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Sempra Energy’s Energía Costa Azul LNG (ECA LNG) subsidiary reached a final investment decision (FID) to build its $2-billion Phase 1 natural gas liquefaction export project in Baja California, Mexico. ECA LNG, a joint venture between Sempra LNG and its Mexico subsidiary IEnova, is the only LNG export project to reach FID in 2020, and is slated to be the first on the Pacific Coast of North America. The facility will connect natural gas supply from Texas and the western US to Mexico and other countries across the Pacific Basin. First production from Phase 1 is expected in late 2024. The company secured a 20-year supply agreement with Mitsui and an affiliate of Total for the purchase of 2.5 mtpa and is working with Total for a potential equity investment in the facility.
Hussain, Maaruf (Baker Hughes) | Negara, Ardiansyah (Baker Hughes) | Amao, Abduljamiu (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals) | Al-Ramadan, Khalid (King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals)
This paper presents a data-driven model built using machine learning technique, namely Support-Vector Regression (SVR), for predicting rock mechanical properties (RMP) of tight sands and shale formations based on measured elemental information. This study utilized 324 data points obtained from Paleozoic sequences covering 8000 ft interval. Elemental data was acquired by scanning intact samples on MicroXRF machine, whilewas used for modelling as well as for establishing lithofacies. RMP were obtained at atmospheric conditions using a non-destructive impulse hammer technique. SVR was used to establish a correlation between elemental geochemical information with RMP. The dataset was categorized into two: training and testing dataset using a 70-30 percent split. Training data was used to train SVR and establish the RMP prediction model by tuning the hyperparameters. Testing data was used to evaluate the predictive model by comparing the predictions with the actual measurement. Two quantitative measures for estimation accuracy including mean absolute error and cross-correlation plots between the actual and estimated RMP were employed to evaluate the prediction accuracy. The results demonstrate that the estimated RMP has a good agreement with the actual RMP, which is indicated by the small error and high coefficient of determination. Moreover, we used Adjacent Boosting technique to perform feature selections and the results show that the SVR-based model still generates good prediction when the number of features in the input is reduced by more than half. This study demonstrates that a reliable predictive model can be built with few intrisinc features, in the absence of robust mineralogical and elemental information.
The characterization of live-oil properties and PVT modeling is a critical part of a reservoir description and dynamics study. This paper describes the data integration process from oil characterization through reservoir simulation on the Basal Sisquoc (BSq) Sands formation in the East Cat Canyon heavy oil field, located about 200 km NW of Los Angeles, California. Since heavy live-oil samples can be very challenging to acquire, PVT properties are often estimated by conducting laboratory assays on dead-oil samples and samples recombined with synthetic gas matching the formation gas composition. The results of these experiments are subsequently modeled and further integrated into a full-field simulation model for history matching or forecasting. This paper presents the complete process of PVT to simulation workflow adapting to the specifics of the East Cat Canyon field. It considered the distinctive gas composition characteristics of the field leading to a mismatch between previously modeled live-oil properties and actual field measurements. Challenges in the work arose from the complexity in modeling and honoring a large number of data coming from a variety of sources, collection locations and collection timing. The data integration process was further challenged by the strongly dipping, potentially faulted reservoir, characterized by strong variations of the oil properties and a rapidly decreasing oil API as a function of depth.
The work integrated and reconciled all data sources available to the authors, including more recent field observations, thus leading to a better representation of the oil properties and project's economics.
Dai, Hongyi (The University of New South Wales) | Shikhov, Igor (The University of New South Wales) | Arns, Ji-Youn (CJEL Digital Imaging Education Solution Pty Ltd) | Li, Rupeng (The University of New South Wales) | Arns, Christoph Hermann (The University of New South Wales)
Resistivity measurements are a major input into hydrocarbon reserve estimation and are usually described by Archie's laws. In this study digital rock physics (DRP) is utilized to analyse the mechanisms of non-Archie and Archie behaviour of formation factor (FF) and resistivity index (RI) of low porosity Fontainebleau sandstone for ambient conditions and under high confining pressure, respectively.
