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For drilling from the floating position, the semi mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) has become the unit of choice. Sometimes referred to as a "column-stabilized" vessel, the combination of hull mass and its displacement, wave transparency of the hull because of the columns, and its deep draft enable waves to pass through the unit with minimal energy exciting it to excessive roll, pitch, sway, surge, heave, and yaw. With the work deck above the wave crests and the factors listed above, this design is a very capable work platform in severe environments. Floating units can work in very shallow water depths, less than 100 ft in some cases, to the deepest water depths. The present world-record water depth for a semi is 9,472 ft set by a dynamic positioning (DP) semi in Brazil in 2003 with a surface blowout preventer (BOP).
Petrobras has postponed first oil from its Mero 1 field via the FPSO Guanabara in the Santos Basin offshore Brazil due to delays with the production system. Startup at Mero 1 was originally expected in the fourth quarter of this year and is now expected to begin flowing during the first quarter of 2022 due to COVID-19 pandemic-related delays with the buildout of the production system in China. The FPSO will be installed in the Mero field, which belongs to the Libra Block, in the Santos Basin pre-salt area, with a processing capacity of 180,000 OPD. The field is operated by Petrobras (40%) in partnership with Shell Brasil Petróleo (20%), Total E&P (20%), CNODC Brasil Petróleo e Gás (10%), CNOOC Petroleum Brasil (10%), and Pré-Sal Petróleo, which is the contract manager.
Shell has contracted Seadrill's drillship West Tellus for a new drilling campaign offshore Brazil this year. The program is expected to start in BC-10 of the Campos Basin, where Shell operates the Parque das Conchas made up of the Abalone, Argonauta, and Ostra fields. BC-10 has produced more than 100 million bbl since oil first started flowing from the block in 2009. The drillship will be used on the third phase of BC-10 activity, which includes five additional production wells and two water-injection wells at the Massa and Argonauta O-Sul fields, with the wells connected to the Espirito Santo FPSO. Shell owns a 50% operating stake in BC-10.
Maersk Drilling has been awarded a contract with Karoon Energy Ltd. for the semisubmersible rig Maersk Developer to perform well intervention on four wells at the Baúna field offshore Brazil. The contract is expected to begin in the first half of 2022, with a firm duration of 110 days. The value of the contract is $34 million, including rig modifications and a mobilization fee. The contract contains options to add up to 150 days of drilling work at the Patola and Neon fields.
The newest member of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp) SPE Student Chapter in Brasil, Catarina, is a chatbot based on artificial intelligence. The main responsibility of the virtual assistant is to provide support in different tasks such as helping members in topics related to chapter information and activities, and in making SPE resources easily available. The recently launched virtual tool can respond in English and Portuguese, covering different membership aspects like benefits, contact information, and PetroWiki, among others. Catarina is still in her training period and soon will be able to incorporate additional tasks such as delivering certificates to the chapter members, suggesting technical books and articles, supporting the PetroBowl team with training, and delivering information in a third language (Spanish). She is currently available 24/7 on the Unicamp Student Chapter website or Telegram; and will be launched on WhatsApp in the near future.
A large number of floating production, supply, and offloading units (FPSO) leases are set to expire in 2022 according to new analysis from energy market research and consultancy firm Westwood Global Energy Group. The average yearly expiring FPSO contract since 2015 has been around three; however by the end of next year, a potential of 30 units could become available. Westwood's Global Floating Production Systems Market Report report notes under a scenario where no contract extensions are taken on current leased FPSOs, 14 additional units would become available in 2022. Alternatively, if all available extension options were taken, nine units would come off contract, adding to the 16 units currently awaiting upgrade or redeployment. Of those coming off contract in 2022, 36% are 40 years old and are potential candidates for scrapping.
