The SPE Mexico Section created the Young Professionals (YPs) Committee in 2015 and held its first YP meeting in November in the City of Villahermosa, Tabasco. Mexico Section YP Chairperson Jorge Enciso presented the topic of "How to Prepare an SPE Technical Paper," which was well-received. Petrolink's vice president of research and innovation, David Johnson, discussed the "Benefits of Information Standardization." The meeting was attended by more than 60 participants, mostly YPs from different sectors of the industry, including from Pemex, other new operators, and service companies. An objective of the meeting was to promote the professional growth of young members in the industry and improve job visibility, in conjunction with the development of soft skills.
Acidizing and acid fracturing techniques are routinely used in two important formations in the marine regions of Mexico, the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations. These formations are naturally fractured carbonate and dolomite reservoirs having a permeability in the range of 0.19 to 22 mD, porosity from 2.8 to 6%, approximate bottomhole temperature (BHT) up to 177°C, pressure (BHP) of 10,374 psi, and a crude of 45° API. Using acid fracturing techniques helps improve the development of these assets. This paper shows the results of more than 40 acid fracturing operations performed in recent years.
Depending on the productivity evaluation, wells belonging to these assets are stimulated as part of the completion stage. Because of their low permeability, a common approach is to perform an acid fracturing operation. As a first evaluation, a minifrac test is executed to obtain the necessary data to calibrate the acid fracturing simulation model. After this step is performed, the acid fracturing design is evaluated. Generally, a sustained production acidizing technique is used for conductivity enhancement and closed-fracture acidizing is also included as a tailored treatment with an all seawater-based acidizing system.
For these operations, an average five-fold increase in oil production has been observed after treatment. In some cases wells in the completion stage, having no production before treatment, delivered up to 7000 BOPD after treatment. In these low-permeability assets, the post-fracturing response shows good results in general terms, increasing final conductivity in the near-wellbore area, and improving the production in these wells. The fracture gradient observed varies from 0.715 to 0.981 psi/ft with an average minimum stress of 13,670 psi. To perform the acid fracturing treatments, an average of 6400 hydraulic horsepower (HHP) must be available, with up to 13,400-psi surface pressure observed. As such, a stimulation vessel is necessary in all operations, applying a 26-bbl/min average pumping rate.
Globally, acid fracturing treatments are a common stimulation technique. This study shows that stimulating proper candidates in Mexico using acid fracturing significantly helps increase production, which may be relevant for the exploitation of new areas where fracturing has not been implemented.
Stoichiometric evaluation performed in laboratory is presented comparing conventional hydrochloric acid and Synthetic Acid based stimulation systems in static and dynamic conditions to verify the speed and reaction performance applied in real tubing segments with severe Carbonate Scale at different times verifying efficiencies. With these tests, it was determined that Synthetic Acid system showed a higher dissolution efficiency, and it was applied in the stimulation of several wells located in Mexico s Offshore, achieving successful results. Conventionally, carbonate scale complications in tubing production, downstream pipes, wellhead choke pipes, gas lift mandrels valves and surface pipes are corrected mostly with hydrochloric acid and occasionally with organic acids; in the quest of a solution to reduce the corrosion rate in pipes, increase in reaction efficiency and stability at critical pressure and temperature conditions, a synthetic acid system was developed which meets the established objectives compared to conventional systems. Tubing production pipes with carbonate scales was recovered during minor repair and cut into segments with equal dimensions, which were measured and weighed to quantify the stoichiometry of the two types of acid. The evaluation developed to dynamic and static conditions verified the impact that the turbulence has on the efficiency and speed of reaction in different observation times. Based on the results obtained from the laboratory tests, a stimulation treatment with Synthetic Acid was carried out in the oil producing well in the BKS formation, achieving immediate increases in their operating conditions (temperature, pressure in the downstream pipe, pressure in wellhead); subsequently the well maintained an incremental trend of its flow conditions over time. The use of synthetic acid to stimulate and remove the damage by precipitation of carbonate scale present in the formation water, allows it to do so without practically causing any corrosive damage, is highly efficient in dissolution and friendly to the environment.
