|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Florea Minescu, a longstanding SPE member and senior scientific researcher in the upstream sector, died 8 November 2021. Minescu was a professor at University of Petroleum and Gas in Ploiești, Romania. He graduated in drilling and exploitation of oil and gas reservoirs in 1971 and was employed at Research and Design Institute for Petroleum and Gas of Câmpina as a junior scientific researcher from 1971 to 1975 in the laboratory of Physical Parameters of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs. In 1975, he joined as a teaching assistant in the Drilling-Extraction department at Institute of Petroleum and Gas Ploiești. He then advanced through the teaching degrees in the university education system to become a professor.
Ştefan Traian Mocuţa, SPE, died on 28 October 2015 at age 83. An SPE member since 1994, he was awarded the SPE Regional Service Award for South, Central, and East Europe in 2004 for his contributions to the establishment and development of the SPE Romanian Section. Mocuţa was a member of the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery European Steering Committee and was actively involved in the SPE Romanian Section’s technical activities. He spent more than 40 years of his professional career in the field of petroleum reservoir geology at the Institutului de Cercetări şi Proiectări Tehnologice (ICPT), Câmpina, Romania, where he advanced to the position of senior fellow, and also held several managerial positions, including general manager. He completed more than 200 studies on petroleum reservoirs in Romania, Egypt, Jordan, Ecuador, Libya, and Hungary. Between 1994 and 1996, Mocuţa served as a senator in the Romanian Senate, focusing on political and social issues. In 1996, he returned to ICPT as adviser. He also taught at the Petroleum Gas University of Ploieşti. For his contributions to the petroleum industry, he was awarded the Diploma of Excellence in Research by ICPT Câmpina. Mocuţa graduated with a degree in geology from the Petroleum, Gas, and Geology Institute in Bucharest and received a PhD in geology from the same institute.
The implementation settings: geotechnical study in Targoviste influence of this noise is heavily felt on the inversion City, landslide study in Runcu Town and tailing ponds process, where the obtained models can be far from reality investigations in Alba County. The used method was the and from the other in situ information available. Based on direct current Vertical Electric Sounding (VES) with a the layer equivalence principle, this paper proposes using single channel Schlumberger electrode type array. The the coherent noise in the apparent resistivity to constrain investigated sites have been located in inhabited areas or the 1D inversion process. Data from three different settings industrial yards, the infrastructure posing important has been approached. The method was successfully applied problems both for the data acquisition process and for the and verified using in situ information such as geotechnical quality of the collected information. The VES stations were or hand dug shallow wells.
Editor's column With sadness, we note the loss of two members who mentored countless students and colleagues during their distinguished careers on different sides of the globe. Kermit Brown, a longtime professor at the University of Tulsa and the University of Texas, died on 10 December at the age of 86. Ion Cretu, a professor and leader in the Romanian scientific community, died on 15 November. He was 76. Colleagues speak warmly of both men and the influence they had on them and others in the profession. Brown was honored at last year’s SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition with the JPT Legends of Production and Operations award. He was a noted authority on artificial lift and changed the way the industry viewed that technology, and contributed to the industry as an educator, researcher, and consultant in a career that spanned more than 50 years. He wrote portions of the Gas Lift Manual that transformed the way that technology was used and became the gas-lift authority in the industry. His book on nodal analysis is still widely used by those both inside and outside academia. It was at the University of Tulsa that Brown had his biggest impact. Colleagues say he changed that school’s petroleum engineering department forever through his bold and innovative leadership. He started a doctoral program there, and he created a research model that other universities would later adopt. Brown developed a consortium in which oil companies would contribute a small amount of money each year and university faculty and students would conduct research of specific interest to the industry. The program put the department closer to the needs of oil and gas companies, benefiting students greatly in the process, and reduced the school’s reliance on government funding. Thorough his leadership, the University of Tulsa began its first research program, called the Tulsa University Drilling Research Project. Cretu began working in 1958 with the Oil, Gas, and Geology Institute in Bucharest and then for the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti as a lecturer, associate professor, and, beginning in 1978, as professor in the Department of Hydraulics, Thermotechnics, and Reservoir Engineering. He held numerous positions at the university during his academic career, including head of the department, vice dean and dean of the Well Drilling and Reservoir Exploration Faculty, and vice rector of the school. He supervised more than 45 doctoral trainees at the university. He was well known in the Romanian scientific community, was widely published, and was active in the International Association of Hydraulic Research, the Romanian National Committee of World Oil Congresses, and the Scientific Council of the Ministry of Geology. Cretu also served as president of the SPE Romanian Section.
