The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Cura-Hochbaum, Andres (Technische Universitat Berlin) | Delefortrie, Guillaume (Flanders Hydraulics Research) | Lengwinat, Antonio (Technische Universitat Berlin) | Maron, Adolfo (CEHIPAR) | Papanikolaou, Apostolos D. (National Technical University of Athens) | Sprenger, Florian (MARINTEK)
The introduction of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), which is applicable for various types of new-built ships after January 1, 2013 raised concerns regarding the sufficiency of propulsion power and steering devices to maintain maneuverability in adverse conditions. This was the motivation for the initiation of the EU research project SHOPERA (Energy Efficient Safe Ship Operation, 2013–2016, ). The aim of this project is the development of suitable methods, tools and guidelines to effectively address the above concerns and to enable safe and green shipping. Within the framework of SHOPERA, a comprehensive experimental program of more than 1,300 different model tests for three ship hulls of different geometry and hydrodynamic characteristics has been conducted by four leading European maritime experimental research institutes: MARINTEK-Norway, CEHIPAR-Spain, Tech. Univ. Berlin-Germany and Flanders Hydraulics Research Belgium. The tested hull types refer to two public domain designs, namely the KVLCC2 tanker and the DTC container ship, as well as to a small RoPax ferry design, which is a proprietary hull design of a member of the SHOPERA consortium. The conducted tests were distributed among the four research institutes to benefit from the unique possibilities of each facility and to gain added value by establishing data sets for the same hull model and test type at different under keel clearances (UKC). This paper presents the scope of the SHOPERA model test program for the two public domain hull models – the KVLCC2 and the DTC. The main particulars and loading conditions for the two vessels, as well as the experimental setup, is provided to support the interpretation of the experimental data that is presented. The focus lies on the added resistance and drift forces at zero and moderate forward speed, propulsion and rudder force tests in waves and the assessment of manoeuvrability of ships in waves, as compared to calm water conditions.
Huang, Fei (Uppsala University) | Juhlin, Christopher (Uppsala University) | Han, Li (CNOOC Research Institute) | Kempka, Thomas (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) | Norden, Ben (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) | Lüth, Stefan (GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences) | Zhang, Fengjiao (Uppsala University)
Summary The seismic complex decomposition technique is a spectral decomposition method using inversion strategies to decompose a seismic trace into its constituent frequencies and corresponding complex coefficients. This method has high time-frequency resolution and it is not necessary to select a signal window in comparison to conventional spectral decomposition methods. The thickness of the reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site is relatively thin, making it difficult to resolve seismically due to the band-limited seismic spectrum. This study presents an application of seismic complex decomposition to the time-lapse 3D seismic datasets at the Ketzin pilot site for estimating the temporal thickness of the injected CO2 within the thin reservoir via frequency tuning. Quantitative analysis for CO2 thickness and mass is investigated. Comparison between the real recorded data and the estimates shows that our results are reliable in assessing the amount of the CO2 in the plume at the Ketzin pilot site. Introduction The Ketzin pilot site is located west of Berlin, Germany, as an in situ laboratory for monitoring the storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in a saline aquifer. The project was initiated in 2004 with the aim to verify effective monitoring methods for mapping the injected CO2 plume and to provide operational field experience of CO2 geological storage (Martens et al., 2013; Martens et al., 2014). One injection/observation well (Ktzi 201) and two observation wells (Ktzi 200 and Ktzi 202) were drilled in 2007 prior to CO2 injection. Over a 5-year period, up to 67 kt of CO2 were injected into the target reservoir, the fluviatile and heterogeneous Upper Stuttgart Formation. It is characterized by alternating siltstones and mudstones with poor reservoir properties and sandstone channels with good reservoir properties. The main-reservoir sandstone unit is 9- 20 m thick in the three wells (Norden et al., 2010). The time-lapse 3D seismic method has proven to be a successful technique to monitor the growth of the CO2 plume at the Ketzin site. A 3D baseline seismic survey was acquired in autumn 2005 prior to CO2 injection (Juhlin et al., 2007). Two 3D repeat seismic surveys were acquired in autumn 2009 and autumn 2012, after about 22 kt and 61 kt of CO2 had been injected, respectively. Results from the time-lapse analysis (Figure 1) show conspicuous amplitude anomalies due to changes in the reservoir properties after CO2 injection and a preferred westward trend of CO2 migration, reflecting the internal heterogeneity of the reservoir.
