|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Flysch rock-masses constituted by turbidity deposits present a non-uniform alternation of limestones, silty sandstones, marly limestones, marls and shales. This complex irregular lithological alternation is a challenge in designing large underground openings and tunnels. Commonly, the estimation of rock mass properties is achieved by the use of rock mass classifications (GSI, RMR, Q, etc.), laboratory testing, and in situ testing. Designing is performed adopting both empirical relationships by Marinos & Hoek (2000) and Hoek et al. (2002) and numerical analyses. Two case histories from Italy, supported by well-addressed and executed preliminary investigations, numbering many in situ and laboratory tests, permitted us a detailed evaluation of all the pertinent geomechanical parameters based on full statistics approach. The first is a tunnel in the Monte Morello Unit, in the Northern Apennines, which mainly consists of marly limestone and silty marls in thick banks occasionally with thin levels of calcarenites, with interlayers of densely alternating silty sandstones and shales. The second is a tunnel in the Flysch di Trieste, in the Southern Eastern Alps, made up of regularly varying marls and sandstones, with sandstones beds of variable thickness from a few centimetres to a meter, and the marls up to 40-50 cm. On the basis of very extensive geological-geomechanical site investigations carried out for these rock masses, the geomechanical characterization carried out for the tunnels design is described in details adopting the classical methods given in literature to estimate key rock material and rock mass properties. The statistical distributions of all the relevant geomechanical parameters of the different lithotypes of intact rocks and of the Flysch rock masses are presented. The back analysis shows that the ranges of design geomechanical parameters satisfy the as built data, fostering the statistical approach followed.
Abstract The aim of the leak detection system (LDS) project was to install and manage a tool able to detect leaks on the Trieste-Visco pipeline, i.e. to prevent potential environmental damage. The Trieste to Visco pipeline is a 10-inch, 58km multiproduct pipeline that is mainly buried and transports refined fuels. The pipeline follows the lay of the land, mainly rural areas, at an average depth of 2,5 mt apart from road and river crossings. The project began in November 2016 and finished in March 2018. The identified solution, Atmos Wave Flow®, using pressure sensors along the whole pipeline and flow sensors at pipeline start/end, coupled with interpretation software can raise alarms providing the exact location of the leak with a +/-50m precision and a 20 l/min, 0.48 % of the nominal transfer flow, leak rate. The project has been managed jointly by KRI and KUPIT IT Group involving technology developed by Atmos International (Atmos). The Atmos Wave Flow® solution includes four different leak and theft detection technologies to assure optimal, redundant, pipeline monitoring: it combines the reliability and accuracy of the mass balance (flow) method with the sensitivity, speed, and accuracy of "negative pressure wave" techniques to achieve the highest sensitivity, location accuracy, minimum response time, and low false alarm rate. The control room operator has been provided with a simple GUI to monitor the pipeline pressure/flow status which raises alarms on leak detection while playing a continuous sound until acknowledgment. The system detected and located two real theft attempts in September and October 2017, during the observation and tuning phase of the project. Following the system alarms, Atmos theft detection engineers analysed the data offline to improve the theft location accuracy to within 300m for each theft event. The theft events occurred during both static (shut-in) and dynamic conditions.
Biot, Marco (University of Trieste - DIA) | Boote, Dario (University of Genoa - DITEN) | Brocco, Emanuele (University of Trieste - DIA) | Moro, Lorenzo (University of Trieste - DIA) | Pais, Tatiana (University of Genoa - DITEN) | Delle Piane, Stefano (Azimut|Benetti Shipyard)
Abstract The value of a super-yacht project can be measured in terms of cost, size, autonomy, design and lately also in terms of comfort on board, since the competition among the various shipyards is now being played on quality of living onboard, as well as on more traditional aspects such as design, cost and performance. Since the on-board comfort has become a performance parameter, the vibration and noise level are topics of increasing interest to ship-owners, ship designers and builders. The engine-mount loading is the primary source of vibrations onboard boats. Indeed, the increased sophistication of the on board outfitting has required lower limits levels on vibration and noise over the last decade. By contrast, the current trend aims at producing faster ships, equipped with increasingly powerful engines, which imply, in the absence of proper measures of contrast, higher levels of vibration and noise. In order to improve the comfort level onboard their superyachts, Azimut|Benetti Shipyards, in cooperation with the Naval Architecture Section of the DITEN Department of the University of Genova and with the DIA Department of the University of Trieste, began an investigation campaign of the dynamic response of the marine Diesel engine foundations. The dynamic behavior of the Diesel engine foundation is a paramount importance to evaluate its effectiveness in the coupling system between the Diesel engine and the ship structures. An accurate study of the dynamic behavior of these elements allows both avoiding high levels of vibrations in the low frequency range and limiting the structure-borne noise levels in the high frequency range. The knowledge of dynamic response of Diesel engine foundations is a key factor for the comfort assessment in the first phase of ship and superyacht design with regards to noise and vibration characteristics. Given the labour time needed to perform a dynamic FE analysis, with particular reference to mobility analyses, in this study a procedure to individuate the optimum dimensional characteristics of engine foundations numerical models has been performed, in order to achieve in reasonable calculation times reliable results. The investigation has been supported by a wide measurement campaign by which it has been possible to make a validation of numerical results.
