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Mangano, Giacomo (National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics – OGS) | Ceramicola, Silvia (National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics – OGS) | Zecchin, Massimo (National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics – OGS) | Brancatelli, Giuseppe (National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics – OGS) | Critelli, Salvatore (University of Calabria)
Abstract The Crotone-Spartivento Basin is a fore-arc basin located on the Ionian side of the Calabria region and was generated as a result of the Calabrian Arc kinematics since Serravallian. Due to a large presence of geohazard-related seabed features, such as slide scars, canyon headscarps and gravity-flow deposits that seriously endanger coastal infrastructures and human settlements, this area represents a natural laboratory for marine geohazard assessment. Two submerged, prominent lobate-shaped geomorphological highs, the so-called Crotone and Punta Stilo Swells, are recognized in the Crotone-Spartivento Basin. Their development is inferred to be linked to Arc evolution and is considered responsible for repeated gravity sliding and canyon incisions. An integrated geological and geophysical approach consisting of seismic, well, sub-bottom and high-resolution multi-beam data revealed that the origin of the Crotone Swell, which is associated with gravitational collapses, was promoted by the NW-trending strike slip shear zones, while the development of the Punta Stilo Swell seems to be the consequence of compressional tectonics during the upper Messinian. Such compressional phase is inferred to have controlled the accumulation of Plio-Pleistocene deposits, which seems to have driven the distribution of the modern physiographic domains. The marked steepness of the slope resulted from compressional tectonics also let the area prone to the development of slope instability and canyon incisions. These predisposing factors combined with glacio-eustatic sea level changes, rapid regional uplift over 1 Ma and manifestations of overpressure fluids are considered the main constraints for the observed slope instability and canyon development. These features may represent important hazards for coastal population and infrastructures and for this reason they would require attentive investigation and regular monitoring. Introduction A better understanding of geological processes driving marine geohazard-related geomorphic features such as failures, canyon headscarps and mega-mass transport deposits is an important issue that require particular attention for the safeguard of coastal population and infrastructures.
We developed a method for interpretation of potential field data through unsupervised machine learning techniques, called Unsupervised Boundary Analysis (UBA). Through the use of Self-Organizing Maps and k-means it is possible to obtain a clustering in the space domain allowing the identification of the edges of the sources, with no prior information and no need of expert interpreters. To understand the behavior of our procedure we performed a test on gravimetric synthetic data of two vertical faults. Then, we tested UBA on the real case of Torre Galli (Calabria, Italy), highlighting several buried archaeological bodies. The results were also compared with two boundary analysis other methods.
In the paper the experiments on the quasi-determinism theory of the wave groups, introduced by Boccotti, are described both for the field of progressive and standing waves. These experiments have been carried out in the sea of Reggio Calabria that represents, for a combination of favorable environmental factors, a natural laboratory where some wind-generated waves occur, representing small scale models of strong Mediterranean and oceanic sea storms. INTRODUCTION Boccotti, (1983-84-88-89-97, 2000) introduced the quasi-determinism theory of sea waves or wave groups theory. To verify this theory, there was the need to operate in the sea with laboratory methods, therefore implicating a remarkable innovation. It should be noted that, normally, some measure campaigns are performed in the sea while the experiments are performed in the channels in laboratories. For instance, in the sea, the wave dimensions and the characteristic forms of the spectra are measured as in the famous project JONSWAP completed in the Seventies in the North Sea (Hasselmann et al., (1973)). The experiment is instead something more complicated, asking for greater precision, many instruments working simultaneously and hydraulic-checked conditions. The quasi-determinism theory predicts that when an exceptionally high wave realizes in a fixed point xo, yoat an instant t0during a sea storm, with quasi-certainty it is possible to foresee what will happen in an area with sides of the order of some wavelengths around that point, before and after the instant t0. In particular, the theory shows that an exceptionally high wave is formed due to the passage of a well defined three-dimensional waves group. As shown in Fig. 1, the waves group is a well defined physical unity and the theory demonstrates that, during its evolution, it is isolated by the context of other irregular waves formed during the sea storm.
