The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
- Data Science & Engineering Analytics
The SPE has split the former "Management & Information" technical discipline into two new technical discplines:
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Chen, Yinglong (Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian / State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic Systems, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou) | Li, Jun (Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian) | Hao, Xinjuan (Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian) | Zhao, Yue (Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian) | Gong, Yongjun (Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering College, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian)
ABSTRACT In order to improve the emergency handling ability of Marine rescue in the Arctic, this paper proposes to use TOPSIS (Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution) and the Weighted scoring method, respectively, to identify the dispatching rank of Marine rescue forces. By comparing the two methods of dispatch sorting result, the better method is identified. Firstly, according to the environmental characteristics of the Arctic, the evaluation indexes of the dispatching rescue force is selected, and the weight coefficient of the evaluation indexes is determined comprehensively by the AHP (Analytic hierarchy process) and the Entropy weight method; Then, a typical accident situation in the Arctic Sea is set up, and the Weighted scoring method and TOPSIS are used to rank maritime rescue forces stationed in Murmansk respectively. Finally, taking the rank results obtained by the Weighted scoring method as a reference, the rank results obtained by TOPSIS are compared with it. It is concluded that the rescue forces dispatch rank obtained by TOPSIS is more reasonable, which shows that TOPSIS can effectively be used to identify the selection of rescue forces and provide valuable advice to the Arctic Maritime authorities on their search and rescue operations in the Arctic Sea. INTRODUCTION The accelerated melting of Arctic Sea ice is making Arctic shipping lanes more open and polar operations are growing rapidly (Rottem, 2013). In the Arctic region, the environment is cold and harsh, and maritime accidents on ships seriously affect the safety of people on board. Therefore, it is urgent to enhance effective and quick maritime rescue (James and David, 2019). In order to ensure safe operation of polar shipping, scientific research, resource development and other activities, we should improve the efficiency of rescue and support operations, and minimize the risk of accidents (Bercha, 2006). It is necessary to carry out research on polar rescue forces dispatch, so as to achieve the optimal rescue effect in the shortest time.
Load engineering firm Mammoet is the latest company to be awarded a contract for the Arctic LNG 2 project being developed in the Gydan Peninsula in the norther part of Siberia, Russia. TechnipFMC-led joint venture NovArctic in cooperation with Saipem and NIPIgas brought on Mammoet as an unloading, transportation, and installation contractor for the project. Over the course of 4 years, Mammoet will install 42 large modules onto three concrete gravity-based structures in Murmansk. The project is expected to use around 2,000 self-propelled modular transporter axles, several mega-jack lifting systems, a crane fleet spearheaded by a CC8800-1 crane with a boom booster, and around 120 workers at peak times. Each module will weigh between 8,000 to 17,000 tons; over the project's lifespan the total weight of lifting operations will reach some 500,000 tons.
The Zhdanovskoe sulfide copper-nickel ore deposit is a part of the Pechenga ore field and is located at the North-West of the Murmansk region. Since 1959, the deposit was produced by open-pit mining. At present the deposit is being developed by the Severny underground mine. The principal mining method is sublevel caving and in some parts, the open stoping mining method is applied. As a result of recent in-situ studies, the stress field has been determined as a gravitational-tectonic with a predominance of the tectonic component at the depths of mining operations and their development in the coming decades, according to the mining plan. A new mining-induced relief was formed after the open-pits had been mined-out and the initial rock mass stress field had been changed. High intensity and fast deepening of mining operations increase the geodynamic risks. One more complicated factor is using multiple mining methods in the same area, which can affect rock mass stability in and around this area. The stress state transformation forecast is necessary to determine the optimal direction and parameters of mining in terms of geomechanics. Numerical modeling is widely used for the stress state transformation forecast. The most important stage is the creation of a rock mass model that covers adequately the geomechanical, geological and technological conditions. The numerical geomechanical 3D model of the Zhdanovskoe deposit has been created and the data about the stress state and its changing as the surface and underground excavations are extended have been obtained. The data has been compared with the visual observation findings. It is planned to use the model to estimate the rock mass and excavations stability, to select the safest mining development and in the current and long-term mining planning.