Turta, A.T. (Alberta Research Council) | Chattopadhyay, S.K. (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)) | Bhattacharya, R.N. (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)) | Condrachi, A. (Oil and Gas Research Institute (Petrom)) | Hanson, W. (Bayou State Oil Corporation)
Abstract Picture of Alex Turta (Available In Full Paper) Alex Turta is a project leader for Improved Oil Recovery at Alberta Research Council (ARC) in Calgary. His research interests include primary recovery of heavy oils, waterflooding of light oils, and thermal recovery methods for heavy oil. He has extensive experience of heavy oil exploitation, from laboratory to field pilots, and has undertaken international consultancy for thermal pilot evaluation. He assisted in the development of the enhanced oil recovery evaluation software PRIze. Alex holds M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Oil and Gas and Petroleum Engineering, Bucharest, Romania, and worked previously at the Research and Development Institute for Oil and Gas, Campina, Romania. He is a co-inventor of the THAI and CAPRI processes for heavy oil recovery and upgrading, and is a member of SPE, the Petroleum Society and the Canadian Heavy Oil Association. Picture of Dr. S. K. Chattopadhyay (Available In Full Paper) Dr. S. K. Chattopadhyay is Chief Chemist for the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Ltd., India, working at the Mehsana Asset. He joined ONGC Ltd. in 1983 as a Graduate Trainee in Chemistry. Over the last 24 years at ONGC, he has gained experience working at different offshore and onshore production installations, the LPG/CSU/C2-C3 process control laboratory, onshore drilling rigs, the in-situ combustion process monitoring laboratory and, presently, he is working in a multi-disciplinary team for the monitoring, interpretation and process control of the commercial in-situ combustion process at the Balol and Santhal Fields of the Mehsana Asset, India. Dr. Chattopadhyay has presented several technical papers on the in-situ combustion process at various national and international conferences and symposiums. He graduated with a Ph.D in chemistry from the University College of Science, Calcutta University, India. Picture of R. N. Bhattacharya (Available In Full Paper) R. N. Bhattacharya is the General Manager (Reservoir) for the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) Ltd., India, working at the Mehsana Asset. He is presently working on the company 's commercial in situ combustion scheme in Western India. Mr. Bhattacharya has had experience working on different assets and projects for ONGC, including overseas projects. He has over 30 years of oil industry experience as petrophysicist, reservoir engineer and in contract monitoring. Mr. Bhattacharya earned an M.Sc (physics) in 1972 and M.Sc. (geophysics) from Banaras Hindu University, India. He studied reservoir engineering at the India School of Mines (ISM), India, the University of Austin and Stanford University, USA. He is the author of several technical papers and numerous technical reports. Picture of Alexandru Condrachi (Available In Full Paper) Alexandru Condrachi is a Reservoir Engineer for PETROM S. A. Member of OMV Group, E&P Central Region Division, Ploiesti. He earned a B.C., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the Petroleum-Gas University of Ploiesti, Romania. Picture of Wayne Hanson (Available In Full Paper) Wayne Hanson has been with the Bayou State Oil Corporation (BSOC), Bellevue, Louisiana since 1980. Initially, he served as a Petroleum Chemist, and starting from 1990, he has been Supervisor of the BSOC In-Situ Combustion Project.