Pemex signed an agreement worth USD 1 billion with private equity firmFirst Reserve to jointly invest in energy infrastructure in Mexico. The first investment is the Los Ramones pipeline system, which is under construction and will consist of 744 km of natural gas pipelines. Commercial operations for the system are expected to begin in the middle of next year.
Purewal, Satinder (Imperial College) | Juárez Toquero, Fidel (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Simón Burgos, Eduardo (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Meneses-Scherrer, Eduardo J. (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico) | Arellano Sánchez, Elaine A. (National Hydrocarbons Commission of Mexico)
A Pilot project was initiated to classify Oil and Gas projects in 19 Blocks in Mexico using the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) which has a unique 3-dimensional evaluation structure with three axes: Economics, Environment and Social viability (E axis), Project Feasibility (F axis) and Geological Knowledge (G axis). The main focus was to capture the environmental and social impact on project classification and resources categorization.
The Pilot project was coordinated by the National Hydrocarbons Commission (CNH) with integrated collaboration from the Energy Ministry (SENER), the Agency for Safety, Energy and Environment (ASEA), and the Petroleum Work Group of UNECE. SPE classification system (i.e. PRMS) has been mapped to UNFC. While PRMS covers oil and gas projects only, UNFC covers all resources e.g. oil and gas, minerals, renewables, nuclear, etc.
The E axis uniquely differentiates UNFC from PRMS by its granular capture of social and environmental issues. A systematic approach was adopted with focus on E and F axes for which a matrix and a decision tree (‘flow chart’) were created for an efficient classification of the hydrocarbon volumes. For the G axis, the volume ranges provided by the project operators were considered to be valid. In the selected 19 blocks, there were 75 projects identified. These were located offshore, onshore and included conventional and unconventional projects with varying degrees of environmental and social issues.
This is the first known exercise using UNFC for integrating social and environmental issues into oil and gas projects for hydrocarbon volumes classification and categorization anywhere globally. The outcome shows the differences between the PRMS and UNFC due to social and environmental conditions. Using UNFC for classification and categorization of all energy sources of a country, a potential tool can be created for making energy policy decisions. This may also assist in meeting Sustainable Development Goals- 2030 adopted by most countries including the UN and The World Bank.
Classification using UNFC assists in identifying the key social and environmental drivers which may be impediments to moving the oil and gas volumes categorizations higher up the value chain. Added granularity in the classifications incorporating environmental and social considerations will assist project financial investment decision making through comparative assessment of objectives and priorities of national, regional and local stakeholders. To the authors’ knowledge, this is a unique Pilot project with significant value-add outcomes which can be replicated in other countries.
Purewal, Satinder (Imperial College) | Pacheco-Roman, Francisco J. (Secretaria de Energia SENER) | Hernández Juárez, Mayelli (Secretaria de Energia SENER) | León Mella, José A. (Agencia de Seguridad Energia y Ambiente) | Mera Avecias, Guillermina (Agencia de Seguridad Energia y Ambiente)
The objective is to present a matrix to identify environmental and social aspects which may impact the initiation, assessment, approval of final investment decision and implementation of oil and gas projects in Mexico. The matrix is applied to 19 blocks. The results demonstrate the usefulness in ease of identification of key elements which may be focus of attention to project feasibility. This may be used as tool for resource classification, and thus adapted to other countries.
The Agency for Safety, Energy and Environment (ASEA) with collaboration from the Energy Ministry (SENER) were involved while the project selection was integrated by the National Hydrocarbon Commission (CNH). CNH selected 19 blocks for review with 75 oil and gas projects. SENER and ASEA developed a matrix with clear identification of environmental and social aspects which may have an impact on the potential implementation of each project. The traffic light and multivariate analysis methods were adopted to colour code the environmental and social elements. This coding allowed quick identification of key areas which need to be addressed for project feasibility.
The selected blocks were located both offshore and onshore with different environmental and social issues. Unconventional and conventional resource developments were covered in the projects. The use of the matrix provided a consistent tool for better identification and understanding of the social and environmental aspects interacting in each block. It also emphasized the main sources of information and the best way to evaluate systematically the social and environmental aspects. The application of the matrix on real blocks exposed the social and environmental aspects that must to be addressed for the oil industry to develop from a sustainable vision. The evaluation of diverse blocks allowed for the identification of common characteristics and the subsequent classification of the blocks. The developed matrix may be used as a tool for making energy policy decisions. At the national level, it may also assist in understanding and meeting some of UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG's).