ABSTRACT Within the European marine research programme the approach for the future is to establish multi-disciplinary networks including existing systems and the development of new technologies for efficient installation of stations, sensors, and near real time communication at abyssal depths and shallow sea. One of the ongoing projects dedicated to these aims is ORION (Ocean Research by Integrated Observation Networks - GEOSTAR 3) with partners of several European institutions involved in marine research. This paper will give a brief outline of the project tasks and will focus on the development, tests and preparation of ASTRA prototype (Automated Sensor burial Tool for Remote Applications at abyssal depths) as part of the work packages dedicated to the German partners involved. Main intention of the seismometer burial is the increase of noise-signal ratio for the long-term measurement. INTRODUCTION ASTRA is embedded into the ORION project. It is aimed to develop and set up a multidisciplinary net work of deep-sea observatories. The net work configuration consists of several observatories (nodes), that are located on the sea floor in a distance of several kilometres. Each node is equipped with several sensors and data acquisition systems. One of these sensors is a seismometer that has to be buried by ASTRA into the sea bed and recovered after the end of a monitoring term. Data exchange has to be established between all the nodes and a gateway node that is able to communicate with a moored surface buoy. This surface buoy links the shore station via a satellite connection. The pilot experiment is a planned as a one year mission in the area between Sicily and Calabria (Italy) at a depth of about 3500 m.w.d. The tectonic, vulcanologic and hydrothermal phenomena and their interaction gave the reason for the choice of this region.
ABSTRACT: In order to study the possible damage of excavation and to arrange operative corrections for the enlargement in a built up area near tunnels, several sensors monitoring the rocky masses and several vibrometric stations have been located. Both the systems were managed by an intelligent terminal microcomputer linked to a Data Analysis Control located 1120 km away. The real time monitoring of 3 years of work showed that the use of mechanical tools didn't cause any vibration dangerous to buildings, or the activation of rocky bodies. RESUME: Pour analiser les dommages qui pouvaient deriver de I'utilisation des moyens mecaniques necessaires pour creuser des tunnels près d'un terrain urbanise et dans Ie but de predisposer les modifications indispensables, on a mis en place des stations vibrometriques et on a place sur les parois rocheuses des transducteurs de position. Ces deux systhèmes d'analyse sont geres par un micro-ordinateur de base à 1120 km. Le suivi à distance pendant les trois annees des travaux a demontre que Ie moyens mecaniques n'ont provoque ni vibrations dangereuses pour les batiments ni eboulements de masses rocheuses. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG. Um den Grad möglicher Schaden zu analysieren, die infolge Aushubarbeiten in nahegele-genen Tunnels mit Frasvortrieb und Erweiterung mit mechanischen Geraten auf eine urbanisierte Zone einwirken wuerden und eventuelle Korrekturen der Arbeitsweise vorzubereiten, wurden Meβstationen zur Erfassung von Er-schuetterungen angebracht. Die Felswande wurden auch mit Bewegungsmessem versehen. Beide Meβsysteme wurden ueber einen hochentwickelten Mikrocomputer betrieben, der mittels einer Übertragungsstrecke von 1120 km Lange an ein Datencenter angeschlossen war. Die Kontrolleinrichtung hat wahrend der 3 Jahre dauemden Arbeiter gezeigt, daβ der Einsatz der mechanischen Gerate weder gefarliche Erschuetterungen fuer die Gebaude, noch Felsstuerze verursacht hat. 1 INTRODUCTION National Road n. 18 variant, between km 302+500 and 307+000, along the built-up area of Guardia Piemontese Marina in Calabria (Italy), develops for nearly the totality, tunnels dug into metamorphic and sedimentary cliffs of the massive hills overhanging the village (Fig.1). Beginning from south-east, these are represented by sandstones making passage to slates and, more ahead, to quartz-phillites pertaining to the medium Trias of the Calabrian Coast, put into non-bedded crystalline limestone. According to Table 1, the cliffs present Figure 1- Location plan of National Road 18 variant. geomechanical characterisation from average to poorer, being it included, between Barton's V and VII and Bieniawski's III and V. This area is affected by several fissures splitting up into heaps of different volume pointed to landslide. In order to gather valid elements about vibrations transmitted by digging works, and their incidence on possible mobilization of the massive premises with consequent damage on the overhanging buildings, the National Board of Roads. (A.N.A.S.) has predisposed the use of devices planned to monitor these phenomena. 2 MONITORING OF THE VIBRATIONS 2.1 In order to analyse the vibrations induced on the rocky bodies and on the loose grounds by 0 4.94 m slot cutters and enlarging mechanical tools, eight vibrometric stations were located in the most significant places. 2.2- To such aim, the measurement transducers were put in direct contact to the rocky formations within traps of 0.5–0.7m in depths and placed in diggings of l.5xl.0x0.5 m large. Over it, a sand thick to isolate from spurious vibrations and supported by few resin glass boxes-whose overall size was 0.6x0.3x2 m. The boxes were braced and provided with an antenna holder.