Summary This paper presents the dehydration and desalting of heavy crude oil produced by in-situ combustion with thermochemical and gas stripping stages. Indirect heating of oil through cocurrent contact with recirculated water from the process, heated with metal heaters, will preclude temperature variations caused by flow fluctuations in the feeding of the plant during the thermochemical process. At the same time, the amount of mechanical impurities (carried out by the recirculated water) is diminished. The flue gas stripping stage increased the process efficiency using a double column and blown-in air heater. Introduction In Romania heavy viscous oils have a more than 20% share in the total production. To enhance oil recovery, in-situ combustion has been applied on Suplacu de Barcau and Videle-Balaria fields. Dehydration and desalting of tight emulsions with a high water content (obtained by in-situ combustion by thermal-chemical processes) were inefficient, yielding a water content and impurities of over 4% by volume in treated oil. The research work led to the improvement of thermochemical treatment by the separation of free water in two stages, to the altering of the heating system using metal heaters, and to final desalting with a diluted solution of an anionic-active agent in fresh water. To remove colloidal nonsettling fresh water, the thermochemical treatment was provided with a stage of gas stripping using a double column with a stripping compartment and a condensing/cooling compartment. A stripping stage with natural gas at a pressure of 0.3 MPa (using horizontal heaters) was installed as an extension to the existing thermochemical treatment plant at Suplacu de Barcau in 1976. A thermochemical and flue-gas-stripping plant for dehydration and desalting of oil produced by in-situ combustion in the Balaria oil field was put on line at Anghelesti in 1990. The plant is at atmospheric pressure and uses vertical heaters with and without blown-in air.
Summary The Sarmatian 3 Videle field is among the largest heavy-oil reservoirs currently known in the world. The oil viscosity under reservoir conditions ranges from 30 to 120 cp [30 to 120 mPa s]. There are three producing horizons: Sarmatian 3a and 3b, partially overlying Sarmatian 3c. producing horizons: Sarmatian 3a and 3b, partially overlying Sarmatian 3c. The field was discovered in 1959. During 1964 to 1976, a water-injection project was gradually expanded to the whole reservoir area. The average oil recovery at the present time is about 13%, and the producing wells are approaching the economic limit-the producing oil/water producing wells are approaching the economic limit-the producing oil/water ratio is higher than 25. For this reason, it was decided to study the feasibility of producing the field by in-situ combustion to recover additional tertiary oil. To obtain the necessary data, three field combustion pilots located upstructure in various areas of the reservoir are being operated. The performance of the three tests is presented and discussed. The favorable performance of the three tests is presented and discussed. The favorable results obtained so far justify the full-scale application of the in-situ combustion process. A linedrive scheme has been selected so that a more or less continuous combustion front will move downdip. To supply the necessary air for a combustion front of more than 11.2 miles [18 km] in length, a giant compression capacity of about 247.2 × 10 6 scf/D [7 × 10 6 std m3/d] will he required. Introduction On the basis of the successful combustion operations conducted fieldwide at suplacu de Barcau, as well as the favorable results obtained by the in-situ combustion experiment in the Balaria field, a study has been undertaken to determine the feasibility of the in-situ combustion process in the Videle field. The Sarmatian 3 Videle and Balaria fields are located near each other and have similar rock and fluid characteristics. Their reservoir drive mechanisms, however, are different; while Balaria produces under natural water drive, the water drive in the Videle field is so weak that a water-injection project had to be applied. An in-situ combustion test was started in 1975 in the Balaria Sarmatian reservoir. After 4 years, the favorable results obtained led to the decision to expand the combustion test to a full-scale project. This paper presents the results obtained in the in-situ combustion tests performed in the Videle field as a tool for increasing oil recovery in a relatively heavy-oil reservoir produced by peripheral and internal water injection. The basic ideas of expanding the in-situ combustion process to full-scale operations are discussed. process to full-scale operations are discussed. Geology and Reservoir Properties The Videle field is located in the southern part of Rumania, about 72.4 miles [117 km] west-southwest of Bucharest. The Videle structure is a monocline 