Fontainebleau sandstone was imaged by micro-CT at a resolution of one micron and sub-resolution details of grain contact width distribution along with their length, extracted from a set of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The nano-scale aperture of grain contacts, which is below image resolution, is accounted for in micro-CT based numerical calculations by assigning effective porosity and conductivity to individual voxels of the extracted grain contact network. A porosity reduction of grain contacts and open pore space as function of applied confining pressure is introduced, capturing the pressure dependence. The concept was implemented by grain-contact labelling and introducing an additional phase derived from a Euclidean distance transform. Sub-voxel stress-strain effects were incorporated by attributing all compressibility effects to the pore space (open pore space and grain contacts), treating the solid phase as perfectly rigid. Voxel-scale input conductivities are assigned using Archie's law followed by solving the Laplace equation for sample-scale effective rock resistivity and resistivity index directly on the segmented image using the finite element method (FEM).
For the numerically modelling of Formation Factor and Resistivity Index of low porosity Fontainebleau sandstone as a function of confining pressure, which depends on sub-resolution features, a set of hypotheses were tested: (1) two segmentation scenarios based on the measured contact aperture distribution from SEM analysis – a homogeneous grain contact aperture based segmentation (single grain contact network) by assuming all grain contacts as a average constant value and a heterogeneous grain contact aperture based segmentation (dual grain contact network) by assigning two groups of grain contact aperture (wide and narrow); (2) homogeneous and heterogeneous morphological change of grain contacts due to confining pressure effect; (3) partial saturation of grain contacts. In all cases strong water-wetness was assumed and discretization effects were analysed carefully.
The numerical results highlight the relative contribution of each of two conductive components of Fontainebleau sandstone (open pores vs. grain contacts) over the full range of partial saturations. Of importance is the connectivity of the system, with discretization effects having a significant effect on formation factor, but small effect on resistivity index. Grain contacts and confining pressure are found to have a significant impact on RI behaviour of low-porosity Fontainebleau sandstone. Both the grain contact network with homogeneous aperture and the heterogeneous grain contact network are able to describe experimental observations. However, it is not sufficient to assume a homogeneous change in contact area and an inhomogeneous deformation of grain contact zones is required to match experiment.
Environmentalists have sued a US agency to try to stop it from allowing oil and gas drilling on a vast stretch of federal land in Nevada, where the government is reversing protections put in place 9 months ago under the Obama administration. The US Interior Department on 7 August launched an overhaul to an Obama-era plan to protect sage grouse that it says aims to preserve the species of bird while expanding opportunities for oil development in western states where they live. The federal government is barred from auctioning off new drilling rights on public lands in California for at least another year under a settlement reached with environmental groups, one of the groups told Bloomberg.
The Bureau of Land Management may stop studying how its long-term blueprints for millions of acres of public lands would affect the environment. Environmentalists have sued a US agency to try to stop it from allowing oil and gas drilling on a vast stretch of federal land in Nevada, where the government is reversing protections put in place 9 months ago under the Obama administration. The Interior Department is preparing to delay implementation of a rule limiting methane waste at oil and natural gas drilling sites. The federal government is barred from auctioning off new drilling rights on public lands in California for at least another year under a settlement reached with environmental groups, one of the groups told Bloomberg.
States that have made “significant” safety improvements in recent years by incorporating Chemical Safety Board recommendations are highlighted in the agency’s inaugural Safety Spotlight publication. The US Chemical Safety Board (CSB) has concluded that a 2015 explosion at a Torrance, California, refinery then owned by ExxonMobil could have been prevented, the agency concluded in a report issued on 3 May.
The 10,000 mirrors arrayed around the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy plant are striking and seem to suggest the concept is on a path to efficient and reliable renewable energy. But, recently, the plant’s operator threw in the towel and filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. E&B Natural Resources Management, an independent oil and gas company based in California, is investing in solar electricity to help run its oil production activities in two counties. E&B’s solar initiative will reduce its greenhouse gas emissions from the two projects.
Researchers at OU have received $2.5 million of US Department of Energy funding for a three-phase study to develop technologies to increase power production from geothermal wells. The geothermal development research site in Southern California sits on the US Navy’s largest single landholding. For the first time, the University of Oklahoma has offered a Human Factors in Oil and Gas Operations class. The offered course fulfilled the mission of training petroleum engineering students to make an impact on oil and gas industry.
Living near active oil and gas wells may put pregnant people at higher risk of having low-birth-weight babies, especially in rural areas, finds a new study of birth outcomes in California. In general, this shift elevates the importance of public health and environmental considerations in the regulation of oil and natural gas production in the state. In turn, production in the state is likely—at least in the near and medium term—to face both longer odds and longer waits for permitting. California Gov. Gavin Newsom is cracking down on oil producers by halting the approval of hundreds of hydraulic fracturing permits until independent scientists can review them. The measure bars any California leasing authority from allowing pipelines or other oil and gas infrastructure to be built on state property.