|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Abstract The objective of the work was to check the slope stability in marl and limestone mine in the city of Opole. In this mine, due to its location, blasting exploitation method was abandoned. The medium hardness rocks allowed operating the mine only by the excavators without the use of explosives. However these required the control of slope stability and the recognition of safety of exploitation processes. The scope of performed work included study of documentation, field observations, detailed engineering geology mapping and numerical analysis. In order to determine the rock strength properties, field mapping, Hoek-Brown Classification and uniaxial compression tests were used. Based on obtained data geotechnical conditions within the pit were characterized. The description of rock profiles and new cross-sections contained important information for slope stability. The field observation and mapping detected risk of displacements in strongly weathered limestone deposits to depth of 6–8 m, especially in wet conditions. The slope stability modelling included LEM analysis by Janbu and Fellenius Methods. They took into account the conditions resulting from the mining method and weather. The calculations detected that the slope was stable in dry conditions (Fs=1.19–2.45). In the wet conditions, slope stability was reduced (Fs= 1.01–1.65). In two investigated profiles the values of relative factor of safety was very low (Fs= 0.76–1.1). Results of slope stability analysis included loads caused by the mining excavator and weather conditions. It was recommended that for mining operations at the top part of the deposit to the depth of 6–8 m, the excavator should be located at least 3m from the slope edge. The other recommendations concerning the geotechnical instructions for mining operations were presented in the conclusions.
ABSTRACT Rubber linings have been applied as a corrosion protection measure for steel surfaces, particularly in the absorbers, in the flue gas desulphurization plants of a large number of power stations in Europe and have decidedly proven their effectiveness. The rubber linings applied consist of either precured and/or cold-curing rubber sheets. In the course of the past five to seven years, the eastern European states have also begun retro- fitting their existing power stations with flue gas desulphurization plants. As the first of its kind, a scrubber in the flue gas desulphurization plant of the Konin Power Station in Poland, which operates on the basis of the limestone-gypsum process, was constructed of concrete. In this case also, the corrosion protection measures implemented consisted in the application of a precured rubber lining on the basis of butyl rubber. A surface area measuring 1500m2 of the concrete absorber was protected by means of this corrosion protection system. INTRODUCTION Linings are frequently applied as an industrial corrosion protection measure in a varied range of industrial plants. Such linings are defined as surface coatings consisting of molded materials, such as sheets, plating and pipes for example. The rubber lining system is one of the oldest forms of corrosion protection lining that has been utilized in apparatus engineering. It has found a broad spectrum of application in the most varied of industrial branches. Rubber linings are utilized as a protective coating against corrosion wherever acids, alkaline or saline solutions are being worked with. In Europe, rubber linings have also been applied as a corrosion protection measure in flue gas desulphurization plants (FGD plants) with great success since the late 1970?s*. Up to now, the energy producing power plants in Europe have been fitted almost exclusively with flue gas desulphurization plants operating on the basis of the wet absorption process, and in particular the limestone-gypsum-process3. In these instances, rubber linings are applied particularly in all sections that are subjected to wet loads such as absorbers, clean gas ducts, vessels and pipelines. The structural material most widely utilized is carbon steel. For the first time however, a flue gas scrubber made of concrete as opposed to steel has now been erected. Here again, a rubber lining was selected as the corrosion protection system for the absorber. FLUE GAS DESULPHURIZATION PLANTS IN POLAND At the beginning of this decade, a number of former Eastern-bloc countries also began retro-fitting existing energy producing power plants with systems designed for the desulphurization of flue gases. In addition to the Czech Republic, Poland has also been at the forefront of this development. At the following power plant sites in · Belchatow · Jaworzno III · Opole · Konin · eleven flue gas scrubbers are already constructed and operational. Additional plants are currently either under construction (in Polaniec for example) or in advanced stages of planning. In addition to coal, the use of lignite as fuel in the electric power stations of Poland is also quite widespread. Approximately 66 % of the 32.000 MW capacity yield of the power plants is won by coal and roughly 28 % by lignite.