Abstract In the frame of energy/heat/resources production and geogas storage by new technologies among the European Energy Platforms and Set Plan Energy, the paper considers some peculiar case histories - Italian mainly - during a decade of a fruitful cooperation between industry and Academia/Research Centers, in the frame of the growing need of "Debate Publique", within a complex and motley stakeholders community made by scientific-industry-public institutions. They are involved in the difficult task to study and accept (or refuse) projects strongly impacting the lived territory & underground, in densely populate countries, in terms of appropriate public communication and sound deontological behaviour (Geo-Ethics, as discussed in the recent Trieste Next EnergEthic public conference, September 26-28, 2014 and during the Energy Italian Summit in Milan, September, 29- October, 1, 2014, where the authors were involved in round tables as front end with the population too). The paper recalls and rework years of "scientific" communication within the mass-media in this field, in the past also highlighting the positive and negative messages within articles (Quattrocchi, 2008). The newspaper articles need to be read in comparison to the true and objective scientific experimental data, gathered by the real scientific work, as perceived by citizens of medium scholastic culture, which not delve the geologic disciplines, but receive simply the journalistic front-end, very often as sensationalist scoops. This path progressively tangles as a consequence of the complex and conflicting use of underground to produce energy (hydrocarbons, geothermal reservoirs, gas storages, unconventional gas/oil, etc..), or resources (i.e., REE mining, etc…) The efforts to review a "paper" published on newspapers and blogs could be more difficult than to review a scientific paper, as a consequence of the peculiar situations behind the scenes and the conflicts of interests staying in the nest, in a newspaper article or in a blog comment (locally political interests, commercial interests, attention-seeking, colleagues envies, etc..):herewith we discuss the case history of Commissione ICHESE. The scientific journalists are normally of low scientific and ethical level and they are often coopted by negative mechanisms (mainly political for some newspapers or TV): the synergies among industry and Academia could lower a lot these negative situations. In conclusions we suggest a "scientific journalist licence" and - paradoxically - grave procedures of "Hyppocrates adjuratory" for scientific journalists as well as for scientific community and operators involved in the sector. The case histories reported are emblematic of how the road is long, meandrous, but necessary. A new text for a smart and innovative European Directivity to use underground to produce energy and Heat - including conventional & unconventional hydrocarbons - is discussed, as a result of a strict interaction between industry and Academia/Research, starting from the complex Italian Regulatory Issue: also a new communication-dissemination regulatory framework shoud be added.
Hydrocarbons Exciting hydrocarbon discoveries of mind-bending quantities are being made in the far reaches of our solar system and our own Milky Way galaxy. A new paper (http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-010) by scientists on NASA’s Cassini-Huygens mission finds that blocks of hydrocarbon ice might float upon the surface of existing lakes and seas of liquid methane and ethane on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Findings from a recent study (http://arxiv.org/pdf/1210.8178v1) of the Horsehead Nebula, part of the Orion Constellation, propose the discovery of a new interstellar molecule, the cation C3H (propynylidyne). C3H was one of 30 molecules identified in the region, including several small hydrocarbons. Titan is about a billion miles away from Earth (1.5 light-hours) and the Horsehead Nebula is 1,300 light-years away (7.6 quadrillion miles). Why should the petroleum industry pay attention to the existence of hydrocarbons at impracticable distances from Earth? Perhaps instead it would make more sense to focus on deep Earth. However, there is a sense in which attempting to look below the surface of our own planet is a far more difficult task than exploring outer space: We can send a human 238,900 miles away to the surface of our moon, and humans routinely spend months on-board the International Space Station, which is maintained at an orbital altitude of between 205 and 255 miles above Earth. But only three humans have been to the Challenger Deep, first sounded during the HMS Challenger expedition (December 1872 to May 1876) at the southern end of the 1,580-mile-long, crescent-shaped Mariana Trench some 210 miles southwest of Guam, which at 36,069±131 ft (a little less than 7 miles) below sea level is the deepest point in Earth’s oceans. Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh spent only 20 minutes at a depth of 35,814 ft on 20 January 1960, in the bathyscaphe Trieste. Filmmaker James Cameron spent a little over 3 hours there on 25 March 2012, in his specialized sub-marine called the Deepsea Challenger. A few deep-sea remotely operated vehicles have also plumbed the depths of the Challenger Deep. Of course, for humans to actually enter the Earth’s crust is impossible without clearing and bolstering a mine-shaft. The deepest humans have ever traveled into the Earth is at the Tau-Tona gold mine, near Carletonville, South Africa, which extends some 2.4 miles underground.
