The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Miazga, Colin (Advisian) | Bauman, Paul (Advisian) | McClymont, Alastair (Advisian) | Slater, Chris (Advisian) | Freund, Richard (Christopher Newport University) | Jol, Harry (University of Wisconsin — Eau Claire) | Seligman, Jon (Israel Antiquities Authority) | Reeder, Philip (Duquesne University)
The Holocaust is one of the more recent and well documented crimes against humanity. The exact locations and specific details of the most notorious extermination camps are well known from Nazi documentation, eye witness testimony and war crimes trials. This presents a unique opportunity to conduct geophysical and other non-destructive methods at suspected mass grave locations to develop a methodical, non-intrusive approach to studying mass grave sites. This abstract will discuss the results from one of the eight sites involved with this Geoscientists without Borders (GWB) project. The full project report will be available on the GWB website. Note: This paperÂ wasÂ acceptedÂ into the Technical Program but was not presented at the 2020 SEG Annual Meeting.
Abstract Underbalanced Drilling (UBD) techniques have been evolving since 1989 and have been justified and documented, mostly from a drilling engineering point of view, on the basis of improvements in drilling performance. Enhancements such as increased rate of penetration, reductions in lost circulation and virtual elimination of differential sticking have all been shown to have a significant impact on the associated costs. However, to date, there has been a comparative lack of documentation of the improvements attainable from a production optimisation and reservoir engineering aspect. Very little material has been published on well data enhancement, such as productive capacity, reservoir life and net present value, which proponents of UBD maintain should be major drivers towards its consideration in the early phases of the analysis of reservoir economics and modeling of well construction. This operator has committed to a campaign of drilling onshore wells, using UBD techniques for both drilling and completion, in a well-cemented, abrasive Cambrian sandstone reservoir. This formation is characterized by relatively poor porosity and horizontal permeability and a comparative lack of fracturing that would normally preclude it from consideration as a good candidate for UBD, though it does have a depleted reservoir pressure. The results obtained, in a safe and economic manner, have far exceeded operator expectations. By comparing two wells, one drilled using standard overbalanced drilling methods, the other, a very close offset well, drilled with UBD techniques, this paper will document an increase in well productivity in the order of twenty-five fold. It will go on to discuss the production increases obtained over multiple wells, 6 in total at the time of this publication, which have been limited only by the surface handling capabilities, highlighting the changes in field development planning that have resulted from the successful application of UBD techniques. Introduction In 1995 a Lithuanian - Danish joint venture UAB Minijos Nafta was established. According to the Gargzdai License Agreement, concluded between the Government of Lithuania and UAB Minijos Nafta, the company was granted an exclusive right to carry out exploration for, and production of, hydrocarbons within the Gargzdai License area in Western Lithuania. (See Fig. 1. for a general map of the license area). Within this area there are a total of 6 fields, most of which were discovered and partially developed in the period up to 1990 when Lithuania became independent, but were not exploited further due to the vast and more economically viable reserves hitherto available in the Soviet Union. The fields involved arePietu Siupariai Degliai Pociai Siupariai Vilkyciai Sakuciai
Abstract. The reshaping of East European economies shows considerable differentiation at present stage of transition. Consequently, the region's petroleum industries have been restructured and privatized differently, in dissimilar competition environments. The paper will briefly review the outcomes of the changes. The countries of the region, with the exception of Russia, are net oil importers; they endeavor to establish partnerships focusing on downstream. The option will be discussed: the companies are likely to be owned by strategic investors or they try to ensure their growth by creating regional partnerships. The entities of newly emerged states face big challenges finding the appropriate strategy. Examples of the industry's endeavors will be provided like the joint operation of the Druzhba-Adria pipeline system that makes the export of Russian oil possible to the Mediterranean. The paper will consider the impacts of the possible EU membership on the region's refining industry necessitating the compliance with the strict environmental requirements. It will be stressed that globalization can primarily be achieved through regional partnerships or alliances enabling simultaneously to meet the necessary growth criteria. The paper will assess short and longer term prospects for the first decade of the new millenium. Figure 1 Eastern Europe in 2000 its everyday use has a geo-political meaning i.e. 1. Introduction it means the region lying eastward from the borders of the European Union. While this Eastern Europe in 2000 12 new statesBosnia Hercegovina Byelarus Croatia Czech Republic Estonia Latvia Lithuania Macedonia Moldva Slovakia Slovenia East Europe is the region, which has recently region earlier included nine, today it embraces nineteen independent states. Significant changes have occurred not only from political but also undergone the fastest societal fundamental changes in the modern history of mankind. New statehoods have been created in a very short period of time. The definition "East Europe" in Trends towards globalization in Eastern Europe from economic point of view. In each of the however, is far from being completed. Four countries market economies have been created countries were more advanced than the others in and private capital has been involved. Of course this transition process; the Czech Republic, there were considerable differences between the Hungary, Poland and Slovenia. So it is not by cases. The previously state-owned economies chance that these countries have reached better were transformed in a short while. This process, results in adhering to international organizations. 25 20 15 Mt/year 1998 10 5 0 Latvia Bulgaria Croatia Estonia Hungary Poland Lithuania Rumania Slovakia Slovenia Ukraine Czech Republic Bosnia Hercegovina Figure 2. Net oil import of East Europe 2.