Bonaldi, P. (ISMES (Istituto Sperimentale Modelli e Strutture)) | Manfredini, G. (ENEL (Ente Nationale Energia Elettrica) Construction Division) | Martinetti, S. (ENEL (Ente Nationale Energia Elettrica) Construction Division) | Ribacchi, R. (Faculty of Engineering, University of Rome) | Silvestri, T. (ENEL Design and Construction Centre)
SYNOPSIS: The Passante dam is a 70 m high concrete gravity-darn founded on gneiss and crystalline schists having poor mechanical characteristics. The behaviour of the foundation is controlled by means of inverted plumb-lines long-base extensometers (rock meters), electro-acoustic piezometers, and by measuring the rotations of the dam base. In this paper data collected during the dam construction and the first fillings of the reservoir are analysed by means of an FEM model. The rock deformability was identified and compared with the values provided by the in situ tests performed during the design stage. The presence of a superficial low-module layer was evidenced; a considerable rheological behaviour was also observed. RESUME: Le barrage du Passante est un barrage poids en beton de 70 m de hauteur. Sa fondation est constituee de gneiss et de schistes avec mediocres proprietes mecaniques. Le comportement du rocher de fondation est contrôle par des pendules inverses, des extensimètres à longue base, des piezomètres acoustiques et par la mesure des rotations de la base du barrage. Les mesures effectuees pendant la construction du barrage et pendant la mise en eau ont ete analysees en utilisant les methodes d'elements finis. Cette analyse a permis d'etablir la deformabilite du rocher et de la comparer avec les valeurs obtenus par des essais in situ realises au stade preparatoire. On a pu mettre en evidence la presence d'une couche superficielle plus deformable ainsi que de nettes deformations rheologiques pendant la construction et la mise en eau. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Passante Staumauer ist eine 70 m hohe Gewichtsstaumauer, die auf Gneis und kristallinen Schiefern mit schlechten mechanischen Eigenschaften gegruendet ist. Das Verhalten des Baugrundes wird durch inverse Pendel, Dehnungsmesser mit langer Basis, elektro-akustische Piezometer und durch die Messung der Rotationen der Dammbasis erfaßt. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden die Daten, die wahrend des Dammbaues und der ersten Auffuellungen gesammelt wurden, mittels der Finite Element Methode analysiert. Durch diese Untersuchung ist es möglich gewesen, die Formanderung des Gesteins zu identifizieren und mit den Werten von in situ Versuchen wahrend des Bauentwurfes zu vergleichen. Das Vorhandensein einer Schicht stark verformbaren Gesteins und ein bemerkenswertes rheologisches Verhalten wahrend des Baues und der ersten Auffuellungen werden hervorgehoben. 1. INTRODUCTION The Passante reservoir is part of the hydroelectric scheme which exploits the waters flowing down the eastern slopes of the Sila massif in Calabria (Fig.1); The Passante dam was built across the upper course of the river bearing the same name at about 1100 metres elevation; the reservoir thus formed has a maximum capacity of 35 10 6m, being fed by a catchment area of about 70 km. It will supply water to two hydroelectric plants in series for an overall head of 900 m and a capacity of 75 MW. The dam is a gravity dam with triangular section and a central spillway; its features are summarized in Table 1 and illustrated in Fig. 2. Its construction was completed in 1977 however, due to delays in the completion of other structures and in particular of the nine-kilometre long diversion tunnel, the reservoir has so far never been completely filled. Monitoring devices were installed in the dam and in the foundation rock so as to follow the behaviour of the structure right from the initial stages of construction. 2 GEOLOGICAL SITUATION The reservoir is located in metamorphic rocks of the Calabride complex. In the gorge area two main units, known as "biotitic gneiss" and "white schists" are present (Fig.2). The latter one outcrops in the lower part of the valley slopes and is therefore the foundation rock of the higher blocks. Its petrographic characteristics vary considerably but the most common lithotype is a weakly schistous rock, composed of quartz and feldspar with a low percentage of phyllosilicates; its texture is characterized by the presence of large highly fissured crystals and of microgranular cataclastic layers (Fig. 3). Other less frequent lithotypes present a higher percentage of muscovite and marked schistosity. 3. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 3.1 Rock Material The mechanical characteristics of the rock material are summarized in Table II and in the histograms of Fig.4. The tests relate to the most common weakly schistous, lithotype. The high scatter of the strength and deformability characteristics may be attributed to the variable conditions of microfissuring and, in some cases, to the presence of macroscopic weakness surfaces. The intensity of microfissuring is evidenced by the difference between seismic velocity in dry and saturated conditions, by the low values of the Young modulus and by its dependence in the applied stresses. 3.2 Rock mass A seismic refraction survey (Fig.7) indicated the presence of a superficial layer of low quality rock characterized by a seismic velocity of 1.7- 2.5 km/s; this layer is virtually absent at the bottom of the valley, whereas its thickness increases towards the higher elevation along the slopes.