11.2 miles [18 km] long with about a 2.5-mile [4-km] lateral extent. A typical well log is shown in Fig. 1. The Sarmatian 3 Videle field consists of three producing horizons, Sarmatian 3a ( ), Sarmatian 3b ( ), and Sarmatian 3c ( ). Oil is being produced unsegregated from the first two (upper) intervals, 3a and b. The Sa and the Sa are either massive facies or are separated by discontinuous impermeable stringers, forming the pay zone Sa. The Sa is separated from S by an impermeable sequence of clayey layers, ranging from 20 to 46 ft [6 to 14 m] in thickness and extending over the whole surface of Sa. The productive zones range from 2,132 to 2,789 ft [650 to 850 m] and consist of slightly consolidated medium-to-fine-grained sand in Sa and loose, fine-to-very-fine-grained sand in Sa. Sa and Sa are not present in all field areas. Because the Sarmatian Sea overlapped the Cretaceous relief eroded earlier, the aforementioned horizons gradually disappear eastward. The intercommunicating blocks of the Sa, the limits of the Sa and of the Sa, and the location of the Videle reservoir relative to the Balaria reservoir are shown in Fig. 2. A schematic section of the West Videle field is shown in Fig. 3. In East Videle, the Sa strata rest directly on Cretaceous formations. A gradual increase in oil viscosity from west to east is evident in Sa the net pay thickness and the permeability are decreasing in the same direction. The rock is oil-wet both in Videle and in Balaria. The main properties of the strongly undersaturated heavy oil of the Sa Videle and of properties of the strongly undersaturated heavy oil of the Sa Videle and of the Sa Balaria are given in Table 1. SPEFE p. 556
Carcoana, A. N. (Research and Design Institute for Oil and Gas, Romania) | Machedon, V. C. (Research and Design Institute for Oil and Gas, Romania) | Pantazi, I. G. (Research and Design Institute for Oil and Gas, Romania) | Petcovici, V. C. (Research and Design Institute for Oil and Gas, Romania) | Turta, A. T. (Research and Design Institute for Oil and Gas, Romania)
The almost 20 years' experience gained in operating in situ combustion projects in Romanian oil fields will be discussed in connection with three industrial projects and 13 pilot tests, of which seven are to be soon expanded to industrial operations. The in situ combustion process has been applied as both secondary and tertiary method to oil reservoirs, containing oils ranging in density from 840 kg/m3 (37 "API) to 960 kg/m3 (16 "API), occurring at depths varying between 100 m and 1200 m; the reservoirs consist of one or several pay zones. A series of data concerning the large project conducted in the Suplacu de Barcãu field and the important project to be started in the near future in Videle-Bãlãria field will be presented to illustrate the present state of in situ combustion technology in Romania. The main difficulties encountered in field operations are presented, along with the total or partial solutions that have been worked out. The engineering thinking, on which the field test design is based, involves consideration of field-wide expansion of the process, in order that oil production operations might be as continuous and economical as possible. It has been estimated that from the total EOR oil recoverable reserves in Romania, 41% will be produced by in situ combustion.
Carcoana, Aurel N.; Research and Design Inst. for Oil and Gas Abstract The wide oil field experience of the Romanian oil men in producing hydrocarbon reservoirs is based on an old tradition, but only after 1945 reservoir engineering studies were started in Romania. Beginning with 1950 conventional recovery methods expanded continual. During the last 10 years, however, the crude oil, as energy resource, has become of tremendous importance. The need for increasing the ultimate oil recovery has been felt in Romania as everywhere else. To attain this goal EOR methods were and are tested and expanded on a commercial scale. The paper describes the application of the fire-floods to a broad range of Romanian oil reservoirs and crude properties and reviews the field tests of polymer flooding, surfactant flooding and alkaline flooding. A commercial scale project with cyclic steam injection is presented and also the use of the domestic CO 2 sources to enhance oil recovery. The results and the difficulties encountered are briefly discussed and also the potential of EOR methods in Romania are presented. Introduction The Romanian oil fields present a large variety of characteristics. They generally range from 100 to 4800 meters in depth and from a few meters to several tens of meters in thickness. Productive formations dip varies from 2–3 in the Moesique Platform and the Panonian Depression to as much as 70-90 in the diapir fold area, where salt occur at the surface. The reservoir rocks are mostly continuously layered and are sands, sandstones, limestones or combinations of