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The single well chemical tracer (SWCT) test can be used to evaluate an Improved oil recovery (IOR) process quickly and inexpensively. The one-spot procedure takes advantage of the nondestructive nature of the SWCT method. The single-well (one-spot) pilot is carried out in three steps. First, Sor for the target interval is measured (see Residual oil evaluation using single well chemical tracer test. Then an appropriate volume of the IOR fluid is injected into the test interval and pushed away from the well with water.
Coiled-tubing drilling (CTD) can be very effective in certain situations. Its application is growing as experience defines what it takes to be successful. Coiled-tubing drilling (CTD) has a rather extensive history and received a large amount of press and hype from the 1990s to date, a significant amount being less than positive. There have been numerous highly successful applications of CTD technology in such regions as Alaska and the United Arab Emirates, yet CTD is still considered an immature new technology. One example of exaggerated expectations is CTD's reputation for offering certain advantages, including small footprint, high mobility, and quick operations. However, when more complex CTD services are planned, including directional drilling and cased completions, these advantages may no longer apply. These materials are typically not required for conventional CT services. When including the additional separators and nitrogen-pumping equipment required for underbalanced drilling (UBD), the advantages related to small footprint and high mobility may no longer be the case. Numerous truckloads of equipment can take days to rig up in preparation to drill with CT. Figure 1 shows a purpose-built CTD rig working in Oman.
While formation damage is typically a problem affecting the productivity of well, it can also pose problems for injection. Understanding the causes of this type of formation damage is important so that efforts to prevent it can be undertaken. This page discusses the types of formation damage that affect injection wells. In such projects, the cost of piping and pumping the water is determined primarily by reservoir depth and the source of the water. However, water treatment costs can vary substantially, depending on the water quality required.
The Prudhoe Bay field, located on the North Slope of Alaska, is the largest oil and gas field in North America. The main Permo-Triassic reservoir is a thick deltaic high-quality sandstone deposit about 500 ft thick with porosities of 15 to 30% BV and permeabilities ranging from 50 to 3,000 md. The field contains 20 109 bbl of oil overlain by a 35 Tcf gas cap. The oil averages 27.6 API gravity and has an original solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) of about 735 scf/STB. Under much of the oil column area, there is a 20- to 60-ft-thick tar mat located above the oil-water contact (OWC).
The Swanson River field is located in Cook Inlet, Alaska, US. Production is from the Hemlock formation. This field is a north/south-trending anticlinal flexure about 6 miles long by 1 to 3 miles wide with as much as 600 ft of closure. The Hemlock formation consists of interbedded fine- to coarse-grained sandstone, conglomerate, siltstone, and coal, with numerous thin, impermeable, calcareous stringers of somewhat limited areal extent. Field experience has confirmed that these calcareous stringers are effective barriers to the vertical migration of fluids in the vicinity of producing wells.
TC Energy confirmed on Wednesday that it has halted the construction of its Keystone XL pipeline after newly inaugurated US President Joe Biden canceled the project's federal permit in one of his first executive actions. Biden announced that he would revoke the pipeline's approval last May during his presidential campaign. Calgary-based TC Energy said pending unspecified "intervening actions" the move will eliminate thousands of jobs and result in a major financial loss. "The decision would overturn an unprecedented, comprehensive regulatory process that lasted more than a decade and repeatedly concluded the pipeline would transport much needed energy in an environmentally responsible way while enhancing North American energy security," the pipeline operator said in a statement. The cancellation comes less than a year after Biden's predecessor, US President Donald Trump, approved the federal permits in March to allow the transborder pipeline to be built.
This page discusses the primary manner in which the immiscible gas/oil displacement process has been used in qualitative terms. This is the use of gas injection high on structure to displace oil downdip toward the production wells that are completed low in the oil column. In many cases, an original gas cap was present, so the gas was injected into that gas cap interval (see Figure 1 for cross-sectional view of anticlinal reservoir with gas cap over oil column with dip angle α and thickness h). In this situation, the force of gravity is at work, trying to stabilize the downward gas/oil displacement process by keeping the gas on top of the oil and counteracting the unstable gas/oil viscous displacement process. If the oil production rate is kept below the critical rate, then the gas/oil contact (GOC) will move downward at a uniform rate.
Sudiptya Banerjee is the global technology manager at Tracerco. He is responsible for the reservoir tracer technology portfolio. He has more than 15 years’ experience in oilfield locales ranging from Alaska to Saudi Arabia, where he has implemented technical solutions in enhanced oil recovery and hydraulic fracturing operations. Banerjee holds multiple patents and awards and has presented numerous conference papers and lectures on well design as part of the SPE short course program. He may be contacted at email@example.com.
This chapter concerns gas injection into oil reservoirs to increase oil recovery by immiscible displacement. The use of gas, either of a designed composition or at high-enough pressure, to result in the miscible displacement of oil is not discussed here; for a discussion of that topic, see the chapter on miscible flooding in this section of the Handbook. A variety of gases can and have been used for immiscible gas displacement, with lean hydrocarbon gas used for most applications to date. Historically, immiscible gas injection was first used for reservoir pressure maintenance. The first such projects were initiated in the 1930s and used lean hydrocarbon gas (e.g., Oklahoma City field and Cunningham pool in the United States and Bahrain field in Bahrain). Over the decades, a considerable number of immiscible gas injection projects have been undertaken, some with excellent results and others with poor performance. Reasons for this range of performance are discussed in this chapter. At the end of this chapter, a variety of case studies are presented that briefly describe several of the successful immiscible gas injection projects. Gas injection projects are undertaken when and where there is a readily available supply of gas. This gas supply typically comes from produced solution gas or gas-cap gas, gas produced from a deeper gas-filled reservoir, or gas from a relatively close gas field. The primary physical mechanisms that occur as a result of gas injection are (1) partial or complete maintenance of reservoir pressure, (2) displacement of oil by gas both horizontally and vertically, (3) vaporization of the liquid hydrocarbon components from the oil column and possibly from the gas cap if retrograde condensation has occurred or if the original gas cap contains a relict oil saturation, and (4) swelling of the oil if the oil at original reservoir conditions was very undersaturated with gas. Gas injection is particularly effective in high-relief reservoirs where the process is called "gravity drainage" because the vertical/gravity aspects increase the efficiency of the process and enhance recovery of updip oil residing above the uppermost oil-zone perforations. The decision to apply immiscible gas injection is based on a combination of technical and economic factors. Deferral of gas sales is a significant economic deterrent for many potential gas injection projects if an outlet for immediate gas sales is available.
Dutch oil major Shell has sought to extend its lease holds on its North Slope oil position in Alaska but said it will not develop the properties itself. The company's offshore unit applied to form the West Harrison Bay Unit offshore from the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska with plans for drilling and exploration. The proposed unit comprises 18 leases in West Harrison Bay, approximately 34 miles northwest of the Colville River Unit. Shell holds 100% working interest in those 18 leases, covering more than 78,000 acres in the proposed unit. After the filings were reported publicly, Shell told multiple media outlets that it intends to fully divest from the leases and only filed exploration plans to promote interest amongst potential buyers.