ABSTRACT Sewage sludge is a practically endless source of the essential plant nutrient phosphorus. However, removal of their heavy metal contents is obligatory to enable the application of sewage sludge ashes as fertilizer material. A thermochemical process accomplishes this separation in high chlorine containing environments at temperatures of up to 1000°C. Unfortunately there are no metallic furnace materials commercially available that can withstand such conditions over longer periods of time. Previous experiments have shown - in accordance with thermodynamic calculations - that corundum is resistant to oxidizing high-temperature chlorine corrosion conditions. Although it offers outstanding corrosion resistance, its mechanical properties - in particular its brittleness and low thermal shock resistance - make it inapplicable as a material for large moving components such as rotary furnace tubes. A new coating concept combines the chemical resistance of corundum with the mechanical properties of a metallic alloy. It consists of a two-layer thermal spray coating system with a ceramic top coat and a corrosion resistant metallic NiAlMo bond coat that is specially designed for the use in reducing environments as can be expected under the ceramic top coat. Results from the coating development and their performance under the testing conditions will be reported in the paper. INTRODUCTION Background Phosphates are essential to all forms of known life. For plants, phosphorus rates as an indispensable macromineral and it is a limiting factor to plant growth in many environments; i.e. the development and growth of organisms is controlled by the availability of phosphorus. Keeping in mind that a shortage of natural phosphorus resources is soon anticipated1, sewage sludge with its high phosphate content, rates as a promising new raw material for agricultural fertilizers. Its current main use, though, due to its large content of pollutants, lies within incineration, disposal or deposition as landfill. To permit the use of sewage sludge ash as a fertilizer base material, the complete removal of its heavy metal content has to be achieved. An innovative process to successfully purify sewage sludge ash from its contaminations was developed and patented by the BAM (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany)2. This process relies on the conversion of heavy metals into volatile chlorides in high chlorine containing atmospheres at temperatures of up to 1000°C. The evolving gaseous chlorides can then easily be separated from the ash. Unfortunately there are no metallic furnace materials commercially available that can sufficiently withstand the required process conditions. Project idea Previous experiments have shown that, in contrast to metallic material solutions, corundum is resistant to the experienced high temperature oxidizing chlorine corrosion conditions, as well as to erosion by the abrasive sewage sludge ash. Although it offers outstanding corrosion and erosion resistance, its mechanical properties - in particular its brittleness and low thermal shock resistance - make it inapplicable as a structural material for large moving components such as the desired rotary furnace tubes. To combine the chemical resistance of corundum with the mechanical properties of an alloy, it will be applied on a nickel base alloy as a thermal spray (APS) coating.
Norden, Ben (GFZ Potsdam) | Foerster, Andrea (German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ) | Vu-Hoang, Dat (Schlumberger) | Marcelis, Fons (Shell International E&P) | Springer, Niels (Geological Survey Denmark) | Le Nir, Isabelle (Schlumberger)
Abstract The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in saline aquifers is one of the most promising options for Europe to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from power plants to the atmosphere and to mitigate global climate change. The CO2SINK project is a R&D project, mainly supported by the European commission, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, targeted at developing an in situ laboratory for CO2 storage. Its aims are to advance the understanding of the processes involved in underground CO2 storage, evaluate applicable monitoring techniques, and provide operational experience, which all contribute to the development of harmonized regulatory frameworks and standards for CO2 geological storage. The preparatory phase of the project involved a baseline geological site exploration and the drilling in 2007 of one injection and two observation wells, as well as the acquisition of a geophysical baseline and geochemical monitoring, in Ketzin located near to Berlin, Germany. The target saline aquifer is the Triassic Stuttgart Formation situated at about 630-710 m (2070-2330 ft), that is made of siltstones and sandstones interbedded by mudstones. A comprehensive borehole logging program was performed consisting of routine well logging to which an enhanced logging program was added for one well that record nuclear magnetic resonance and borehole resistivity images predominantly to better characterize the storage formation. A core analysis program carried out on reservoir rock and caprock included measurements of helium porosity, nitrogen permeability and brine permeability. Carbon dioxide injection started in 2008 and will last for about 2 years. The paper focuses on the integrated approach of combining lithological and petrophysical data from both laboratory and well logging analysis predominantly for the reservoir/storage section of the Ketzin site. This method was successfully applied in two wells with extensive core data. In the third well, where few core data exist, the section was characterized successfully by analogy. Introduction Since the publication of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Report (IPCC, 2005), geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) was recognized in the public as an important concept for reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Notwithstanding technology, the understanding of the storage geometry, from the near surface to below the storage reservoir is mandatory. Another prerequisite for a successful operating storage project is the detailed knowledge of rock and fluid properties that do depend on pressure and temperature conditions. These data serve as an input for reservoir models and decisions on the injection regime as well as decisions on the monitoring of long-term CO2 migration after injection.