The design of offshore regasification terminals requires measuring against complex issues, related to tasks having reference to the exposed position of the mooring platforms: common operations such as ship handling, mooring and working with loading arms might become challenging and need to be carefully approached since preliminary design phases, in order to ensure smooth operations of the future terminal. Terminal Alpi Adriatico is proposing a project of an LNG regasification terminal, based on a GBS located in the Gulf of Trieste, having a regasification capacity of 8 BCM of gas per year, with a mooring platform where LNG carriers will berth and discharge through loading arms. RINA has been performing a wide study, aimed at verifying or defining basic design data, such as terminal location and orientation, storage capacity, loading arms type, mooring layout, with the objective of enhancing terminal availability and optimizing terminal layout. The design optimization has been carried out adopting a methodology which RINA has been developing in the last couple of years by adding one by one a quite high number of specialist studies, which are interconnected one to the others and which merge together to the execution of a logistic simulation of the operations, which is the tool used for decision making. This methodology has been developed in the frame of the research project O&G-1, named "Development of tools and methods for an analytical approach to feasibility assessment of oil&gas marine terminal". The paper outlines the challenges of the project and is focused on the description of the methodology applied.
Abstract This paper will examine critical parameters which can be used to evaluate the viability of potential LNG marine terminal sites. Historical perspectives on site selection will also be provided. Parameters which will be discussed include: LNG Import/Export Facility Physical Criteria - Population density, plant area, maximum/minimum distance from loading/unloading to storage, type of storage, site elevation relative to 100-year flood elevation, approach channel width and depth, any constraints on ship passage, such as bridges, overhead power lines, etc.; maneuvering area and depth, required underkeel clearance, environmental limitations (wind, wave, current), need for breakwater, allowable downtime, and availability of tugs. LNG Vessel Characteristics - Type of vessels (membrane, spherical, or barge) to be used, vessel capacity, length overall, beam, depth, and loaded draft air draft. LNG Pipeline - Pipeline capacity, proximity to regasification site, commercial requirements, gas quality, and location relative to end-users. Identification of potential sites for development into export/import terminals is an essential important first step in the predevelopment phases of any LNG project. The establishment and setting of critical parameters which will be used in the screening process helps to focus a project on the objectives of the principal stakeholders: the developer, the supplier, and end-users. Proper site selection and design can determine whether a site is acceptable for further consideration and study. Further study may reveal additional site deficiencies, but high level screening focuses work on those facilities which have the most viability. Introduction The transportation of liquified natural gas (LNG) has a long and outstanding safety record with tens of thousands of cargos being delivered over the past 49 years. To accomplish this task, millions of tanker miles have been logged on some of the largest ships in the world. As with any industry, there are hazards and risks which are associated with day to day operations. Good site selection can eliminate or minimize many of the hazards and risks associated with shipping, storage, and sendout from terminals. It is in the best interest of the industry that its safety record remains clear. History. Liquified natural gas dates back to the 19th century when it was first obtained by British chemist and physicist Michael Faraday who experimented with the liquefaction of different types of gases, including natural gas. In 1870 and 1871, Carl von Linde, a professor at the Technical University of Munich, published his ideas on mechanical thermodynamics which laid the theoretical groundwork for an " improved ice and refrigeration machine??. In the summer of 1871, von Linde was approached by two beer brewers (one German and one Austrian) to build a test refrigeration machine for use in one of their breweries. The first machine was built for the Spaten Brewery in Munich. A few refinements later and another was built for use at the Dreher Brewery; at the time, the largest brewery in Austria, located in the hot, humid city of Trieste, now a part of Italy. Von Linde applied for a patent in 1873, and after making several modifications to the design received a patent in 1876. Von Linde's practical compressor refrigerator laid the ground work for the refrigeration process which would be used to liquefy natural gas.