ABSTRACT: The author proposed preliminary tests of swelling-ability using the existing endothermic maxima of minerals influencing swelling. In the paper he shows that there are eluvia and illite clays in which swelling can be observed "in situ" but it is not proved by the well known test methods. In the paper tests of swelling are proposed for stable points of humidity, i.e. tests of the specimens dried at the temperatures of 105°C and 180°C. Humidities after swelling and while building should be registered. RESUME: Dans la publication on propose de faire l'examen preliminaire des capacites de gonflement d'après la mise à profit de l'existance des maximums endothermiques des mineraux qui provoquent le gonflement. On a montre l'existance des roches decomposees et des argiles illites où il yale gonflement dans les conditions reeles "in situ" et les methodes en vigueur d'examen de gonflement ne le montrent pas dans aucun cas. Dans la publication on a propose l'examen de gonflement pour les points stables d'humidite c'est à dire sur les e chantillons seches dans les temperature 105°C et 180°C. On a signale la necessite d'enregistrement de l'humidite apres le gonflement et aussi l'humidite au cours de la construction. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: In dem vorliegenden Beitrag schlagt man die Einfuehrung einer Vorpruefung der Quellbarkeit auf Grund der endothermen Maxima der Minerale vor, die fuer die Quellung verantwortlich sind. Man weist aut die Felsenverwitterungsschutte und Illit-Tone hin, in denen die Quellung unter den realen Bedingungen vorkommt, aber die geltenden Pruefmethoden weisen sie ueberhaupt nicht auf. In dem Beitrag schlagt man eine Quellungsuntersuchung fuer stabile Feuchtigkeitspunkte vor, d.h. an Proben, die der Temperatur 105°C und 180°C getocknet worden sind. Man signalisiert auch die Notwendigheit einer Registrierung der Feuchtigkeit nach der Quellung, aber auch wahrend des Baus. 1 INTRODUCTION There are many methods of testing of volume changes caused by variable humidity of some rocks and cohesive soils. However, these methods often give different values. Free swelling are usually tested. Many authors [4,l5,16,17) think that it is not possible to predict and determine, in a quantitavite way, subsoil movements caused by swelling and shrinkage. Thus, it is not easy to find suitable solutions or provide safe exploitation of the object. Volume changes in the swelling rocks and expansive clays are closely connected with content of water. The problem is important especially in the hot zone but it occurs in some countries of temperate climate as well. It should be taken into account also in case of underground building (tunnels) and mining. Dynamics of swelling of cohesive soils and rock eluvia depends on mineralogical composition, percentage of swelling minerals, granulometric composition (illite fraction content), humidity, changes of natural humidity, aeration zone, air humidity, rainfalls and their distribution in warmer seasons, amount of induced heat, genetic conditions of the medium and its diversification, the plastic, limit etc. All the factors randomly influence the swelling dynamics so the effect cannot be written as a suitable analytical expression. Thus, influence of particular parameters on swelling should be seen in a phenomenological way, taking into account real hydrogeological and weather conditions. The author tested processes occurring in marl eluvia during their transition from stone debris to a typical cohesive soil [9,10,13,14). In these processes participation of swelling and shrinkage, observed "in situ", seems to be of a great importance. There are many methods of tests of swelling but they are often not perfect. It happens that the well-known methods do not show the swelling effect at all. For instance illite days an recognized as non swelling in [3,16). The author of this paper suggests that illite clays of the rock eluvium containing much illite minerals as well as expansive clays with high natural humidity should be classified as soils with a hidden parameter of swelling. In his previous paper [6,11) the author proposed his own method of tests of swelling in such media.