Rammer, B. (Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V. ) | Schütze, M. (Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V. ) | Weber, T. (Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V. ) | Bender, R. (Karl-Winnacker-Institut der DECHEMA e.V. )
ABSTRACT Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient and therefore integral component of many fertilizers. Due to the exploitation of natural resources, a shortage is previsible for the near future and new resources have to be found. Sewage sludge - a virtually infinitely available raw material - offers high contents of phosphates, but is also heavily contaminated by organic and inorganic pollutants. A newly developed process allows the complete removal of those substances, especially the heavy metal content, by the use of highly chlorine-containing atmospheres at temperatures of up to 1000°C. However, there are currently no materials commercially available which can withstand such conditions over longer periods of time. The thermodynamic assessment of different alloying elements revealed that materials with a high content of aluminum and silicon will have the best prerequisites to form and maintain slow-growing, stable oxide layers with the highest potential for being protective against corrosion attack. Since the maximum content of those elements within a technical alloy is restricted, the corrosion resistance of nickel base alloys will be optimized by the application of aluminum- and/or silicon-containing diffusion coatings using the pack cementation process. In this process, the material to be coated is embedded in a powder, consisting of the coating metal, a halogen-distributor (e.g. ammonium chloride) and aluminum oxide as filler material. During an annealing process of several hours at temperatures of 800 to 1000°C, gaseous metal halides form. They diffuse through the powder pack and decompose at the substrate surface, thereby depositing the coating metal. Subsequent solid state diffusion results in the formation of a protective diffusion layer. The performance of the coated materials will be examined in long-time tests under simulated field conditions at high temperatures under chlorine-containing atmospheres. Results from the coating development and their performance under the testing conditions will be reported in the paper. INTRODUCTION Background of the work Modern waste-water treatment generates large quantities of sewage sludge which - due to its high content of plant nutrients - can be used as agricultural fertilizer. Although it is rich in phosphates, it also contains large amounts of organic and inorganic pollutants such as heavy metals like chromium, cadmium, nickel and lead. The use of sewage sludge as a fertilizer has therefore been heavily criticized and was drastically reduced. Its alternative uses include the addition in cement works, dumping after previous combustion and other applications that lead to a loss of this valuable resource. Due to the exploitation of natural resources, a phosphate-shortage is being predicted for the near future and this results in an increasing interest in the reuse and recirculation of phosphates. An innovative process to successfully free sewage sludge from its contaminations was invented and patented by the BAM (Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin, Germany) and is currently being developed in the course of the European Commission funded project SUSAN (Sustainable and Safe Re-use of Municipal Sewage Sludge for Nutrient Recovery). It consists of two independent steps: destroying the organic pollutants by mono-combustion of the sewage sludge thermochemical treatment of the received sewage sludge ashes: conversion of the heavy metals into volatile heavy metal chlorides and subsequent separation from the base material
Abstract: With 152 national member bodies and a collection of over 14 900 International Standards, ISO is the leading international standardization organization. These standards cover a broad spectrum of technical issues, industrial sectors and management practices, as well as conformity assessment practices and recognition. Many are of interest to the petroleum and natural gas industries, for their own use and for their relations with their suppliers, stakeholders and society at large. ISO provides this sector with a value adding and widely recognized system for the development of International Standards, with an already extensive portfolio of standards to support the three dimensions of sustainable development, i.e. economic, environmental and social:Economic dimension. ISO and the oil and gas sector have collaborated to produce more than 100 International Standards that, by replacing industrial and national standards and company specifications, reduce costs and delivery time, facilitate procurement and crossborder trade, whilst disseminating technology and good practices. Environmental dimension. ISO offers a complete package comprising the ISO 14000 family for environmental management, standards for measuring and reducing pollution, environmental considerations for product design and labelling, as well as for the validation and verification of greenhouse gas emissions. Social dimension. ISO standards address many aspects of health and safety and these will soon be complemented by guidelines on social responsibility. The world is flat, after all… After all, "the world is flat", to quote the title of the current bestseller by Thomas Friedman, the three times winner of the Pulitzer prize and foreign affairs columnist at the New York Times. His thesis reviews ten "flattening" factors