ABSTRACT One of the most important tasks in deep open mining is to provide for the slope stability, which requires an operative diagnostics of its conditions. Such diagnostics can be performed by geophysical methods only which allow obtaining objective information about the properties and parameters of the rock mass state through discrete and continuous in time observations. The evolution of geomechanical processes in open pit walls with open mining progress can be traced through a microseismic method. The operational control of actual wall sectors (groups of benches) is performed by ultrasonic logging, well logging and seismic tomography methods. All of the above methods have been successfully applied for many years by the Mining Institute KSC RAS in the open pits of the Kola Peninsula; in particular at the Zhelezny open pit mine, JSC Kovdorsky mining-processing enterprise (Kovdorsky GOK), and Khibiny apatite mines. 1 INTRODUCTION The construction of deep open pit walls with the use of high benches on the ultimate contour requires improving a technology and organizing works, developing advanced geomechanical approaches for theoretical verification of mining-engineering structures stability, as well as managing special monitoring systems for rock mass, including open pits. In the context of hard rock conditions, new geomechanical approaches are based on the representation of a rock mass as a hierarchically-blocked medium under the influence of gravitational-tectonic stress field (Kozyrev, 2002, Kasparian, 2006). Countries with a developed mining industry pay considerable attention to monitoring of slope stability, job security and elimination of the consequences of instability of individual benches (Becerra Abregu, 2013, Escobar, 2013). At that, slope stability monitoring is carried out mainly with the use of various modem radar scanning technologies that allow controlling the displacement of sectors of the pit contour in real time. In some cases the control of the geomechanical processes occurring in a rock mass outside an open pit is carried out using microseismic methods (Lynch, 2004). In general, such a combination of radar scanning technologies and microseismic methods allows obtaining a fairly complete picture of the geomechanical processes occurring in the deep rock mass and on the pit boundaries. To the date, Russian specialists have had extensive best practices in the experimental definitions of a geomechanical situation in ore open pits of the Murmansk region (Kozyrev, 2013a), the most studied of which is the open pit of the Zhelezny mine.
ABSTRACT The article demonstrates how numerical modeling results can be used in analyzing potential failures in a rock mass which can occur as a rupture or a shear along weakness planes. The evaluation of exposed outcrops stability is an important task in deposits development. One of the methods for analyzing a potential shear on the boundaries of stoping spaces is estimation of values and spatial orientation of the shear stress areas. For areas in which shear stresses exceed critical values, it is important to compare the direction of the areas with the direction of the dynamically active structures of the near-contour rock mass. The article describes a process of calculation and 3D visualization of shear stress vectors and shear areas. The space orientation of shear areas and the direction of a fault structure impact on a probable failure of a part of the bench or open pit wall. The algorithm was used to study the slope stability of the Kovdor open pit in order to determine its optimal parameters. The task was solved using SigmaGT software, developed at the Mining Institute KSC RAS, Apatity, Russia. 1 INTRODUCTION A case study object is the Zhelezny open pit mine which develops a baddeleite-apatite- magnetite and low-iron apatite ore deposit. The Kovdor deposit is located at the southwestern part of the Kola Peninsula (Murmansk region, Russia), in the Kovdora river basin, the left tributary of the Yoni river. The ore body of the deposit is a large tubular body of a complex, meandering shape and relatively simple in sections. Extent of the deposit from north to south is about 1.5 km, width in plan is from 300 m to 1 km. The main ore body is surrounded by several large and numer-ous small veined ore bodies (Kalashnikov et al., 2016, Zhirov et al., 2015). At present, the mine is being mined by an open pit with dimensions in the plan of 2 × 1.5 km. The depth of the Zhelezny open pit mine is about 450 m. In the future it is planned to deepen the open pit to 800–900 m. At that, the danger to the stability violation of the open pit elements significantly increases. The failures of the open pit walls are often a serious problem for mining enterprises, since it causes significant material and economic damage to businesses and poses a hazard to the human health and lives. Therefore, the forecast and prevention of failures is necessary when designing and operating the open pit.
