The safe transportation of hydrocarbons and other fluids within pipelines is a top priority within the oil and gas industry. Companies are subject to several federal regulations, standards, and monitoring from agencies such as The National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations (OPR); under the National Energy Board Act, The U.S. Department of Transportation – PHMSA, and The Transportation Safety Board (TSB).The safe transportation of hydrocarbons and other fluids within pipelines is a top priority within the oil and gas industry. Companies are subject to several federal regulations, standards, and monitoring from agencies such as The National Energy Board Onshore Pipeline Regulations (OPR) under the National Energy Board Act, The U.S. Department of Transportation – PHMSA, and The Transportation Safety Board (TSB). Designing and building onshore and subsea pipeline transportation projects that are safe, sustainable, and ecofriendly have been an ongoing mission of the industry. Each project must address the following basics with any pipeline project including engineering, procurement, construction, feasibility, permitting, program management, and the pipelines lifecycle To meet the pipeline industry's goal of incident-free operation, pipeline operators invest considerable human and financial resources to protect the people, property and environments near pipelines.
A layer near the surface, more or less cemented by secondary carbonates of calcium or magnesium precipitated from the soil solution. It may occur as a soft, thin soil horizon; as a hard, thick bed just beneath the solum; or as a surface layer exposed by erosion. Alluvium cemented with sodium nitrate, chloride, and/or other soluble salts in the nitrate deposits of Chile and Peru. A layer near the surface, more or less cemented by secondary carbonates of calcium or magnesium precipitated from the soil solution. It may occur as a soft, thin soil horizon; as a hard, thick bed just beneath the solum; or as a surface layer exposed by erosion.
Rojas, Pedro A. Romero (Weatherford International) | Cristea, Alexandrina (Weatherford International) | Pavlakos, Paul (Weatherford International) | Ergündüz, Okan (ARAR AS) | Kececioglu, Tayfun (ARAR AS) | Alpay, Server Fatih (ARAR AS)
Nuclear magnetic resonance wireline logging and data post-processing technologies are continuously evolving, making significant contributions to rock, fluid typing, formation evaluation and characterization of the near-wellbore zone. In heavy oil fields, however, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is known to provide an underestimated permeability, poor reliable oil typing and thus poor oil saturation and viscosity determinations, especially when the evaluation is based only on the spectra of transverse magnetic relaxation times (T2) (one-dimension NMR) [Romero et al., 2009]. Several attempts have been made to improve NMR results, mostly with limited success [Fang et al., 2004], especially in separating the oil component from the contribution of other fluids to the T2 spectra. The main reason lies not necessarily in the selection of the data acquisition parameters and sequences for a single-frequency or multi-frequency tool, but in the way how the data is post-processed.
The present study refers to a well drilled through the Derdere formation, a limestone/dolomite heavy oil reservoir in Turkey. The NMR data was acquired in with a centralized, single-frequency wireline tool in a 6-in. borehole, drilled with water-based mud in a freshwater carbonate reservoir. The generated T2 log was analyzed in a traditional way to obtain the NMR total porosity and its partitions based on standard cutoff values. For the given 12 API oil gravity, reservoir temperature (76 °C) and gas-oil-ratio (GOR) the T2Oil peak appears around 170 ms, right from the T2 cutoff for limestones; therefore, no corrections were needed on the permeability calculated from the Timur-Coates and Schlumberger-Doll-Research (SDR) equations. In the present well, only a diffused separation between oil and free water could be observed on the T2 distribution log from field data.
In the broader concept of Artificial Intelligence, the newly proposed post-processing steps to obtain the oil saturation start by deconvolving the T2 spectra, using blind source separation (BSS) based on independent component analysis (ICA) [Romero, 2016; Romero Rojas et al., 2018]. Based on its T2 peak value —the expected T2Oil peak response— calculated from the prejob planner/simulator, the deconvolution results show that one specific independent component corresponds to the oil, from which the oil saturation was determined.
Results demonstrated the usefulness of NMR logging technology in the characterization and evaluation of this reservoir. Data post-processing based on BBS-ICA enable adequate differentiation between fluid components from T2 spectra. For the reasons above, NMR has been proposed for additional wells in the same field.
The significant oil reserves related to karst reservoirs in Brazilian pre-salt field adds new frontiers to the development of upscaling procedures to reduce time on numerical simulations. This work aims to represent karst reservoirs in reservoir simulators based on special connections between matrix and karst mediums, both modeled in different grid domains of a single porosity flow model. This representation intends to provide a good relationship between accuracy and simulation time.
The concept follows the Embedded Discrete Fracture Model (EDFM) developed by Moinfar, 2013; however, this work extends the approach for karst reservoirs (Embedded Discrete Karst Model - EDKM) by adding a representative volume through grid blocks to represent karst geometries and porosity. For the extension of EDFM approach in a karst reservoir, we adapt the methodology to four stages: (a) construction of a single porosity model with two grid domains, (b) geomodeling of karst and matrix properties for the corresponding grid domain, (c) application of special connections through the conventional reservoir simulator to represent the transmissibility between matrix and karst medium, (d) calculation of transmissibility between karst and matrix medium.