SUMMARY: This paper is an analysis of the results obtained with a series of mineralogical, petrographical, mechanical and rheological tests performed on granitic samples distinguished by different alteration degree. The analysis of the relationships between the values of both the alteration degree (Ia), computed as the ratio "amount of altered feldspars/total feldspars", and the parameters characterizing the rheological behaviour of examined samples (creep constant "A", etc •.) has shown:- a) the creep constant "A" is a direct function of the alteration degree "Ia"; b) the rheological behaviour of granitic rocks depends on both the linear viscosity and the maximum time required to still obtain creep fractures. RESUME: Ce memoire represente une analyse des resultats obtenus avec une serie d'essais mineralogiques, petrographiques, mecaniques and rheologiques executees sur des echantillons de roches granitiques caracterisees. par des differents degres d'alteration. L'analyse des relations entre degre d'alteration (Ia), exprime par le rapport "quantite de feldspaths alteres/feldspaths totals", et les paramètres caracterisants le comportement rheologique des echantillons examines (costante de creep "A", etc •.) a mis en evidence: a) la costante de creep "A" est une fonction directe du degre d'alteration; b) le comportement rheologique depend directement du coefficient de viscosite lineaire et du temp maximal necessair à obtenir encore la rupture pour creep. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Diese Arbeit ist eine Analyse der, durch einer Serie von mineralogischen, petrografischen, mecani schen und rheologischen versuchen ueber von verschiedenen verwitterungsgraden charakterisierten Granitproben, erhaltenen Resultate. Die Analyse der Beziehungen zwischen dem verwitterungsgrad - als veraeltrus Menge der verwitterten Feldspaten/gesamte Feldspate ausgedrueckt - und Parameter welche das rheologische verhalten der geprueften Proben charakterisiert, hat folgendes hervorgehoben: a) die Konstante "A" ist eine direkte Funktion des verwitterungsgrades; b) das rheologi - sche verhalten der verwitterten Proben haengt direkt von der linearen Viskositaet ab und von der maximalen zeit zu welcher man noch einen Bruch durch 'creep' erhalten kann. 1. INTRODUCTION The study of the relationships between degree of weathering and time-dependent behaviour of granitic rocks has been carried out on samples drawn in the eastern part of the Calabria province, in the Allaro and Amusa rivers Basins. This granitic formation belongs to one of the four overlapping strata, the "dioritic-kinzingitic one", known as the 'Calabrian complex" in the Authors literature. This formation presents a strong weathering degree mostly due to the intense fracturing systems risen from the tectonic history that concerned it from Cretaceous on. The drawing area of samples is the contact one between this formation and the overhanging one set up by biotitic schists: it has been chosen because of the presence of both widespread intense landslide phenomena and considerable weathering degree variability. From a petrographic point of view it is set up by rocks with a composition changeable from clearly granitic to granodioritic one according to the proximity of contact zone: these alterations, due to the reciprocal contamination of solidifying magma with the setting rocks, took place mainly in the solid state. The mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of drawn samples were determined by both investigations on thin sections at the integrating meter table (modal analysis) on three mutually perpendicular sections each sample and a set of X-ray diffraction and thermal differential analyses that allowed with their interpretation to single out kaolinite as the alteration clayey mineral. The mechanical and rheological properties of samples have been pointed out with uniaxial compressive unconfined tests, both rapidly increasing stresses and at constant stress. 