in the past decade, from the fall of the Berlin wall to Google, from the global collaboration to overcome the Y2K bug to outsourcing in the global village and the revolution of the global supply chain. At the inception of this 21 century, with this levelling of the playing field, International Standards of the type produced by ISO, based on a double level consensus - between nations and across stakeholders - are, more than ever, in demand, and in production, for a broad range of economic activities. The main drivers are:the globalization of trade in products and services the delocalization of procurement and investment the deregulation of public services the public demand for consumer, health and environmental protection the need for international solidarity to face security issues, epidemics or natural threats and disasters the rapid deployment of new information and communication technologies. A new political context driving the development of International Standards The political context in which International Standards are developed has evolved drastically:The World Trade Organization has grown its membership to 148 countries. Its Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade commits its signatories to make reference to International Standards in order to avoid creating unnecessary obstacles to trade through technical regulations, which set requirements on products and equipments and on conformity assessment procedures,
ABSTRACT: The design and construction of a new public transportation system in combination with extensive federal and public buildings in the central area of Berlin has been a considerable engineering challenge. Eight parallel tunnels were built by shield and cut & cover techniques up to 15 m below the water table in saturated, very permeable quaternary sand and gravel. Groundwater-dependent vegetation and buildings with timber piles led to limits on the permissible lowering of the natural groundwater table. The paper presents a summary of the building activities and the high demands which base on the geotechnical and environmental conditions. Special focus will be given on an innovative system of groundwater management (pumping and recharge of 17 million m3 of water and associated quality control) and geophysical quality control measurement. INTRODUCTION After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the reunification of East and West Germany the development of the new Center of the federal Government in Berlin since 1995 created many challenges. The combined width of the tunnels is up to 80 m, the maximum excavation depth is 20 m over a length of almost 6 km. In total almost 30 km of new tunnels are under construction. Tunnelling and station entails an expenditure of some $ 3 billion. Taking the ecological sensitivity of the vicinity of the project area into account, the construction methods are either cut & cover tunnels with watertight troughs or – where existing rivers, buildings or vegetation makes it necessary – mechanised shield tunnels (hydro shield). Special care was needed at the Tiergarten Park, the largest and oldest park in the City with its groundwater-dependent vegetation, and to the historical buildings of the Reichstag and the Charitè, which are founded on timber piles.
Abstract Oil and gas auctions were relatively uncommon before 1987. Since then the auction market has grown at a rate of almost forty percent annually, and auctions have become a useful and accepted method of buying and selling producing interests. Thousands of properties, totaling almost $200 million, are anticipated to be committed to auctions in 1997. Auctions provide advantages to both sellers and buyers. For sellers, they offer a quick and convenient means of "rationalizing" lower value, non-operated or geographically dispersed interests. For buyers, bids are transparent, against other willing bidders. Titles pass the day of the auction, eliminating the delays inherent in negotiated sales. Disadvantages exist. Lack of time or data for sufficient due diligence increase the risks of mistakes. Nevertheless, for many buyers the opportunity to acquire good properties at reasonable costs outweigh concerns. Introduction The unprecedented increase in oil and natural gas prices in the 1970's and early 1980's created the boom most of us experienced. Oil prices rose tenfold, and gas by more. Even so, expectations of even higher prices drove companies and independent to use easily available credit to lease, explore and drill. 1981 was a turning point in the industry. Oil and gas prices dropped substantially, and drilling virtually ceased. Companies canceled drilling plans and laid off employees. Those who survived the depression adopted survival tactics, attempted to meet debt obligations and retain key employees. In 1986, when it seemed that the industry was beginning to stabilize, prices again plummeted. Many companies that had managed to remain in business until then finally succumbed to bankruptcy. Companies that were still in business were forced to expand the development of their survival strategies. For many companies, that meant acknowledging that eighty percent of their income was derived from only twenty percent of their assets, and the remaining eighty percent was but a drain on their ability to make new money. Companies realized that it was necessary to increase efficiency in order to remain competitive in an industry which continued to experience marginal commodity prices. By reducing the costs of administration to properties which consistently lost money or were marginally profitable, corporate attention