard Massonnat and Cyprien Lanteaume, TotalEnergies, et al. The paper has not been peer reviewed. _ Improving carbonate-reservoir prediction, field development, and production forecasts, especially in zones lacking data, requires novel reservoir-modeling approaches, including process-based methods. Classical geostatistic modeling methods alone cannot match this challenge, particularly if subtle stratigraphic architectures or sedimentary and diagenetic geometries not directly identified as properties with well data control the reservoir heterogeneity. Stratigraphic forward-modeling approaches can provide pertinent information to carbonate-reservoir characterization. The complete paper describes a modeling package tested and calibrated with high-resolution stratigraphic outcrop models. It allows valid prediction of carbonate facies associations mimicking the spatial distribution mapped along the Urgonian platform transects. Background Classical carbonate-reservoir characterization protocols rely mainly on 3D geostatistical models based on well data, allowing the realization of 3D numerical grids of reservoir properties. These geostatistic property models are supported by deterministic geological interpretations such as stratigraphic well correlations that are commonly based on sequenced stratigraphic concepts and carbonate sedimentological interpretations. The stratigraphic framework obtained from these deterministic interpretations has a critical effect on further static and dynamic reservoir models because it constrains the spatial stationarity of the geostatistic property simulations or imposes discrete flow units or barriers. These deterministic carbonate sequence stratigraphic and associated sedimentological interpretations, however, introduce significant biases, uncertainties, and imprecisions in reservoir models and furthermore are not validated by process-based modeling approaches as one should expect from any scientific protocol. This lack of validation represents a fundamental scientific gap in classical reservoir-characterization work flows that is generally avoided in other scientific domains such as physics by iterations combining experimentation and process-based models to verify deterministic interpretations and hypothesis. The paradox is that this virtuous scientific method is applied at the ultimate stage of the reservoir flow modeling with the classical “flow history matching,” implying the following strong hypothesis (Fig. 1a): If the dynamic model obtained from the upscaled static model matches the dynamic history and the flow records of the studied field and carbonate reservoir, then the geological model, including the deterministic stratigraphic and sedimentary interpretations, is validated. Reservoir flow and dynamic behavior certainly are controlled by initial geological conditions, but those are not dependent on flow processes. According to fundamental scientific principles, geological interpretations and deterministic models must be validated by geological process-based models. To fill this scientific gap in the presented carbonate-reservoir characterization approach, the authors introduce process-based stratigraphical and sedimentological models that are calibrated on pertinent, well-studied outcrop analogs.
ABSTRACT Tests are performed in the 17 m long wave tank of Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) in order to measure the loads induced by non-impacting waves on a vertical piercing cylinder. Different configurations of the cylinder (shape and size of the section and length) are studied for two focusing waves. Wave loads as calculated by Morison equation are compared to measurements. The context is the assessment of the hydrodynamic loads due to sloshing on the pump tower in LNG tanks on floating structures. The comparisons turn out to be good in all cases studied provided Morison equation is used with relevant time series of liquid velocities and accelerations. INTRODUCTION Context Liquefied natural gas (LNG) membrane tanks are largely used on different kinds of floating structures such as LNG carriers, floating liquefied natural gas vessels (FLNG), floating storage regasification units (FSRU), LNG fueled ships (LFS), LNG bunker vessels (LBV) and all small scale related applications. In these tanks, the liquefied gas remains in conditions close to thermodynamic equilibrium (-162°C @ atmospheric pressure). Depending on the application, the volume of LNG tanks for floating structures ranges from a few thousand cubic meters for LFS or small scale applications to about 55 000 m for tanks of the largest LNG carriers. Whatever the application, the shapes of these tanks are always prismatic with large upper chamfers and smaller lower chamfers. The tanks do not include any structure that could mitigate LNG sloshing except a pump tower. The pump tower (Fig. 1) is a tubular vertical stainless steel structure that enables loading and unloading LNG, thanks to pumps located at its base. It is mainly made of three large vertical pipes, the emergency pipe at the front and two discharge pipes at the rear, connected together by struts. Located at the rear of the tank, in the central part but not necessarily exactly in the middle, it hangs from the liquid dome and is horizontally guided at its base by the pump tower base support (PTBS).