2. MINERALOGICAL AND PETROGRAPHICAL PROPERTIES The laboratory tests were carried out in order to single out not only the samples mineralogical composition but the altered minerals presence and relative amount too. The optical examination of the thin sections showed all samples belong to granitic rocks: their mineralogical association is really quartz-feldspars with a prevalence of K-feldspar over Na-feldspar. The determination of type and nature of alteration clayey minerals has been made with semiquantitative tests, both x-ray and thermodifferential. The presence of alteration minerals (kaolinite) was later on displayed concentrating them by sedimentation after treatment with hydrocloric acid: an example of the results obtained with this technique on Sample n°3 is shown in Fig.l (graph n° 3bis). The thermo differential analyses allowed to differentiate between kaolinite and chlorite whose peaks are superimposed in the X-ray graphs: the results obtained on Sample n°3 are drawn in Fig.2. The obtained graph analysis allowed thus to recognize the presence of kaolinite in all samples. This mineral results in granitic rocks from the alteration of feldspars especially in relatively acid environnement: the groundwater analyses has indeed done Ph values of about 6.5 - 6.8, that is lightly acid, and a conductivity of nearly 3.5 × 10 µS. The amounts of kaolinite are variable in the examined samples, as the X-ray peaks amplitude shows: it is negligeable in Sample n°1, moderate in Samples n°2 and 5, considerable in samples n° 3 and n°4.
INDEX OF NAlrMES OCCURRING IN VOLUMES I-X INDEX DES NOMS DES VOLUMES I-X Ackermann, P. IV 227. Agaïonoff, A. V. III 535. Agnich, F. J. I 619, 632, 633, 634. Agron, P. IV ilti. Ainsley, W. G. V1 321, 322, 579. Albriglit, R. E. IX 77. Alexanian, C. VI 403. Alexeyev, F. A. I 737. Amiot, P, VI1 168. Anderson, R. J. VI1 145. André, M. L. VI 307. Ariano, R. VI 26, 45. Aries, R. S. IV 53, 224. Aronis, G. A. I 125, 148. Artozoul, J. VI 403, 105, 113. Asarta Guiccioli, de, A. Asbury, W. C. III 389; IV 154, 197 Asquith, E. VI1 17. Aue, G. K. VI 244. Ault, W. S. VI 349, 434. Avico, G. V 403; VI 105. Aymon, J. II 371, 378. VI1 223.Baccaredda, M. Bailey, C. L. VI 347. Bailey, W. A. III 304. Bailey, D. G. F. II 325. Bailey, M. W. II 352. Baker, W. J. Balaceanu, J. C. IV 77. 84. Baldeschwieler, E. L. V 235, 248, 249, 250, 327 Ballabio, G. Ballard, S. A. IV 141. Rahke, E. II 501, 524. Randettini di Poggio, A. Banks, A. J. VI11 113. Barenblatt, G. I. II 573. Hargman, D. V 213, 232. ßarieau, R. Bartholomé, E. Bartholomew, J. W. III 169. Barwell, F. T. VI 115, 135, 136. Baserga, E. IV 249. Basevi, E. III 457. Bastien, P. VI1 151, 168. Bathory, J. III 167. Bawendell, P. B. II 343, 351. Baxter, R. S. VI1 197. V 383, 388, 390. II 379, 392, 393. IV 253, 258, 259. VI11 31. V 347, 349; VI 103. IV 65, 73, 74, 75. Hrlluigi, A. II 275, 283, 184.Reneo, E. I 109, 121, 122, 123. Bennett, H. H. VI1 197. ßent, R. U. III 241, 250. Bentz, A. I 158, 691, 713. ßergstrom, E. V. III 305. Bernard, A. L. VI1 79. ßérnard, A. VI 11, 26, 27. Bernardon, M. ßrrnelin, B. V 403. ßerti, V. III 203. ßertoloni, F. IX 99, 119, 110. Besson, F. G. VI 536. Bestougeff Beswick, W. R. VI 510. ßettenstacdt, F. Beukers, J. A. III 349. ßienner, F. I 337. Bierett, G. II 501. Biert, J. VI 261, 312. Biffignandi, U. VI11 131, 144, 145. ßillard, J. W. II 325. Birks, J. II 57, 151, 415, 425, 439, 440. Biske, V. III 1, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26; Blackwell, E. A. VI11 128, 129. Blanc, L. A. VI 315. Bland, R. E. III 277. Boer, H. V 1. Boisselct, L. V 403; VI 105. Bolsover, G. Et. VI1 49, 60. Bonauguri, E. Bonnard, E. I 173, 337. ßonner, W. A. VI1 227. Boon, E. F. VI1 1, 15, 17, 47. Boschi, A. VI11 145. Bosshard, H. IV 249. Bost, C. M. III 132; VI1 44. 