could be directed to finding new reserves and enhancing the recovery of existing profitable assets. The industry increasingly began to accept the eighty/twenty perspective, and to implement the practice of "asset rationalization" by initiating the sale of less profitable properties and assets. Exploratory and production activities were consolidated into "core areas" and assets located elsewhere were targeted for divestiture. In 1989, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of communism throughout the world provided the opportunity for many companies to initiate long-awaited exploration efforts in areas previously closed. Projected exploration and development expenses in remote areas easily exceeded normal budget requirements. A readily available source of capital to expand overseas operations was in the inventory of less profitable domestic U.S. properties. A problem with the new strategy was how to sell the thousands of properties which did not meet the new criteria. It became apparent that it was effectively impossible to individually negotiate the sale of so many properties within the time requirements set by management. The stage was set for development of the auction process in the oil and gas industry. Growth of Oil and Gas Auctions The majors have traditionally been net purchasers of producing properties. In 1987, majors purchased a net $9.3 billion of properties, in 1988, a net $4.4 billion. P. 97^
Constant demand for new naval and commercial vessels has created special conditions for the Government-owned Soviet shipbuilding industry, which practically has not been affected by the world shipbuilding crisis. On the other hand, such chronic diseases of the centralized economy as lack of incentive, material shortage and poor workmanship cause specific problems for ship construction. Being technically and financially unable to rapidly improve the overall technology level and performance of the entire industry, the Soviets concentrate their efforts on certain important areas and have achieved significant results, especially in welding and cutting titanium and aluminum alloys, modular production methods, standardization, etc. All productivity improvement efforts are supported by an army of highly educated engineers and scientists at shipyards, in multiple scientific, research and design institutions. Discussion Edwin J. Petersen, Todd Pacific Shipyards Three years ago I addressed the Ship Production Symposium as chairman of the Ship Production Committee and outlined some major factors which had contributed to the U.S. shipbuilding industry's remarkable achievements in building and maintaining the world's largest naval and merchant fleets during the five-year period starting just before World War II. The factors were as follows:There was a national commitment to get the job done. The shipbuilding industry was recognized as a needed national resource. There was a dependable workload. Standardization was extensively and effectively utilized. Shipbuilding work was effectively organized. Although these lessons appear to have been lost by our Government since World War II, the paper indicates that the Soviet Union has picked up these principles and has applied them very well to its current shipbuilding program. The paper also gives testimony to the observation that the Soviet Government recognizes the strategic and economic importance of a strong merchant fleet as well as a powerful naval fleet. In reviewing the paper, I found great similarity between the Soviet shipbuilding productivity improvement efforts and our own efforts or goals under the National Shipbuilding Research Program in the following areas:welding technology, flexible automation (robotics), application of group technology, standardization, facilities development, and education and training. In some areas, the Soviet Union appears to be well ahead of the United States in improving the shipbuilding process. Most noteworthy among these is the stable long-and medium-range planning that is possible by virtue of the use and adherence to the "Table of Vessel Classes." It will be obvious to most who hear and read these comments what a vast and significant improvement in shipbuilding costs and schedules could be achieved with a relatively dependable 15year master ship procurement plan for the U.S. naval and merchant fleets. Another area where the Soviet Union appears to lead the United States is in the integration of ship component suppliers into the shipbuilding process. This has been recognized as a vital step by the National Shipbuilding Research Program, but so far we have not made significant progress. A necessary prerequisite for this "supplier integration" is extensive standardization of ship components, yet another area in which the Soviets have achieved significantly greater progress than we have. Additional areas of Soviet advantage are the presence of a multilevel research and development infrastructure well supported by highly educated scientists, engineering and technical personnel; and better integration of formally educated engineering and technical personnel into the ship production process. In his conclusion, the author lists a number of problems facing the Soviet economy that adversely affect shipbuilding productivity. Perhaps behind this listing we can delve out some potential U.S. shipbuilding advantages. First, production systems in U.S. shipyards (with the possible exception of naval shipyards) are probably more flexible and adjustable to meet new circumstances as a consequence of not being constrained by a burdensome centralized bureaucracy, as is the case