Kozyrev, A. A. (Mining Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) | Semenova, I. E. (Mining Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences) | Zhuravleva, O. G. (Mining Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences)
ABSTRACT The paper presents the investigation results on changes in the rock mass state during mining under rockburst-hazardous conditions. The authors interpret the results of comparing the cluster analysis of seismic events and numerical modelling of stress state in the rock mass on the case study of the apatite-nepheline deposits located in the Khibiny rock massif (Murmansk region, Russia). A case study object has been chosen a rock block 7/10 from mining level +170 m, the Kukisvumchorr deposit. The authors have identified clusters of seismic events, associated with different rock mass regions. The 3D modelling of the stress-strain state was carried out taking into account the initial stress-strain state in the rock mass; a mountainous relief; the characteristics of enclosing rocks, ore body and faults; and actual conditions of mining operations. The authors have revealed the correspondence of identified stress concentration zones and zones of increased seismic activity and determined a focal zone of a large seismic event. The study demonstrates that the comparison of seismic monitoring results with numerical modelling of stress-strain state in the rock mass allows better assessing the geomechanical state of the rock mass, determining a cause of hazardous dynamic events, and improving the assessment quality of potentially rockburst-hazardous zones at the mine planning stage. 1 Introduction Permanent mining-induced impact modifies the rock mass structure and increases the seismic activity in a mined deposit. The seismicity in the rock mass depends on the initial stress-strain state and modifications of geomechanical and geodynamic processes within it. As any seismic event is a result of stress-strain state, previous seismic events or blasts, it changes the configuration of the stress field. The deepening and intensification of mining increases the background stress level, the absolute values of stresses and the extent of the areas of stress concentration zones in the vicinity of mining development fronts. Therefore, investigating the processes governing the modifications of the rock mass state, taking into account basic geological and mining factors, is a critical task and its solution is possible by applying integrated methods only.
Abstract Baltika, the world’s first oblique icebreaker designed to break ice sideways, left Murmansk on 20 March 2015 and headed to the Russian Arctic. The purpose of the three-week voyage to Kara Sea and the Gulf of Ob was to evaluate the vessel’s icebreaking performance and operational capability through extensive full-scale trials in challenging Arctic ice conditions. In the ice-free Barents Sea, the seakeeping characteristics of the asymmetric icebreaker hull were also evaluated in moderate seas. Performance trials were carried out in three different ice thicknesses, ranging from 40 cm thick saline sea ice in the Kara Sea to up to 1.22 m thick hard low-saline ice outside the Sabetta LNG terminal in the Gulf of Ob. During these trials, Baltika exceeded her design icebreaking capability of 3 knots in 1 m thick ice in both ahead and astern directions. In addition, the oblique icebreaking mode was demonstrated for the first time, and the vessel performed beyond expectations. While the main goal of the trial voyage was to confirm Baltika’s icebreaking capability, both the vessel’s crew and the designers gained considerable operational experience during the daily operations in the challenging ice conditions. After the best way to tackle obstacles such as ridged ice fields was discovered, Baltika was found out to be equivalent - sometimes even superior - to conventional icebreakers despite her lower propulsion power. There have always been those who have doubted the feasibility of the oblique icebreaker concept. The extensive full-scale ice trials in the Russian Arctic have shown that Baltika, the first icebreaker with an asymmetric hull, could not only break ice sideways, but also sometimes out-perform conventional icebreakers in other operational situations as well. The concept is thus seen to hold potential for a number of missions such as escort and port icebreaking and in offshore projects.
Massabuau, Jean-Charles (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique & Université de Bordeaux) | Gudimov, Alexander (Murmansk Marine Biological Institute) | Blanc, Philippe (TOTAL)
Abstract Adequate and efficient environmental monitoring is a key element of the environmental risk reduction process in the Oil & Gas industry, all the more where sensitive areas in harsh environmental conditions are at stake. This is the case in remote and extreme cold places such as the Arctic, where robust systems are required to withstand adverse climatic conditions and minimize intervention of man. Sharing clear and easily understandable information (as biological indicators) in total transparency with stakeholders, including local population, is an essential issue for both environmental and societal purposes. Working with public research organizations under the responsibility of governments is another key issue. Within this scope, an innovative online biomonitoring technology, High Frequency Non Invasive Valvometry, based on the use of bivalves equipped with light electrodes has been successfully tested during one year in a bay located in the North-East of Murmansk (Barents Sea). This has been done through a joined project between CNRS, the French National Center for Scientific Research, MMBI, the Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in Russia, and TOTAL Exploration & Production. Groups of bivalves (Icelandic scallops and Blue mussels) were placed at 15-18m under sea level, with minute electromagnets glued to each of their valves to record opening and closing activity. A remote intelligent device composed of a waterproof case next to the animals and a card out of water (the whole thing is a low power, 1W, fully-rugged Linux-running microcomputer) was installed. The master unit where data are automatically handled is in Arcachon, France. The connection uses GPRS & internet. The data are publically monitored on MolluSCAN Eye website (google molluscan eye). Daily acquisition of data during one year has demonstrated the ability of the technology to automatically rebuild easily understandable biological rhythms, growth rates and spawning activities of the bivalves. This includes activity during the harsh Arctic winter period. This technology opens the gate to "intelligent" monitoring of aquatic environments enabling sensitive and continuous assessment of harmfulness of industrial impacts, in particular for the Oil & Gas industry.