those ones, having low, high and very high flowing capacities, with viscous and heavy crude oil to less viscous and light ones. Strong faulting and folding hindered in most cases a significant natural water encroachment. As a result, the main recovery mechanisms have been dissolved gas drive and gravity drainage. The application and the development of the gas injection and waterflooding have led to an average country ultimate oil recovery of 30% IOIP. Beginning with 1973 a national EOR Program was set up. As it is known - the term "enhanced oil recovery" (EOR) refers, in the broadest sense, to any method used to recover more oil from a petroleum reservoir than would be obtained by primary recovery -/10/. However, for this paper EOR involves the methods by which additional oil is obtained over that which can be recovered by conventional methods 1/17/.The Program requiring the country-wide analysis of the oil fields and recommending the adequate recovery methods for enhancing ultimate oil recovery, as well as the actions to be taken, must to assure, over the next 20 years, an average country ultimate recovery estimated around 40 – 42% IOIP. THERMAL METHODS IN SITU COMBUSTION. The discovery in 1960 of one of the largest heavy oil reservoir in Romania which is Suplacu de Barcau, with an 0.96 oil relative density, the low ultimate oil recovery of 9% IOIP estimated by primary recovery and the low oil rate of 1–3 m3/d per well obtained, have primary recovery and the low oil rate of 1–3 m3/d per well obtained, have determined thermal methods to be taken into consideration. Two parallel steam drive and in situ combustion field experiments have been conducted (1964–1966) and the results were favorable evaluated. Because of the lack of steam generators, the in situ combustion was the method expanded on a commercial scale. Till 1981 the Suplacu de Barcau in situ combustion line-drive process involves 370 producers and 50 injectors and supports a 4.8 km long burning front, moving downdip from the line of injection wells. The injected air amount is 2.1 × 10 6 sm3/d, the air-oil ratio is maintained around 2 × 10 3 sm3 per m3 and the oil production increase to 1200 m3/d (Fig. 1). p. 367
The basic partial differential equations that describe the multiphase flow of fluids through multidimensional porous media have been well known for over 30 years. However, it was not until high speed digital computers became widely available that the solution of these equations became possible. It is the various complexities introduced by flow geometry and phase behaviour that have created three general approaches to simulation of petroleum reservoirs. The first approach is to use various techniques for solution of the multiphase flow equations assuming that the fluid properties of the oil, gas and water are functions of pressure only and that the flow occurs through the porous media according to Darcy's law. The second approach is to add the additional complexity of simultaneously solving the phase relationships so that the movement and phase of individual molecular species is accounted for. The third general approach is to introduce the additional complexity of flow both through porous media and through fractures. All three approaches have a common goal-to mathematically simulate the behaviour of a petroleum reservoir so that various production strategies can be investigated and the maximum recovery of petroleum obtained. All authors of the five official papers agree that the use of petroleum reservoir simulation is leading toward optimal recovery of hydrocarbons and therefore conservation. Two papers were presented on the application of solutions of the fundamental flow equations. G. IOACHIM et al. reported the application of solutions to the fractional flow equations for simulation of complete water drive and pressure maintained reservoirs. This technique was applied to forecast oil production and recovery from a line drive water flood pilot test in the Sarmatian reservoir, Videle Field (Romania). Discussion centred on the accuracy with which the model predicted actual performance. The AUTHOR stated that insufficient data were obtained to be able to monitor all parts of the solution. However, the water-oil ratio information indicated that a satisfactory match was obtained. The history of the Sarmatian reservoir, Balteni Field (Romania) was used as an example to indicate satisfactory agreement between the forecasting technique and actual field results. N. R. MONTEIRO presented the second paper on application of the fundamental flow equations. A two-dimensional, three-phase simulation was performed to model the solution gas drive natural depletion of the Sao Paulo 4 reservoir, Miranga Field, Block 2 (Brazil). A satisfactory match was obtained of the natural depletion observed in the field. The importance of obtaining good pressure and fluid production data was shown. Data shown in the prese