with Soviet shipyards. Next, such initiatives as the Ship Production Committee's "Human Resources Innovation" projects stand a better chance of achieving product-oriented "production team" relationship among labor, management, and technical personnel than the more rigid Soviet system, especially in view of the ability of U.S. shipyard management to offer meaningful financial incentives without the kind of bureaucratic constraints imposed in the Soviet system. Finally, the current U.S. Navy/shipbuilding industry cooperative effort to develop a common engineering database should lead to a highly integrated and disciplined ship design, construction, operation, and maintenance system for naval ships (and subsequently for commercial ships) that will ultimately restore the U.S. shipbuilding process to a leadership position in the world marketplace (additional references  and ).On that tentatively positive note, it seems fitting to close this discussion with a question: Is the author aware of any similar Soviet effort to develop an integrated computer-aided design, production and logistics support system? The author is to be congratulated on an excellent, comprehensive insight into the Soviet shipbuilding process and productivity improvement efforts that should give us all adequate cause not to be complacent in our own efforts. Peter M. Palermo, Naval Sea Systems Command The author presents an interesting paper that unfortunately leaves this reader with a number of unanswered questions. The paper is a paradox. It depicts a system consisting of a highly educated work force, advanced fabrication processes including the use of standardized hull modules, sophisticated materials and welding processes, and yet in the author's words they suffer from "low productivity, poor product quality, . . . and the rigid production systems which resists the introduction of new ideas." Is it possible that incentive, motivation, and morale play an equally significant role in achieving quality and producibility advances? Can the author discuss underlying reasons for quality problems in particular—or can we assume that the learning curves of Figs. 5 and Fig. 6 are representative of quality improvement curves? It has been my general impression that quality will improve with application of high-tech fabrication procedures, enclosed fabrication ways, availability of highly educated welding engineers on the building ways, and that productivity would improve with the implementation of modular or zone outfitting techniques coupled with the quality improvements. Can the author give his impressions of the impact of these innovations in the U.S. shipbuilding industry vis-a-vis the Soviet industry? Many of the welding processes cited in the paper are also familiar to the free world, with certain notable exceptions concerning application in Navy shipbuilding. For example, (1) electroslag welding is generally confined to single-pass welding of heavy plates; application to thinner plates—l1/4 in. and less when certified—would permit its use in more applications than heretofore. (2) Electron beam welding is generally restricted to high-technology machinery parts; vacuum chamber size restricts its use for larger components (thus it must be assumed that the Soviets have solved the vacuum chamber problem or have much larger chambers). (3) Likewise, laser welding has had limited use in U.S. shipbuilding. An interesting theme that runs throughout the paper, but is not explicitly addressed, is the quality of Soviet ship fitting. The use of high-tech welding processes and the mention of "remote controlled tooling for welding and X-ray testing the butt, and for following painting" imply significant ship fitting capabilities for fitting and positioning. This is particularly true if modules are built in one facility, outfitted and assembled elsewhere depending on the type of ship required. Any comments concerning Soviet ship fitting capabilities would be appreciated. The discussion on modular construction seems to indicate that the Soviets have a "standard hull module" that is used for different types of vessels, and if the use of these hull modules permit increasing hull length without changes to the fore and aft ends, it can be assumed that they are based on a standard structural design. That being the case, the midship structure will be overdesigned for many applications and optimally designed for very few. Recognizing that the initial additional cost for such a piece of hull structure is relatively minimal, it cannot be forgotten that the lifecycle costs for transporting unnecessary hull weight around can have significant fuel cost impacts. If I perceived the modular construction approach correctly, then I am truly intrigued concerning the methods for handling the distributive systems. In particular, during conversion when the ship is lengthened, how are the electrical, fluid, communications, and other distributive systems broken down, reassembled and tested? "Quick connect couplings" for these type systems at the module breaks is one particular area where economies can be achieved when zone construction methods become the order of the day in U.S. Navy ships. The author's comments in this regard would be most welcome. The design process as presented is somewhat different than U.S. Navy practice. In U.S. practice, Preliminary and Contract design are developed by the Navy. Detail design, the development of the working drawings, is conducted by the lead shipbuilder. While the detail design drawings can be used by follow shipbuilders, flexibility is permitted to facilitate unique shipbuilding