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Abstract In 1994 Norway was awarded the winter Olympic games in Lillehammer. Simultaneously Statoil initiated a campaign with the main goal to encourage employees to participate in physical activities, independent of previous experience in exercising or training. A project group of health and working environment specialists was established with mandate to work out an exercise and follow-up health program for employees experiencing chronic and recurring musculoskeletal disorders, the main goal being to achieve adequate knowledge and confidence regarding personal health management, and improve physical condition and body function ability. The method is based on three phases, where each participant is followed over one year. The program contains progression from exercising in groups with a qualified instructor during working hours with a build up towards physical activity/ exercise twice to three times a week outside of work. Participation requires motivation for the program and for exercising regularly, superior's approval for work absence through the first and second phase and discipline to individually organize and restructure leisure time. The exercise program is thoroughly established and has shown to be appreciated by the participants as well as by the unions and the company management. Every year employees apply for participation in the program. The program is used with good results in different business areas as: offshore installations, onshore plants and by personnel in the administrative support functions. An extensive collection of data shows also a considerable decline in number of days of absence due to illness for the average participant. The program and the focus on exercise and lifestyle are believed to contribute to keep Statoil as a company with considerable lower absence due to illness than in the industry in Norway. About Statoil Statoil is the national oil company of Norway. Statoil is an integrated oil and gas company with business operations in 25 countries. The group has about 17.000 employees, mainly in Norway. Production of oil and natural gas on the Norwegian continental shelf is the backbone of our business. Statoil's objectives in Health, Safety and Environment are zero harm to people or the environment and zero accidents and losses. The company is working to achieve the following objectives within health and the working environment:Zero occupational illnesses Our work tasks will be stimulating and challenging Our modes of working will promote creativity and efficiency in a good working environment Our arrangements for working hours will be flexible and encourage the health and well-being of our employees The program "Exercise as Medicine" is in accordance with these objectives, and is recognized by the unions and the company management as one of the tools to achieve these goals. Introduction Musculoskeletal conditions are the most common cause of severe long-term pain and physical disability, and they affect hundreds of millions of people around the world. The prevalence of many of these conditions is affected by lifestyle factors, such as lack of physical activity. In many developed countries such disorders are the main cause of both short-term and permanent work disability. In Norway, 50 % of all long-term work absence and disability pensions are due to subjective health disorders. 96 % of the Norwegian population reports some sort of subjective health disorder the last 30 days. (The National Insurance Service, 2000) When Norway was awarded the Olympic Winter Games for 1994, the government initiated a national activity campaign, called "People in shape for the Olympic Winter Games". The object of the campaign was to get the whole nation engaged in some form of physical activity to better the physical condition, and in the long run, improve the health situation in the nation. The government realized that people, who are engaged in some form of moderate physical activity, stay healthier longer than people who have a very sedate lifestyle.
ABSTRACT In this paper both continuous and discontinuous modelling are utilised in order to analyze the stability of the Gjøvik Olympic Mountain Hall. The large span cavern (62 m) was built for the 1994 Winter Olympic Games at Lillehammer, and is a unique case study because of the large amount of available input data, through a comprehensive pre-investigation, stress and deformation monitoring program before, during and after the excavation. Phase, a two-dimensional non-linear finite element program, and the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) are used as representative tools for continuous and discontinuous modelling, respectively. The analysis results are compared and discussed taking the reliability of the models, time-consumption and costs into consideration. Some guidelines for the total modelling process, from field measurements to final results, are also presented. Zusammenfassung In diesem Artikel werden sowohl kontinuierlich als auch diskontinuierlich Modellierung verwendet, um die Stabilitat, der in den Berg gebauten Olympiahalle in Gjøvik zu analysieren. Die Olympiahalle wurde 1994 zu den Olympische Spielen in Lillehammer errichtet. Ihr Dach erstreckt sich ueber eine Breite von zweiundsechzig Meter. Fuer den Bau wurden umfangreiche Daten durch Voruntersuchungen, und Überwachung von Gebirgsspannungen und Deformationen bevor, wahrend und nach Exkavation eingesammelt. Auf Grund dieser großen Datenmenge stellt die Olympiahalle ein herausragendes Beispiel fuer den Bau ahnlicher Projekte dar. Fuer die kontinuierlichen Modellierungen wurde „Phase2", ein zwei-dimensionales, nicht lineares „endlich Element" Rechnerprogramm angewandt. Die diskontinuierlichen Modellierungen erstellte man mit Hilfe von der „Diskontinuierliche Deformations Analyse" (DDA). Die Analysenergebnisse sind mit Ruecksicht auf die Zuverlassigkeit der Modelle, Zeitverbrauch und Kosten verglichen und diskutiert worden. Im Artikel werden Richtlinien fuer den Modellierungsprozess von Dateneinsammlung bis Schlussfolgerung gegeben. Resume Dans cet article la modelisation continue et discontinue sont utilises pour analyser la stabilite de Gjøvik Olympic Mountain Hall. Cette caverne de grande portee (62 m) a ete construite pour les Jeux Olympiques d'Hiver de 1994 à Lillehammer, et est une etude de cas unique grace à la grande quantite de donnees disponibles, de par un programme de pre-investigation comprehensive, monitorage des contraintes et deformations avant, pendant et après l'excavation. Phase2, un code d'elements finis non lineaire à deux dimensions, et l'Analyse en Deformations Discontinues (DDA) sont utilises comme outils representatifs de la modelisation continue et discontinue, respectivement. Les resultats d'analyses sont compares et sont discutes, prenant en compte la fiabilite des modèles, la consommation en temps de calcul et les coûts. Quelques indications pour le procede total de modelisation, des mesures sur place aux resultats finaux, sont aussi presentees. Introduction Due to rapid advancements in computer technology, the use of numerical methods in engineering sciences has become more popular during the last four decades. The field of rock mechanics is no exception and the most commonly used programs are based on the finite element method (FEM) and the discrete element method (DEM), continuous and discontinuous modelling, respectively. Compared to other engineering materials, the rock mass stands out because it is featured with the existence of discontinuities, and whether these should be accounted for implicitly or explicitly is a primary decision to be made for a particular rock mechanics problem. In this paper, continuous and discontinuous modelling is applied in order to focus on this decision making process. Gjøvik Olympic Mountain Hall is utilized as a case study, and more than 90 different combinations of varying input parameters are analyzed. The large span cavern was built in connection with the XVII Winter Olympic Games 1994 at Lillehammer and is a unique case study because of the large amount of available input data from a comprehensive stress and deformation monitoring program carried out before, during and after the excavation, as well as thorough pre-investigations: geological field mapping, mapping in nearby caverns.