For a proper validation, we applied the EDKM methodology in a carbonate reservoir with mega-karst structures, which consists of non-well-connected enlarged conduits and above 300 mm of aperture. The reference model was a refined grid with karst features explicitly combined with matrix facies, including coquinas interbedded with mudstones and shales. The grid block of the reference model measures approximately 10 × 10 × 1 meters. For the simulation model, the matrix grid domain has a grid block size of approximately 100 × 100 × 5 meters. The karst grid domain had the same block size as the refined grid. Flow in the individual karst grid domain or matrix grid domain is governed by Darcy's equation, implicitly solved by simulator. However, the transmissibility for the special connections between karst and matrix blocks is calculated as a function of open area to flow, matrix permeability and block center distance. The matrix properties were upscaled through conventional analytical methods. The results show that EDKM had a considerable performance regarding a dynamic matching response with reference model, within a reduced simulation time while maintaining a higher dynamic resolution in the karst grid domain without using an unconstructed grid.
This work aims to contribute to the extension of EDFM approach for karst reservoirs, which can be applied to commercial finite-difference reservoir simulators and it presents itself as a solution to reduce simulation time without disregarding the explicit representation of karst features in structured grids.
The initial high cost of exploitation of the sustained, increasingly growing development of unconventional resources in Argentina has resulted in concentrating all efforts to increase well productivity while reducing construction and completion costs. The optimization of hydraulic fracture (HF) treatments is vitally important. It is the primary strategy used to achieve an optimal reservoir drainage area, consequently characterizing the fracture geometry, including the height, for the continuous improvement of HF treatment and planning.
Several types of technologies and methodologies are used to estimate fracture height during and after a hydraulic stimulation treatment. These technologies can provide information about the fracture geometry and extension in the near-wellbore (NWB) and far-field areas. The determination of a reliable correlation between those methodologies represents a challenge as a result of formation complexity, heterogeneity, and limitations of evaluation technologies. It is well-known that some areas in the Vaca Muerta formation contain layers that can act as fracture barriers and are responsible for fracture containment.
This paper presents a fast and simple methodology that uses conventional well logs [gamma ray (GR), sonic, and density] from pilot wells to identify potential fracture barriers. This approach establishes a means to evaluate the degree to which the rock will have the ability to control fracture height growth. This methodology was determined useful for planning perforation intervals or clusters placement, particularly in those formations with stress profile showing reduced stress contrast and, when complemented with geological information, this method also provides useful information for horizontal well trajectory. Case studies are provided to illustrate examples of the proposed fracture barrier index (FBI) being calibrated or compared to other fracture height assessment. Additionally, the benefits of adding this new approach to current methodologies and technologies to aid completion design optimization and decision making is discussed.
The SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Environment, and Sustainability will be held 17-19 March 2020, in Bogotá, Colombia. The call for papers submission deadline is 18 June 2019. Authors are encouraged to consider developing papers featuring multidisciplinary approaches that highlight Health, Safety, Environment, and Sustainability benefits such as innovation, collaboration, and value creation. Additionally, authors may consider proposing papers that feature these benefits within specific elements of the oil and gas sector value chain. Obtain necessary clearance from your management and start preparing now.
On behalf of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), it gives me immense pleasure to invite you to join over 1,000 HSE and Sustainability practitioners at the SPE International Conference and Exhibition on Health, Safety, Environment, and Sustainability held in conjunction with LACPEC, 17-19 March 2020 in Bogotá, Colombia. The 2018-2023 SPE Strategic Plan expressly introduces two aspects of our business that we often take for granted and yet at this juncture in history - our history as an industry and the history of humanity - these two aspects have never needed to be so visible and so deeply understood - they are Generating Pride and Enabling Engagement. The Generating Pride and Enabling Engagement theme will frame the conference’s technical program. We promise you a robust technical program that will showcase best practices, tackle challenges, explore uncharted territory and contribute to the many efforts made every day by the dedicated members of our industry. This program will cater to those who work to make our industry safer, and more ecological, whilst performing its higher purpose of providing key fuels to meet humanity’s need for energy.
Installing an inappropriate or poorly specified ESP leads to lost production, short runlives, and ultimately higher production costs. With the growth in ESP-produced unconventional wells, appropriate ESP design becomes more challenging due to divergent HP and head requirement at initial production versus the depleted well at end of life. ESP design is typically performed by the ESP vendors (often with less than complete design data), reviewed by the production engineer, and then equipment selected and installed. The "Why?" and the "How?" of the design What well, production & facilities information is required to ensure a successful design Function and operation of each ESP component and how it impacts the application design Calculations and data that make up an effective ESP design ESP application design by hand and using software Single operating point and dual operating point designs Gas handling approaches with ESPs – functional limits Reviewing ESP designs – how to read the report ESP equipment specifications This course will empower Production Engineers to understand the correct equipment sizing for a well and enable the engineer to quality check the design report provided by the vendor. Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to perform a design and read a design report, comment on its applicability to the well’s operation, and know if the specified equipment will meet the well requirements.
Subsea Production Systems—Will 2019 Be a Tipping Point? The past year ended with a surge of subsea tree awards as E&P operators locked in lower supply-chain cost. Will demand continue to grow in 2019 and allow subsea OEMs to build backlogs and take back pricing power? New local content regulations could speed up the pace of presalt oil production by more than 21 billion bbl by the mid-2020s. Karoon and Parnaíba Gás Natural are the first companies to apply to change their contract terms.
As Brazil hosts its first summer Olympics in the coastal city of Rio de Janeiro, in the world of oil and gas megaprojects, another type of competition has emerged—that of market share. If you love capital projects, and especially the big, complex, and really difficult ones, the petroleum industry is the place to be. Oil and gas development projects provide the young or experienced engineer with all the excitement you could want—challenging projects in challenging places. Megaprojects require billions of dollars of investment, multidisciplinary teams, meticulous planning, flawless execution, and cutting-edge technology. To ensure their success, the energy industry will have to focus more on containing project risks, reducing delays, and ensuring faster “first oil."