or outfitting procedures. Even the contract drawings supplied by the Navy can be modified— upon Navy approval—to permit application of unique shipbuilder capabilities. The large number of college-trained personnel entering the Soviet shipbuilding and allied fields annually is mind-boggling. According to the author's estimation, a minimum of about 6500 college graduates—5000 of which have M.S. degrees—enter these fields each year. It would be most interesting to see a breakdown of these figures—in particular, how many naval architects and welding engineers are included in these figures? These are disciplines with relatively few personnel entering the Navy design and shipbuilding field today. For example, in 1985 in all U.S. colleges and universities, there were only 928 graduates (B.S., M.S. and Ph.D.) in marine, naval architecture and ocean engineering and only 1872 graduates in materials and metallurgy. The number of these graduates that entered the U.S. shipbuilding field is unknown. Again, the author is to be congratulated for providing a very thought-provoking paper. Frank J. Long, Win/Win Strategies This paper serves not only as a chronicle of some of the productivity improvement efforts in Soviet shipbuilding but also as an important reminder of the fruits of those efforts. While most Americans have an appreciation of the strengths of the Russian Navy, this paper serves to bring into clearer focus the Russians' entire maritime might in its naval, commercial, and fishing fleets. Indeed, no other nation on earth has a greater maritime capability. It is generally acknowledged that the Soviet Navy is the largest in the world. When considering the fact that the commercial and fishing fleets are, in many military respects, arms of the naval fleet, we can more fully appreciate how awesome Soviet maritime power truly is. The expansion of its maritime capabilities is simply another but highly significant aspect of Soviet worldwide ambitions. The development and updating of "Setka Typov Su dov" (Table of Vessel Classes), which the author describes is a classic example of the Soviet planning process. As the author states, "A mighty fishing and commercial fleet was built in accordance with a 'Setka' which was originally developed in the 1960's. And an even more impressive example is the rapid expansion of the Soviet Navy." In my opinion it is not mere coincidence that the Russians embarked on this course in the 1960's. That was the beginning of the coldest of cold war periods—Francis Gary Power's U-2 plane was downed by the Russians on May 1, 1960; the mid-May 1960 Four Power Geneva Summit was a bust; the Berlin Wall was erected in 1961 and, in 1962, we had the Cuban Missile Crisis. The United States maritime embargo capability in that crisis undoubtedly influenced the Soviet's planning process. It is a natural and normal function of a state-controlled economy with its state-controlled industries to act to bring about the controlled productivity improvement developments in exactly the key areas discussed in the author's paper. As the author states, "All innovations at Soviet shipyards have originated at two main sources:domestic development and adaptation of new ideas introduced by leading foreign yards, or most likely a combination of both. Soviet shipbuilders are very fast learners; moreover, their own experience is quite substantial." The Ship Production Committee of SNAME has organized its panels to conduct research in many of these same areas for productivity improvement purposes. For example, addressing the areas of technology and equipment are Panels SP-1 and 3, Shipbuilding Facilities and Environmental Effects, and Panel SP-7, Shipbuilding Welding. Shipbuilding methods are the province of SP-2; outfitting and production aids and engineering and scientific support are the province of SP-4, Design Production Integration. As I read through the descriptions of the processes that led to the productivity improvements, I was hoping to learn more about the organizational structure of Soviet shipyards, the managerial hierarchy and how work is organized by function or by craft in the shipyard. (I would assume that for all intents and purposes, all Russian yards are organized in the same way.) American shipyard management is wedded to the notion that American shipbuilding suffers immeasurably from a productivity standpoint because of limitations on management's ability to assign workers across craft lines. It is unlikely that this limitation exists in Soviet shipyards. If it does not, how is the unfettered right of assignment optimized? What are the tangible, measurable results? I believe it would have been helpful, also, for the author to have dedicated some of the paper to one of the most important factors in improvement in the labor-intensive shipbuilding industry—the shipyard worker. There are several references to worker problems—absenteeism, labor shortage, poor workmanship, and labor discipline. The reader is left with the impression that the Russians believe that either those are unsolvable problems or have a priority ranking significantly inferior to the organizational, technical, and design efforts discussed. As a case in point, the author devotes a complete section to engineering education and professional training but makes no mention of education or training programs for blue-collar workers. It would seem that a paper on productivity improvement efforts in Soviet shipbuilding would address this most important element. My guess is that the Russians have considerable such efforts underway and it would be beneficial for us to learn of them.