13owles, V. O. III 305. Bradbury, E. J. VI 313, k98, 510: VI1 79. Bradley, W. E. III 509. Breusse, J. J. I 573. Brizzi, S. VI1 19. Brockwell, A. J. III 388, 389. Brodsky, A. M. III 545. Brognon, G. I 251, 265. Brooks, W. B. II 91. Brotzen, F. III 25; V h00, 425. V 213, 232, 233; VI 27. I 493, 513, 515. IV 205, 208; v 125. IV 258; VI 187, 202, 208. I 451, 490, 514, 544, 360 PROCEEDINGS FOURTH WORLD PETROLEUM CONGRESS-GENERAL VOLUME 175.Browne, J. F. IX 40. Brown, D. R. I 645, 659. Brun, R. VI 344. Brunner, M. VI 219, 394. Buckley, S. E. II 417. Burgeois, E. VI 395. Burger, J. J. I 337. Burli, R. E. IV 167, 174, ßurnham, H. D. VI1 227. Bush, R. E. II 171. Busking, B. E. II 441. Butler, J. W. II 325, 342. Butta, E. V 383. Calabria, G.
RESUME IJn rc'sunir! succinct est don& des divers travaux de prospection qui sonst exécutés par I l'Azienda Generale Italiana Pelroli dans la Fossa Rrndnnica silute entre les Apen- (1 D, , niris, le, mont Gargano et le Alurge (Italie du Sud). SUMMARY A short account i~ qwen of thr vuriotis stages of / be ozl prospectmq iiwrk carried ouf O?/ t hr Artenda Cenprnir I /nlmna Pplrolz in the Foiw Rrndnnra nn area in Soufltcrn if >i, Italy situated hetlc;ern / / ir Apennuwc, tbc Gnrgnno and the Murge. AUSZUG E s ?bird em KUTZPT .4uszug gegeben der verschiedenen Forscbunqen dip lion drr Aziendn Generale Italiana Petroli,) in der Fosia Brudanara im Sud Italien, zwischen rr R I) dpn Apennien, dem Gargano und dem Murge uusqefithrf worden sind. I. - General geological conditions that render and, above all, Neogene formations aTe predominant, mostly oî a clastic and often of a flysch-like miure: the area worth taking into consideration. these formations on account of their low mean rigidity, Position and definition of the area are generally broken and crumpled in a most complicated and irregular manner. De Lonenzo liad already worked out, in i%, the above Between the districts of Abruzzo and Calabria, the general geological fmtures d the portion o ithe Sou-Apennines do not form a single well-marked mountiain thern Apennines that is being considered [i] (1). range, but coasist in a broad strip of mountainous Along the Adriatic side, the Apennines are followed, countny made up of a number of discontinous and between Abruzzo and Calabria, by a parallel strip of approximatelly parallel ranges bearing NW to SE. liilly country made up of marine Pliocene Iormations; Within this mountainous strip, stretches of uneven Ihese are mainly argillaceous (Plaisentian) and mone or plateau much dissected hy erasion are also met with. lelss flat-lying. To the NW of the Gargano Protnontoiry On the Tyrrhene (SW) side of the strip, Shuppen ihis Pliocene strip reaches to the Adriatic coast, while 1 1 structure prevails, the Shuppen consisting of large i()) limestone mases of Middle and Upper Mmozoic age (the Trias has, on the olthen hand, mainly a flysch-like (i) The numbers in square bracke& refer to the list development); while an the Adriatic (NE) side, Paleogene of publications at the end of the paper. - 587 - to he SE it is bounded, to the NE, by the little-disturbed and the Murge have a littoral facies that is completely Cretaceous limestones of the Gargano Promontory and, different from that of the corresponding formations in fiirther SE, of the Rlurge Hills. The distribution of thc Apennines. This led one to presume that, under these Pliocene areas has long been known, as the the Pliocene cover of the Fossa ß radanica rather ((I), country in whi