Abstract. Coal beds and methane-both free and adsorbed in coal, appear in the south of Poland in the Upper Carboniferous in two basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) and Lower Silesian Coal Basin (LSCB). At the depth of 3o(r1600 m the methane reserves are estimated at 350 to 1300 rnld m3 for USCB and ca. 20 mld m3 for LSCB. Methane content in coal varies between O and 22 m3/tpc, to significantly increase from the depth of 600 m, reaching average values of 4.7-7.0 m3/tpc. Discrepancies in estimation are due to different calculation methods; the full geostatistical analysis methodstructural analysis-was not applied, however. Prognoses, apparently optimistic, determine the final recovery of methane from coal beds for ca. 5 mld m3/year for USCB, and ca. 300 min m3 for LSCB, which together with the production from the Polish gas reservoirs would give ca. 12 mld m3/year in the year 2010. For the comparison's sake, the Polish consumption of gas is now ca. 11.8 rnld m3, being about 9% of total primary fuel consumption in Poland. Methane from coal beds was recovered earlier but used in less quantities (ca. 190 mln m3/year). It came from 18 USCB mines. Utilization of methane from coal basins aims at the reorientation of the Polish energy industry to the increased use of hydrocarbon fuels. Besides, the use of methane, especially in the Upper Silesia region, will significantly improve the ecological situation, limiting the emissions of SO, CO, NO, and dusts. The priorities of methane utilization are as follow: delivery to local receivers, for households, near big agglomerations Katowice, Opole, Bielsko; heating, housing estates, country, balance top needs; for local industrial works, metallurgical, ceramic, chemical plants, glass works; electric generation. Now a few foreign companies are interested in methane exploitation in Poland, e.g. McCormick Energy Inc., USA, Amoco, Conoco, Electrogaz Ventures (Poland-USA), Metanel (Poland). There has been an auction of the licence for methane exploitation. The fact that methane appears in coal beds has been known since the beginning of the mining industry. The gas was generally treated as a considerable hindrance in the exploitation of coal as a fuel. It has created a great hazard'for the miners in the form of explosions and outbursts of rock and coal. For more than ten years the matter of methane enclosed in coal, treated as a fuel, has raised interest in many countries, e.g. U.S.A., Australia, China. Research has been carried out on the content in coal, ways of deposition as well as methods of exploitation and leakproof transport to the surface. Poland has also taken an interest in methane, coming from coal, as a fossil fuel. There are three coal basins in Poland (Fig. 1): - Upper Silesian Coa
ABSTRACT: The results multifarious investigations of Opole marls are presented in the paper. Laboratory tests of strength characteristics gave decidedly negative results as distinct from the investigations "in situ" which permitted to classify weathering as a building subsoil; In order to increase the veracity of the results of investigations, deforma- bility, tests were carried out during and with various degrees of humidity. Burgers test and the method of stamp pressing under conditions "in situ" were applied to this end. The obtained record of creeping allowed to learn the physico-chemical processes occurring in Opole, marl eluvium. RESUME: L"article presente des resultats de differents types d"examens des marnes decomposees D"Opole. Les examens de laboratoire des traits de resistance ont donne des resultats decidement negatifs, par contre, les examens "in situ" ont permis de qualifier la marne decomposee comme la fondation de construction. Pour rendre autentiques les resultats des essais on a fait les essais de deformation dans le temps et dans l"humidite differente. Pour le faire on a profite du test de Burgers et de la methode d"enfoncement du poincon dans les oonditions in situ. L"enregistrement du fluage a augmente la connaissance des processus phisico-chimiques se deroulant dans la marne decomposee d"Opole. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden. Ergebnisse verschiedenartiger Untersuchungen des Verwitterungsschuttes der Opoler Mergel angegeben. Die Laboruntersuchungen der Festigheitseigenschaften gaben entschieden negative Resultate, im Unterschied von den Untersuchungen "in situ", die die Qualifizierung des Verwitterungsschuttes als Bauunterlage erlaubten. Um die Glaubwuerdigheit der Untersuchungsresultate zu erhöhen, fuehrte man die Verformbarkeitsuntersuchungen in Zeit und bei unterschiedlicher,Feuchtigheit durch. Zu, diesem Zweck bediente man sich des Burger-Testes und der Methode der Stempeleinpressung in den "in situ" - Bedingungen. Die erzielte Kriechenaufzeichnung trug zu der Erkenntnis der physisch-chemischen Prozesse bei, die im Verwittarungsschut der Opoler Mergel vorgehen. 1 INTRODUCTION The recognition of geotechnical properties of the Opole marl eluvium for the needs of foundation was of "particular importance be- cause marls occupy the greater part of" the town right under the humus layers. The solution usually applied was to exchange the weathering (occurring up to the depth of 4.5 m orfeven 6 m) into compact loose soil or to found below, the weathering. The Opole marl eluvium has been treated for several decades as unbearing subsoil which has also been confirmed by the author"s own laboratory tests and those made by other researcher- chers. Under Opole conditions the underground - water level is sometimes raised to 1 m -below the ground and this was the factor which promoted the search for making use of weathering as a building foundation. The experiences- of builders, taken from the building sites in this region, associated with the surface steeping of marl grounds, with difficulties in transportation sites after even a short rainfall, conviced the engineers- practicians of insignificant strength of the weathering and it created an additional psychological barrier. A wide programme of laboratory tests and investigations "in situ" was carried out and results of those researches had been collected successively for many years.