|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
The 1943 Warsaw Ghetto Uprising was an iconic act of Jewish resistance during the Holocaust. The Jewish ghetto in Warsaw was established by the Nazis in 1940 and was used to imprison the largest Jewish population seen anywhere in the war. Between April and May 1943, from the tiny 1.3 square miles of land allotted to the ghetto, Jewish resistance fighters, operating from underground networks of bunkers and tunnels, would fight the first major urban rebellion of the war. Today, many of these bunkers and tunnels have been destroyed and replaced by rebuilding after the war or by modern development. However, one of the main resistance bunkers at the Mila 18 site was not built over, and offers a unique opportunity to conduct non-invasive surveys to search for subsurface evidence of the bunker and tunnel systems, without disturbing what is recognized as a grave site by the Jewish community. Using several different geophysical and aerial imagery techniques including electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP) and multispectral imaging as well as archival street plans, several areas of interest were identified including possible void spaces and void spaces containing metal objects. This abstract will discuss the results from one of the eight sites involved with this Geoscientists Without Borders (GWB) project. The full project report is available on the GWB website.
A universal interface to facilitate autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) docking with subsea structures is being developed through a joint industry project (JIP) between companies and universities in Brazil, Norway, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. Led by WiSub, the consortium includes operator Statoil and service companies such as DOF Subsea, Kongsberg Maritime, and Saab Dynamics, along with Bergen University, the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and the Warsaw University of Technology. One of the project's primary goals is to enable long-term remote operation of underwater vehicles through battery charging and high-bandwidth data transfer through a seabed-based docking station. The project will use WiSub's pinless connection systems, which were developed to deliver power and data electromagnetically across a seawater gap. WiSub CEO Mark Bokenfohr said that the battery life of seabed-based robotics typically does not extend beyond 1–2 days before requiring a recharge.
Abstract. It often occurs in the course of refining a lube oil that a product has excellent properties, but upon storage a haze develops that makes the oil commercially unacceptable. That is why the development of a method for monitoring the effectiveness of lube oil base dewaxing is so important. The conclusion from former research that the main source of the haze is hydrocarbon wax remaining in base oil in small concentration (less than O. 1 %), consisting of long-chain, straight, saturated hydrocarbons, has been verified positively in the course of our study. That has been done based on mass spectroscopy and high temperature G.C. measurements. An attempt to apply analytical methods, widely used for base oil analysis (FTIR, NMR 'H, NMR I3C, HTGC, mass spectroscopy), for monitoring haze formation was unsuccessful due to the small concentration and complicated composition of the remaining wax. Good repeatability and accuracy were obtained by a nephelometric method developed by Chevron. It was also found that this method could be significantly improved by changing the solvent in the second step in order to measure turbidity in a more viscous solution. The above method is faster than the ONC test, but not enough to satisfy a refiner. Therefore a new method using sound velocity has been proposed. INTRODUCTION Careful inspection of base oil refined in Gdansk Refinery revealed a slight haze appearance in a few samples stored in cold for a long time. That does not affect other than Overnight Cloud Point (ONC) base oil properties but is unacceptable for such high quality product. The above conclusion caused the beginning of a detailed study entrusted to the Central Petroleum Laboratory in Warsaw. A review of this problem literature could be summarised as follows: It is well known that despite of excellent base oil properties upon storage some hydrocarbon haze might develop making oil commercially unacceptable. The first experimental task of our investigation was to identify compounds causing a haze. In order to do this the haze was separated by cold filtration and studied by spectroscopic methods as FTIR, NMR 13C and 'H as well as mass spectrometry and high temperature gas chromatography. All results lead us to the conclusion that the haze is composed of long chain, straight, saturated hydrocarbons consisting of more than 50 atoms of carbon. It is interesting that hydrocarbons with a similar molecular weight could be observed in mass spectra of base oil unsusceptible for haze formation. It was found that ability of haze formation depends on two factors: - hydrocarbons chain shape ~ hydrocarbons molecular weight. That is because straight chain saturated hydrocarbons crystallise at higher temperature than branched chain saturated hydroc
SPE Member Abstract This paper examines the dynamic international political economic environment In which petroleum exploration and production companies must operate when considering investments in the economically transitional nations of the former Soviet Union or developing nations In this period of critical global changes low oil prices is only one factor with which petroleum companies must be concerned in their investment decisions. Other factors include the transition from a bipolar world to a multi polar world of free trade zones. The general malaise of the international economy. public and political recognition That nations and industries can no longer practice environmental "beggar-thy-neighbor" policies. and the rejection of aggregate national economic growth policies for sustainable economic development policies in both the developed and developing world. This paper focuses on actions which investing petroleum exploration and production companies can take in order to gain a leadership role in the sustainable petroleum economic development business, to work with host countries' regulations, and to develop a cooperative environment with host countries so that both the investing company and the host country can progress, not just survive. II. Introduction When an international petroleum exploration and production company is making the decision of whether to invest in an economically transitional nation of the former Soviet Union or a developing nation, the investing company must consider the larger international economical and political environment in which it has to operate whIle maintaining its long term investment duration in the host country. Oil prices, costs of production. and the level of sophistication of extraction methods can no longer be the only considerations. The global political economy on the brink of the Twenty-First Century has been and is expected to continue to be in a general malady of high unemployment. low interest rates, and volatile regional and ethnic politics threatening national economies. Increasing recognition of indigenous peoples' property rights are challenging investing petroleum and mining companies' tenure in host nations. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact has suddenly thrust the global political economic structure from a bipolar to a multi polar one Although the transition to a multIpolar world is yet incomplete, it is most likely to be a world of emerging free trade zones The European Council is fully operational The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) passed last year has created a tree trade zone of Canada, the United States, and Mexico. P. 33