Summary Though sand jet perforating is not a new technique, it is one that has been almost forgotten, the last SPE paper on the subject being published in 1972. Unlike explosive perforating, which is literally a "one shot" process, sand jet perforating uses a high velocity jet of abrasive fluid to cut through the casing, cement and deep into the formation, enabling pressure, pumping time and other parameters to be varied to maximize penetration. Sand jets can penetrate much deeper than explosives, and offer a cost-efficient, safer and better-targeted alternative to hydraulic fracturing to bypassing deep near-wellbore damage. This paper is based mainly on experience in Lithuania, where, in 1995, joint venture oil companies first started field operations to complete development of small oil fields found in the west of the country (see Fig. 1) during the Soviet era, but which had been considered as too small to develop for the Soviet Union, with giant oil fields to the east. Wells, some of which had produced on test at over one thousand barrels per day, had been left with heavy mud across open perforations, often for more than a decade. When it proved impossible to get these wells to flow again using (western) tubing conveyed explosive perforators (TCPs), sand jetting was used, as has been the almost universal practice in Lithuania. The first well sand jet perforated by a joint venture company, which had yielded less than one barrel per day with (western) TCPs, gave over 900 barrels per day when perforated with sand jets. Subsequently, one of the best producers in Lithuania, which had already been sand jetted once, was reperforated using more advanced techniques. Coiled tubing was run through the xmas tree and completion to enable the well to be sand jet perforated, with oil as the carrier fluid, underbalanced, with the well flowing throughout, resulting in a doubling of production to 800 BOPD. Though sand jet perforating is, at least theoretically, available from the main pumping contractors, it is almost unknown outside North America and the former Soviet Union, the main technical references (Refs. 1-5) being over 30 yr old. Sand jet perforating does, however, provide a cost-effective means of passing deep formation damage and should form part of the armory of any practicing petroleum engineer. This paper aims to remind engineers of this, review the technology and suggest appropriate applications. Introduction Most of the oil and gas produced today comes from wells with cased, cemented and perforated completions. Nowadays, the perforations are almost always made using shaped-charge explosives, either run on electric line or tubing conveyed (TCP). In addition to punching holes through the casing, the main purpose of perforating is to pass the "damaged zone," near to the wellbore, where drilling and completion operations have caused a reduction in permeability. This damaged zone, often quantified as "skin" from well-test analysis, typically extends from a few inches to a few feet into the formation. With modern drilling and completion techniques, including improved drilling fluids and "well-productivity-friendly" drilling practices, the depth of the damaged zone and the degree of damage (i.e., the contrast in permeabilities between damaged and undamaged formations) can be minimized, enabling modern perforating techniques, particularly underbalanced perforating with deeply penetrating low-debris TCP guns, to obtain maximum productivity, and hence maximum value, from newly drilled and completed wells. Though most new wells can be perforated effectively with explosives, there remain exceptions. Where perforating performance is significantly reduced, usually because the formation is very hard, it may be impossible to get adequate penetration with explosives. In some wells, explosive perforation may be ineffective at passing a very deep damaged zone, perhaps due to poor drilling and completion practices or in old wells that have been left with drilling mud across open perforations. As explosives are (literally) a "one shot" process, it is not practical to reperforate many times to improve penetration, as the chances of reperforating along (and thus extending) the original perforation tunnels would be minimal. Where increased penetration has been required, this has usually been via hydraulic fracturing. In contrast to explosive perforation, perforating by high pressure fluid jets is not a one shot process. Unlike explosives, the amount of energy, and hence rock destruction, that can be achieved at one point is not fixed but can be increased by, for example, pumping for more time or at a greater pressure. Though hydraulic jet perforating with clear water or brine is used (see Refs. 5 and 6), more often sand has been added to the fluid to improve the penetration rate. For this reason, and because the present author has no experience in using clear fluids, this paper will refer to "sand jet perforating" only. Most of the technical papers on sand jet perforating have been written by engineers employed by pumping companies (for example, Refs. 1-3, 6-9) and concentrate on the mechanical aspects of the perforating process. This paper will comment also on the productivity, and in particular the cleanup, of sand jet perforated wells. Technology, Equipment, and Operational Techniques Details of the technology, equipment and operational techniques are well described in the references at the end of this paper and will only be summarized here. Sand jet perforating uses a jet of fluid, with sand added to improve penetration rates, pumped at high pressure through a jet nozzle to cut through the casing, cement and into the formation. Though other fluids, including diesel and crude oil, have been used, usually the fluid used is clear water or a brine of sufficient weight to ensure that the well remains dead. If appropriate, the fluid may be inhibited, for example, with KCl to prevent clay swelling. A sand jet perforating tool (see Fig. 2), run on the end of the treating work string, carries one or more tungsten carbide jet nozzles. High pressure pumps on the surface, together with a sand blender, are used to mix and pump the water and sand.
Abstract In 1995, joint venture oil companies started field operations in Lithuania to complete development of small oil fields found in the west of the country (see Figure 1) during the Soviet era, but which had ben considered as too small to develop for a country with giant oil fields to the east. Wells, some of which had produced on test at over one thousand barrels per day, had been left with heavy mud across open perforations, often for more than a decade. When it proved impossible to get these wells to flow again using (western) tubing conveyed explosive perforators (TCPs), sand jetting was used, as has been the almost universal practice in Lithuania. The first well and jet perforated by a joint venture company, which had yielded one barrel per day with (western) TCPs, gave one thousand barrels per day when perforated with sand jets. Subsequently, one of the best producers in Lithuania, which had already been sand jetted once, was reperforated using more advanced techniques. Coiled tubing was run through the Christmas tree and completion to enable the well to be sand jet perforated, with oil as the carrier fluid, underbalanced, with the well flowing throughout, resulting in a doubling of production to 800 BOPD. Sand jetting via coiled tubing using oil is being further developed and will be applied to other recompletions. Though sand jet perforating is, at least theoretically, available from the main pumping contractors, it is almost unknown outside North America and the Former Soviet union, the main technical references being over thirty years old. Sand jet perforating does, however, provide a cost-effective means of passing deep formation damage and should form part of the armory of any practicing petroleum engineer. This paper aims to remind engineers of this, review the technology and suggest appropriate applications. P. 703