This paper presents a novel matrix to identify environmental and social elements relevant for the development of any oil and gas project. It also proposes a useful traffic light and multivariate analysis methods for the evaluation of these elements. The matrix allows quick and easy reference for identification of the key elements which may be focus of attention to oil and gas project feasibility. This approach may benefit the decision-making process within an integrated sustainability perspective.
Talos Energy made a big splash in 2015 when it won two of the fourteen blocks offered in Mexico's inaugural Round 1 lease sale. The company and its partners drilled the Zama-1 exploration well in July 2017, the first well drilled offshore by the private sector in Mexico's history, and later announced a massive discovery with over a billion barrels of oil in place. Now the company is moving forward to reach final investment decision and bring the field on line by the early 2020s. Outside of Mexico, Talos has reshaped its portfolio through its recent merger with Stone Energy, becoming public in the process. Following the transaction, the company now operates several US Gulf of Mexico facilities as well as subsea tie-backs.
The objective of this work is the prediction of water salinity evolution trend for Mexico Area-1 development that foresees the injection of a mixture of seawater and produced water from the six different reservoirs connected to the same FPSO.
Prediction of salinity trend evolution is crucial for forecasting possible biogenic hydrogen sulphide (H2S) formation and foreseeing the relating impacts over completion and facility material selection and on health, safety and environment (HSE) management.
Traditional numerical simulations through stand-alone models do not consider the effects of the reciprocal interaction among the fields on production profiles and are not able to simulate salinity evolution of produced and injected water mixture, variable over time. To overcome this limit, a new tool was developed. It consists in a python script that, introduced into the Area-1 Integrated Asset Model, allowed to generate forecasts of the water salinity along the project lifetime. These simulations were essential for souring risk assessment, providing the following results: water salinity trend evolution at each injector well; water salinity trend evolution at each producer well; injection water breakthrough timing at the producer wells.
water salinity trend evolution at each injector well;
water salinity trend evolution at each producer well;
injection water breakthrough timing at the producer wells.
Moreover, it gave the opportunity to assess the injection strategy efficiency and to quantify the impact of changing salinity on water viscosity and on the field recovery.
In conclusion, the innovative methodology applied in the Area-1 IAM (Integrated Asset Model) permits to predict the salinity of injected water and to foresee salinity evolution of produced water generating several valuable information, providing a flexible tool that allows to investigate simultaneously several uncertainties related to the project and to evaluate promptly solutions and mitigation.
Moreover, when the reservoirs will be on production, the numerical models integrated with the developed script will reproduce the historical salinity data allowing to identify preferential flow path established by fluids virtually acting as a reservoir tracer technology.
Mexico Awards Its First Deepwater Blocks; What Comes Next? Mexico’s long awaited deepwater auction saw 8 out of 10 blocks awarded but there remains plenty of work to be done before activity ramps up, including finalizing regulatory rules, upgrading ports, and optimizing the bid rules for future auctions. Mexico’s second oil and gas lease auction has been deemed a success after three out of five shallow-water blocks were awarded in September. The awarded areas contain an estimated 236 million bbl of oil and 190 Bcf of gas. In June, Mexico’s national oil company Pemex announced its largest discoveries of oil and gas in 5 years.
OTC panelists were excited at the potential of deepwater exploration offshore Mexico and believe that opportunities there could eventually drive a big new wave of activity. One of the oldest deepwater platforms in the Gulf of Mexico has become a profit-leader for the oil major during this downturn and is now a model for the company’s other floating assets. The new economic environment known as “lower for longer” has had no small effect on offshore safety, said a panel of experts at the 2017 Offshore Technology Conference. Panelists at the Offshore Technology Conference largely doubted that the oil and gas industry is making full use of digital technology for fundamental transformation. Companies are rethinking offshore developments and in a very tough market are finding innovative ways of bringing some projects forward.