This article, written by Senior Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper OTC 22100, ’Approach to Performance, Operability, and Risk Assessment of the Shtokman Floating Platform in Ice,’ by Pavel Liferov, Guillaume Le Marechal, Marc-Marie Albertini, Michel Metge, and Erik ter Brake, Shtokman Development A.G., prepared for the 2011 Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, 7-9 February 2011. The paper has not been peer reviewed. Copyright 2011 Offshore Technology Conference. Reproduced by permission. The Shtokman gas/condensate field (SGCF) is 610 km from Murmansk, Russia, in the Barents Sea. The water depth is approximately 340 m. The offshore facilities of the SGCF Phase-1 development will include an ice-resistant ship-shaped disconnectable-turret-moored floating platform (FP). Significant sea-ice invasions occur at Shtokman approximately 3 out of every 10 years. Icebergs also may occur in the SGCF area. Ice and iceberg management is planned to support the FP operations. The performance, operability, and risk of the FP in waters where occasional invasion of sea and glacial ice is anticipated were assessed. Introduction The main challenge was to achieve an appropriate reliability level at acceptable costs, while minimizing operational downtime. The main ice-related challenges identified in the prefront-end engineering and design (FEED) and updated during the FEED included FP loss of station keeping because of actions from sea ice, FP loss of station keeping because of actions from icebergs, and underhull ice interaction in the riser-connection area. It was decided early on to establish challenging but realistic design targets for the main systems (e.g., hull, mooring, and disconnection system) and, in parallel, work on design of operational measures, including assessment of efficiency and reliability. Further, quantitative operability and risk assessments of the entire system were performed to evaluate potential optimization needs. Ice-Related Design and Operating Philosophy The FP was designed as an ice-resistant disconnectable production unit, able to withstand independently almost all ice and iceberg actions expected to occur at Shtokman. The following conditions are the design limits, and acceptable response criteria under these conditions and interaction scenarios must be satisfied. Ultimate-limit-state (ULS) mooring safety factor under: Head-on interaction with unmanaged 100-year-return-period (YRP) ice ridge (with corresponding companion environmental actions) Ice vaning in unmanaged 100-YRP level ice (with corresponding companion environmental actions) Interaction with 10,000-YRP iceberg in open water (for demonstration purpose, not for use in operations) 5000-t horizontal load (as practically achievable value, on the basis of results from initial studies)
Abstract Arctic Shelf hydrocarbon reserves are estimated over 100 billiard t (in oil equivalent) by different experts when most part of them are in Barents, Pechora and Kara seas [Kliewer G., 2006, ]. Obviously offshore oil and gas fields will be intensively developed at the next decades. And the process has being in progress if take in mind started exploration offshore Sakhalin, and ice gravity platform "Prirazlomnaya" has left Murmansk Aug 18, 2011 (when first well to be drilled until end of 2001 as per planning) . And soil investigations are completing for Shtokman project design and construction. That is why problems of environment study and forecast for designing and construction are getting special value and significance. When name "environment" we have to understand it means three components: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere; they all have some specificity in the area. Sever climate with long period of negative temperature and strong continuous winds, influence of hydrodynamic and ice factors, specific soil extend, permafrost and post cryogenic processes are the features. The main geo hazards spread along Arctic Shelf are caused by acting of: -oceanlogical factors (wave, wind, tide, etc), -ice, icebergs, stamukhas, hummocks, -lithodynamic influence, -subbotom permafrost and post cryogenic processes, -tectonics and seismicity, -anthropogenic factors, -structure of soil section (weak and non-homogenic soils, specific deposits), -sea bottom morphology features (variability of sea flour, water depth etc). It should be noted phenomena and processes of water and air mediums have been recording over centuries by man already and that is why they are learnt enough. The main problem come up at engineering-oceanlogical investigation is reliability of forecasts to be a function of observation duration first of all. Normative documents of GOSSTROI and POSGIDROMET specify the period as 1 to 5 years for production facilities of oil and gas industry. However there are no such continuous and long-term investigations in Arctic Shelf (complete series should include around-year period with extreme and moderate rows). Obviously initial data are the most important factor to be acting to reliability of the results irrespective of mean or method of modeling (mathematical, physical). For instance, AARI recorded many icebergs near Shtokman field at the ice expedition in Barents Sea, 2003 [Buzin I.V., 2006]. The formations had size of up to 0.2x0.4km and mass of upto 3.7 million ton (fig.1). Such their extremal spread and formation had not been noted for over hundred year term observation. And this was not considered at the exploration facilities designing on the field.