Dr. GOSSEN welcomed the audience and intro- duced the Vice Chairmen, Dr. BERNARD TRAMIER, Corporate Director of Environmental Affairs for Elf Aquitaine, Paris, France; Dr. MICHAL WILCZYNSKI, Under Secretary of State, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Natural Resources and Forestry, Warsaw, Poland; and scien- tific secretary Dr. TRYGVE LARSEN, Senior Vice President, Det Norske Veritas, Hovik, Norway. Dr. GOSSEN then briefly introduced the forum authors who were later introduced more fully prior to their presentations: Mr. CHARLES DIBONA, President & CEO, American Petroleum Institute, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. Mr. KLAUS KOHL- HASE, Head Health, Safety and Environment, British Petroleum Company, London, U.K. Mr. BJORN WEIBYE, Executive Vice President, Det Norske Veritas, Hovik, Norway. Mr. LUIS FERN- ANDO DE ANGULO, Community Affairs Manager, Occidental de Colombia, Bogota, Colom- bia. Mr. HEINRICH BONING, Head Safety and Environment, BEB Erdgas und Erdol, Hanover, Germany. Dr. GOSSEN also introduced the two forum par- ticipants who provided updates on two WPC Task Force activities: Mr. ARNALDO SALAZAR, Presi- dent & CEO of PDV Marina, Caracas, Venezuela and Chair of the WPCs Environmental Affairs Com- mittee Task Force 1, Analysis & Assessment of Codes of Environmental Conduct. Dr. GEORGE GOVIER, President, Govier Consulting Services Ltd., Calgary, Canada and Chair of the WPC's Environmental Affairs Committee Task Force 2, Survey of the Petroleum-related Environmental Poli- cies of the WPC Member Countries. Dr. GOSSEN then proceeded to introduce and frame the forum topic by providing an overview. He noted that the theme for the Congress, ‘Petroleum in a world of sustainable growth; challenges and opportunities’ is particularly relevant to the environ- mental forum because the concept of sustainable development is receiving global recognition as a key mechanism to guide future development through integrating environmental and economic decision- making. He stressed that this means striking an appropriate balance between environmental and eco- nomic considerations. Dr. GOSSEN noted that during the opening cere- monies President Mai recognized the need for eco- nomic growth in an environmentally sustainable way and Prime Minister Brundtland referred to the global challenge of achieving sustainable develop- ment. Dr. GOSSEN stated that each of the key sectors of our society that are engaged in the pursuit of sustain- able development have targeted specific objectives:–business is seeking meaningful, science-based environmental objectives established by regulators and the opportunity to achieve them in a voluntary, non-perscriptive and market-driven fashion. –Regulators are seeking widespread public acceptance of their decisions. –Non-governmental organizations NGOs repr
Dr. Critchley's paper is available in three parts; Part 1, the "Fourth Boundary Problem," Part 2, "The Energy Shortage," and Part 3, "Military Considerations." III. Military Considerations Canadian security policy is strongly related to our participation in the NATOand NORAD alliances. NATO is seen as the defence against the Warsaw Pact threatto Western Europe. NORAD, The Canada-U.S. agreement originally formed toprovide for continental defence against the Soviet Union'sstrategic bomber threat to the United States, is now regarded as a subsidiarypart of the NATO arrangement. Several recent developments in militarytechnology, and reactions to these developments on the part of the Soviet Unionand NATO members, may cause parts of the arctic region to become a new focus ofmilitary activity and of NATO and NORAD concern. NATO-related developments willbe analyzed first. Currently, the use of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent seas by military vessels isconfined to nuclear-powered submarines. Evidence in the public domain indicatesthat such usage appears to be in the form of occasional experimental-trainingexercises· The attention of strategic analysts and naval planners is concentrated not onthe Arctic, but on the North Atlantic. The reason for concentration on the North Atlantic is the build-up of the Soviet Northern Fleet, which is based in Murmansk and other ports on the Kola Peniusula. As of mid -1981, that fleetincluded approximately 82 major surface combat ships, 135 attackand cruise-missile submarines and 45 ballistic-missile-carryingsubmarines. Three types of nuclear-powered submarines are assigned to this and other fleetsof the Soviet navy: attack submarines and cruise-missile submarines(designated as SSNs and SSGNs respectively) have the mission ofattacking an adversary's surface shipping and submarines at sea;ballistic-missile submarines (SSBNs), armed with long-range missiles withnuclear warheads, have major military installations, industrial complexes andurban centres as probable targets in the event of a nuclear war. The veryexistence of SSBNs, along with other strategic nuclear weapons, is thought toprevent such a war from occurring. Of particular concern to NATO is the Soviet Union's assignment of a large Proportion of SSNs, SSGNs and most of their Yankee-class and Delta-class SSBNsto the Northern Fleet. More specifically, the Northern Fleet has 65% of the Soviet navy's SSBNs and 52% of all other types of Sovietsubmarines. The build-up of the Northern Fleet in relation to the Baltic, Black and Pacific fleets appears to relate to the existence ofchoke-points (narrow water channels or straits) which govern the exits of thelatter three fleets from their home ports and the absence of such a choke-pointfor the Northern Fleet. Submarines and surface vessels can make way from their Barents Sea ports to the Atlantic without having to pass through any narrowstraits. Although only a small portion of that fleet deploys into the North Atlantic at any given time, this and other evidence has led mostanalysts to conclude that the fleet's primary tasks are strategic and tactical(anti-shipping) offensive missions in the North and Central Atlantic. The NATO response to these developments and analysis has been acontinuing effort to construct a "choke-point" at the GIUK gap.