Orban, Nicolas (TOTAL) | Garg, Shashank (TOTAL) | Shaldaev, Mikhail (TOTAL) | Shrivastava, Chandramani (Schlumberger) | Cuadros, Guillermo (Schlumberger) | Marquinez, Victor (Schlumberger) | A, Adrian (Schlumberger) | Wibowo, Vera (Schlumberger) | Domingos, Ricardo (Schlumberger)
Abstract The pre-salt carbonates of Brazil pose drilling and characterization challenges associated with inherent reservoir heterogeneity; and borehole imaging while drilling often provides insights helpful for both, operational and subsequent decisions. The findings and learnings from a 3-well campaign, offshore Brazil are presented to assess and validate a recently deployed high-definition borehole imaging technology that provides industry’s first real-time ultrasonic amplitude images and time-to-depth corrections for best possible images maintaining the geological features integrity. High-definition ultrasonic measurements were acquired at two central frequencies with 0.2-in resolution and provided amplitude and transit time images for geological characterization and petrophysical evaluation in addition to azimuthal ultrasonic calipers. The lossy nature of amplitude data makes it difficult to transmit in real-time; therefore, a unique data compression technology was used to achieve industry’s first high quality amplitude images streaming while drilling. In deepwater operations acquisition of high-definition logging while drilling (LWD) images can be severely degraded if time-to-depth offset due to heave is not compensated. Recently developed heave-filtering workflows ensured the integrity of subsurface features. The time-indexed data was processed with this application in real-time, providing good results and confidence in the capability of this technology. Image-logs of the first well were helpful in interpretation and added value to the reservoir understanding; however, many intervals suffered from lack of confidence in image features. Simulations were performed to improve the images acquisition parameters based on learnings from this experience. New optimized operational parameters were applied in next two wells, resulting in image logs of excellent quality. Data from second well suffered from high heave while drilling, which required implementation of the heave-filtering memory data workflow. For the third well, an additional requirement for real-time image quality-control was defined, requiring data to be processed after every drill-stand. Real-time data quality provided confidence in optimal quality of memory data, thereby eliminating the need of post-drilling wireline operations in open-hole. The images acquired in memory helped characterize intervals of stromatolites with various morphology, and zones of vugs distribution, providing excellent alternative for wireline logging, de-risking the operations in pre-salt carbonate logging in Brazil offshore operations.
Abstract The filtrate contamination cleanup time on a complex carbonate well using a traditional wireline formation tester (WFT) tool can vary from a couple of hours to over half a day. The method proposed aims at reducing operational time to collect a low-contamination formation fluid sample by determining regions with a smaller depth of invasion using a forward model simulation that considers static and dynamic formation properties to predict the radial profile of invasion. The mud filtrate invasion process was modeled considering the static and dynamic properties of the near-wellbore region in an industry reference reservoir simulator, and it integrates three mechanisms for fluid flow: Darcy’s law, material balance, and capillary pressure. The physical robustness of the reservoir simulator was united to a data-driven model to reduce the computational cost. This proxy model is based on a trained neural network with a broad range of scenarios to predict the numerical simulation results with high accuracy. The invasion estimation from the model is then used to predict the filtrate cleanup time using an industry consolidated numerical modeling. One of the variables influencing most of the cleanup time is the depth of mud filtrate invasion. Thus, reducing this time is a determinant for the WFT operational efficiency. The model for mud invasion has been successfully tested on a complex carbonate well, and the results for the depth of mud invasion were comparable to the results obtained with a commercial data-driven inversion using multiple resistivity channels. The estimated cleanup time using the results of depth of invasion predicted by the forward model has been compared and matched with real carbonate sampling stations, and there was a high correlation indicating that zones with lower depth of invasion required less cleanup time. Besides, using the history-matched cases, different WFT technologies such as single and radial probes, focused, unfocused, and dual-packer WFT inlets were evaluated, showing a high potential for reduction of operational time when properly planned and selected for the specific type of reservoir. The proposed methodology is a viable method for understanding the clean-up behavior in different reservoir scenarios using different WFT technologies. The innovation of this method relies on the data calibration using basic and advanced petrophysical properties through a data-driven model based on a trained neural network to reduce the uncertainty in the predicted invasion radial profile and the WFT cleanup time. The reliability on the theoretical results was increased using real data calibration, and this calibrated theoretical model has been used to guide the sampling depth selection, saving operational time.
Baker Hughes has been awarded a contract to supply subsea production and injection manifolds, subsea control modules, subsea connection systems, and associated services to Petrobras as part of the Marlim and Voador field revitalization plan in the Campos Basin offshore Brazil. The contractor will supply up to five subsea production and injection manifold systems, which benefit from a compact design for installation from smaller vessels and include integrated hydraulic connection systems and retrievable choke modules. The manifold systems will also include Baker Hughes' field-proven vertical mechanical clamp connection system which can increase installation efficiencies. In addition to the manifold systems, Baker Hughes will provide 32 modular, structured, subsea control modules--called Modpods--which are powered by the company's SemStar5 technology, manufactured in the company's Nailsea facility in Bristol, UK. SemStar5 is Baker Hughes' fifth-generation subsea electronics module for control systems.
Equinor, together with license partners Repsol Sinopec Brasil and Petrobras, have approved an FPSO-based development concept for BM-C-33, a gas/condensate field located in the Campos Basin pre-salt in Brazil. Subsea wells will be tied back to the FPSO located at the field. Gas and oil/condensate will be processed at the floater to sales specifications and exported. Crude will be offloaded by shuttle tankers and shipped to the international market after ship-to-ship transfer. A newbuild hull has been selected to accommodate the field's planned 30-year lifetime.