ABSTRACT ABSTRACT: The San Bartolo Cliff extends along the Italian Adriatic coast for about 12 km in a WNW direction between Pesaro and Gabicce. The coastal relief mainly consists of marine sediments composed of weakly interbedded cemented sandstones and marls. The sea cliff is subjected to localized complex instability phenomena causing issues with buildings and infrastructure close to the slope crest. A study of the temporal evolution of displacements based on aerial photographs was performed. Slope movements on a cross section of the sea cliff were back-analysed using the finite difference code FLAC. The rock mass parameter assessment was made in accordance with the Geological Strength Index classification for heterogeneous rock mass and the Hoek-Brown failure criterion was implemented in the computer code. 1 INTRODUCTION The Colle San Bartolo Cliff extends along the Adriatic coast for about 12 km in a WNW direction between Pesaro and Gabicce (Italy). This is the first stretch of cliffs along the Adriatic coastline south of Trieste. It reaches its maximum heights at the towns of Casteldimezzo (195m a.s.l.) and Fiorenzuola di Focara (186m a.s.l.). This area is the location of the San Bartolo Regional Nature Park, a protected area with many natural attractions such as rare animal and plant species. According to the Directive 79/409/CEE (Preservation of wild birds), the Colle San Bartolo Cliff has also been identified as a Zone of Special Protection (ZPS). The sea cliff was formed in sedimentary rocks of Neogene age. The sediments consist of pelitic layers alternated with lapideous (calcareous and arenaceous) components. The complex structure of the deformed bedrock has been modeled by diastrophism: folds are cut by faults and discontinuities, from the smaller to the larger scales, are clearly visible along the slopes. Alternating strata with contrasting geomechanical properties characterize the slope.
Calzà, Marco (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Trieste) | D'Este, Fabrizio D'Este (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Trieste) | Contento, Giorgio (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Trieste)
ABSTRACT It is well known that the periods of the natural modes of the inner free surface oscillations of a harbour are determined thoroughly by its plan shape. The amplitude of the induced standing or partially standing waves can be large when the outer sea spectrum shows non negligible energy at those frequencies. Depending on the relative size, the motions of the vessels in the harbour, ships or pleasure boats, can be large too, in particular roll, surge and yaw, so that up-downloading operations must be interrupted or small vessels must abandon their mooring for safety reasons. Thus the design of harbour or a marina takes on a great importance from an economic and safety point of view. In this paper we investigate the so-called harbour oscillations induced by offshore waves by means of a time domain approach. The method proposed here is able to handle an arbitrarily shaped plan view and variable water depth, so that reflection, diffraction and refraction effects can be taken into account. The mathematical model and the numerical scheme employed are presented in synthesis. The preliminary test cases regard 2 harbours with simple rectangular plan shape. Afterwards the method is applied to the harbour of Trieste (Italy-North Adriatic Sea) with regular waves coming from 270° to 330°. The effects on the wave pattern induced by the lengthening of a large pier used to berth modern cruise ships are investigated too. INTRODUCTION The hydrodynamic design of a harbour or a marina is mainly aimed to obtain a sheltered area for safe and efficient up-downloading operations and to berth safely and comfortably pleasure boats. This target is unavoidably related to the amplitude and period of the oscillations of the free surface bounded by the outer breakwaters and inner docks/piers.
Contento, Giorgio (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Triest) | D'Este, Fabrizio (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Triest) | Codiglia, Riccardo (Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering, University of Triest)
ABSTRACT This paper presents some results of a study on the non-linear features of steep isolated 2D waves conducted at the Dept. of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Environmental Engineering of the University of Trieste in the frame of a wider research project financed by CETENA SpA on the wave loads on ships and marine structures in severe sea conditions. The analysis is here conducted by numerical simulations, thus solving the fully non-linear flow field by means of a BEM technique, and specifically it regards the non-linear effects deriving from the wave-wave interaction due to the frequency focusing of the component waves in a given spectrum [Codiglia, 2002; Contento et al., 2001]. It is shown that the shape of the wave spectrum computed at different stations in the direction of propagation is modified as a consequence of the nonlinear interaction of the component waves. In particular new high frequencies appear at positions close to the focusing station with non-negligible amplitudes. Moreover the highest wave is magnified by several unit percent (up to 15%) compared to simple linear predictions and the phase speed of the new high frequency components doesn't fulfil the dispersion relation but it is locked to the phase speed of the highest component in the discrete input spectrum. Each numerical result here shown is supported by analogous experimental data presented by Chaplin  and Chaplin et al. . INTRODUCTION Since the early 50's, the predictions of the loads on fixed offshore structures and the motions of compliant or sailing structures due to surface waves have been commonly made by computations on the basis of the statistical/spectral description of the sea elevation. This approach, based on the linear wave model, is now an almost common procedure and it is recognised as working reasonably well for the socalled "operational" conditions.