Abstract As part of the Monaco offshore extension project, is in charge of design & build a maritime infrastructure as the first step of the six-hectare expansion of the city into the sea. This maritime infrastructure consists of a fill enclosed by a band of 18 trapezoid reinforced concrete caissons and will serve as base for construction of the new eco-neighborhood in Monaco. The caisson precasting area is located in the port of Marseilles, using a dedicated floating dock. The paper focuses on some of the problems which had to be solved, among which : The optimization of promenade level, searching for : ○a compromise between architectural point of view and safety related to storm wave overtopping, taking into account sea level rise and correlations between extreme waves and water levels; ○minimal reflection coefficient for vertical concrete caissons, so as to minimize impact on existing Port Hercules wave disturbance. Caissons and rubble mound foundation stability related to waves and seism, including extra seismic forces due to buildings considering the high reclamation height (up to 40 m) and the immediate proximity of building foundations. The presence of a small craft harbor, whose location was fixed for urbanistic reasons, which requested optimizations in detail of anti-overtopping devices as much as possible integrated in the urban context, including a low crested "swimming pool caisson breakwater" Design and build of a dedicated floating yard Design has required a multidisciplinary approach (urbanists, landscapers, architects, marine infrastructure engineering, biologists), with unconventional infrastructure solutions due to the very specific context (direct exposure to offshore waves, proximity of sensitive port and natural areas, seismic hazard associated with buildings very close to 25 m high concrete caissons …).
ABSTRACT Structural monitoring is increasingly becoming everyday business in the offshore industry. The monitoring may target the strain estimation or focus on tracking the changes in the dynamic properties of the structure in order to predict damages at remote / or possibly subsea locations. This paper will show that by monitoring the structural response, it is also possible to indirectly estimate the wave loading acting on the system. This information can be used to increase confidence in the load probability models for the structural design or aid the health monitoring procedure. During ambient vibration, the principles of operational modal analysis (OMA) are applied to harvest the dynamic properties of the structure. Successively, a dynamic model is formulated and used to calculate the loading from a random sea state using the response of the structure. A laboratory experiment is conducted in a wave flume at LASIF, Marseille, France, where a scaled offshore model is equipped with accelerometers to monitor the structural response during a random sea. The study shows that it is possible to use the structure as a dynamic load cell and monitor the loads occurring in actual conditions. Both the short time variations and the load spectra can be computed successfully using the structural response. INTRODUCTION In the field of offshore structures, an increase is seen in the subject of monitoring. Recently, TOTAL announced that as for the redevelopment of the Tyra field, the platform Tyra East will be equipped with no less than 100000 sensors (Beck, 2018). Most of these will, of course, target the production processes, but the monitoring scope will also include the structural performance. The aim of structural monitoring may be plentiful, for instance with regards to operational limitations such as heading, static deformation or vibration level. The vibration pattern can be used for health diagnostics, and since offshore structures are prone to fatigue damages, monitoring their well-being is essential for ensuring safety and reliability.
Abstract During the last decade, wave impact tests in flume tanks have become an important tool to scrutinize single wave impacts in order to better understand sloshing physics in LNG floating tanks and the scaling issues related to the use of sloshing model tests to derive design loads for the membrane containment systems. Wave impact tests enabled to gain much knowledge on the physics of liquid impacts including the influence of the compressibility of ullage gas and the interaction between waves and the protuberances on the wall like the corrugations of MarkIII containment system. This knowledge is obviously applicable for LNG sloshing with low or partial fillings leading to transverse breaking waves hitting the vertical longitudinal walls of LNG tanks. Is it applicable for liquid impacts occurring on the top corners of these tanks for high fill conditions? Those kinds of impacts related to the developments of free surface modes may have different patterns and characteristics that have not been so much studied at a large enough scale yet. This paper relates an attempt carried out in the wave canal of Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM), in the frame of a long-term collaboration with GTT, to generate wave impacts on a horizontal plate that could be considered as a ceiling. The main challenge is to generate relevant wave shapes before impact with a sufficient vertical velocity. The different solutions in terms of wave-maker excitations are presented together with the corresponding wave characteristics. Wave impact tests with the most relevant selected waves have been performed either with a flat ceiling or with a corrugated ceiling obtained by the addition of three solid corrugations representing the geometry of the large corrugations of MarkIII membrane at scale ½. The corrugations were screwed to the ceiling plate in the transverse direction with regard to the canal. The instrumentation included numerous pressures sensors, located on the ceiling but also directly on the corrugations, and a visualization system with two high speed cameras. Characteristic pressure fields at the ceiling are shown with both configurations of ceiling. This work is part of a more general R&D program of GTT on experimental and numerical studies of liquid impacts in order to better understand the physics of sloshing impacts within LNG tanks on floating structures
Henry, Alan (Aquamarine Power Ltd.) | Kimmoun, Olivier (Ecole Centrale Marseille) | Nicholson, Jonathan (Aquamarine Power Ltd.) | Dupont, Guillaume (Ecole Centrale Marseille) | Wei, Yanji (University College Dublin) | Dias, Frederic (University College Dublin)
Abstract This paper describes a series of experiments undertaken to investigate the slamming of an Oscillating Wave Surge Converter in extreme sea states. These two-dimensional experiments were undertaken in the Wave Flume at Ecole Centrale Marseille. Images from a high speed camera are used to identify the physics of the slamming process. A single pressure sensor is used to record the characteristic of the pressure. Finally numerical results are compared to the output from the experiments.
Abstract Water is an essential element in the upstream and downstream operations of oil and gas companies. Yet water, particularly fresh water, is already a scarce resource in many parts of world and further constraints are predicted. Continuing the development and implementation of water stewardship practices across the oil and gas lifecycle is therefore considered an important component in a company’s sustainability strategy. IPIECA, the global oil and gas industry association for environmental and social issues, has recently made significant strides in this arena to raise stakeholders and the industry’s awareness of water management issues. IPIECA has developed a water management framework which adopts the principles of water stewardship. Uptake and adoption of the framework should lead to recognition by internal and external stakeholders that the oil and gas inudsty is proactively and collectively managing the issues related to sustainable water use and acting as stewards of this valuable resource. The IPIECA water management framework outlines a series of industry guidelines, tools and initiatives providing a comprehensive approach through the full lifecycle of oil and gas development and production. The framework builds upon the systematic approach which is adopted by IPIECA to manage water risk – ‘global->local->guidance’ (SPE 157544). This approach includes the use of the IPIECA Global Water Tool for Oil and Gas and the Global Environmental Management Initiative (GEMI) Local Water Tool for Oil and Gas to help business better understand both the global and local level water risk from which specific guidance is then developed. The World Water Forum Target 2.3.6 which was identified at the 6 World Water Forum in Marseilles in 2012, to "drive responsible water management in oil & gas exploration and production" is aligned with the IPIECA Water Management Framework. Work on this target is being led by IPIECA with support from the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (OGP). The development of the IPIECA framework should support and improve the sector’s water management practices and approaches.
Loysel, Thibaut (Gaztransport & Technigaz, Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse) | Chollet, Sabrina (Gaztransport & Technigaz, Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse) | Gervaise, Eric (Gaztransport & Technigaz, Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse) | Brosset, Laurent (Gaztransport & Technigaz, Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse) | De Seze, Pierre-Emmanuel (Gaztransport & Technigaz, Saint-Rémy-lès-Chevreuse)
ABSTRACT: A benchmark on Sloshing Model Test (SMT) installations has been conducted between 2011 and 2012, involving nine participants. This benchmark was based on simple tank geometry, excitation conditions and measurement set-up together with basic fluids, so that the majority of the sloshing research community could take part. Results have been gathered from eight of the participants, for a varying number of the specified conditions, depending on the respective testing capacities. Results are shown and discussed for seven of the fourteen initial excitation conditions. A way forward is proposed INTRODUCTION During the 3rd sloshing symposium of ISOPE Conference (June 2011), a need was expressed to define reference test conditions to enable the comparison of experimental results from different testing facilities in the same way as has been done for years for model tests in towing tanks (especially in the framework of the International Towing Tank Conference, ITTC). GTT volunteered to organize such comparative tests: the first experimental benchmark on Sloshing Model Tests. A specification was sent to the potential participants in September 2011 (see Gervaise, 2011). Fourteen test conditions at high filling levels have been proposed using a parallelepiped-shaped tank with one dimension much smaller than the two others (so-called 2D rectangular tank), in order to study two-dimensional liquid motions. Dynamic pressure measurements were asked for, with set-ups up to 72 sensors. The test fluids were simply water and air. Nine participants answered positively to the call. Among them, results were received from Ecole Centrale de Marseille (ECM), Ecole Centrale de Nantes paired with Bureau Veritas (ECN-BV), Gaztransport et Technigaz (GTT), Marintek, Pusan National University (PNU), Universität Duisburg-Essen (UDE), Universidad Polytécnica de Madrid (UPM) and Universität Rostock (UR). GTT performed tests using their three testing installations, which are identified hereafter as GTT1, GTT2 and GTT3.