Production and drilling activities in offshore installation are one of the most necessary activities of human society. To drill a subsea well and raise the crude oil to a platform, by itself, presents a series of risks. Associated with this activity, when the crude oil reaches the topside of the platform, there are a number of operations that prepare the oil and gas to be exported to land by pipelines or oil tanker vessels, which involves equipment and process that take high temperatures, high pressure and high flow rates. Understanding the dynamics of the factors that can affect the interaction of operators with all these offshore complex systems is critical, because the loss of control of these systems can cause serious accidents, resulting in injuries to workers, environmental damage, loss of production and geopolitical crises. Accidents in the oil and gas offshore installations, such as drilling rigs and FPSOs, can have tragic consequences and all efforts should be targeted to prevent its recurrence. Therefore, from the perspective of current technological developments, it is essential to consider the influence of Human Factors in the risk management of offshore industrial plants.
The objective of this paper is to explore the benefits of using the Interactive Epoch-Era Analysis (IEEA) methodology for evaluating architectural changes in a trade space exploration study. In this paper a subsea tieback offshore Brazil will be used as reference case to investigate this premise from a full field development perspective.
An automated concept exploration tool is employed. It applies meta-heuristics to generate different offshore facilities concepts with varying building blocks. The interaction between reservoir behavior and facilities design is accounted for, meaning pressure and temperature losses throughout the system are taken into account in each concept differently. These concepts are ranked in terms of economic performance indicators (NPV, IRR, etc.), and each run with a given set of boundary conditions covers what is called an Epoch. This process is iterated for the whole life of field with a set of different boundary conditions, such as commercial aspects ($/bbl, $/MMBtu, market demand) and/or technological maturity aspects (TRL, novel technological concepts), generating what is called an Era. The whole data set is then evaluated in an interactive platform thru the Humans-In-the-Loop (HIL) process.
Model Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is being employed successfully in other engineering fields outside the O&G context such as the aerospace and automotive industries. While digital tools have been identified as a potential key contributor to the future of O&G performance enhancement and further cost reductions, that is yet to be shown. This work intends to provide backing for that argument in one of the potential applications during early concept exploration phases by showing that quick high value assessments following an MBSE approach may be carried out, once significant effort has been put into proper development, verification and validation (V&V) of such digital tools.
While integrated models for asset development have long been a subject of interest for O&G operators, the application of Systems Engineering concepts to it has not yet been thoroughly explored. Systems Engineering provides a rigorous and proven method of dealing with complex systems that is highly applicable to offshore field developments. MBSE is the current State of the Art for capital intensive projects such as space exploration spacecrafts and rovers. Learning from these successful use cases and applying these methodologies in the development of digital technologies may provide a new set of tools in the belt of O&G operators Facilities Engineers and alike. The study case presented shows MBSE’s capability of capturing intrinsic non-linearities and specificities of each O&G field/location while ensuring project wide functional requirements are successfully met.
Almeida da Costa, Alana (Universidade Federal da Bahia) | Jaeger, Philip (Eurotechnica GmbH) | Santos, Joao (Láctea Científica) | Soares, João (University of Alberta) | Trivedi, Japan (University of Alberta) | Embiruçu, Marcelo (Universidade Federal da Bahia) | Meyberg, Gloria (Universidade Federal da Bahia)
Low salinity waterflooding and CO2 injection are enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods that are currently growing at a substantial rate worldwide. Linking these two EOR methods appears to be a promising approach in mature fields and for the exploration of post- and pre-salt basins in Brazil. Moreover, the latter reservoirs already have high CO2 content in the gas phase. Interfacial phenomena between fluids and rock in low salinity brine/CO2 environment still remain unclear, particularly the wettability behavior induced by the pH of the medium. In this study, coreflooding experiments, zeta potential, contact angle, interfacial tension (IFT), and pH measurements at ambient and reservoir conditions were performed to investigate the influence of the rock composition and brine/CO2 mixtures at different pH values for low salinity water-CO2 EOR (LSW-CO2 EOR) applications in Brazilian reservoirs. Brazilian light crude oil, pure CO2, and different brine solutions were used to represent the fluids in actual oil reservoirs. The experiments were carried out on Botucatu sandstone samples, with mineralogy determined by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Coreflooding experiments were conducted by injection of 10 pore volumes of high salinity water followed by low salinity water. Contact angles, IFT and pH measurements at atmospheric and elevated pressures were performed in a high-pressure view cell (
Simões Maciel, Rodrigo (Federal University of Espírito Santo) | Ressel Pereira, Fábio de Assis (Federal University of Espírito Santo) | Fieni Fejoli, Rômulo (Federal University of Espírito Santo) | Leibsohn Martins, André (Petrobras) | Duarte Ferreira, Marcus Vinicius (Petrobras)
Petrobras has faced several challenges concerning inorganic scaling in the Pre-salt cluster. Scale prediction plays an important role on well completion selection and supporting to define better alternatives for chemical injection location. However, predicting scale in wellbores is traditionally performed based on thermodynamical equilibrium of the formation water under static conditions. This strategy leads to conservative results since it neglects hydrodynamics and kinetics of the scaling process. This paper proposes a new approach to predict scaling in downhole conditions. The study seeks to contribute on the comprehension of the effect of fluid flow and equipment geometry variation in the crystal deposition process in intelligent well completion equipment.
Such completion devices act in managing the fluid flow influx from different reservoirs or multiple zones of the same reservoir. Despite the positive aspects of this technology, some authors have been pointing out some problems associated with specific applications of these tools. The most common issues are related to the considerable pressure differential and the occurrence of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) scale. The pressure drop in this tool induces the flash liberation of CO2 from the aqueous solution. Consequently, the chemical equilibrium is displaced towards the direction of precipitation of CaCO3 in the flow stream. This paper proposes a new approach to predict scaling in downhole conditions and aims to quantitatively evaluate the calcium carbonate precipitation on the smart completion element internal surfaces. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) along with discrete phase modeling (DPM) is employed to simulate the transport and adhesion of the calcium carbonate crystals on the device. The valves geometries consider the main features observed on the field according to different suppliers, accounting the different possibilities of completion geometries for Brazilian Pre-Salt environment.
The results showed the tendency of scale deposition pointing out hot spots in several different completion accessories at downhole conditions. A better understanding of the scale potential has influenced the decision-making process on the completion design and workover alternatives in the Pre-salt wellbores.
Esteves Aranha, Pedro (Petrobras) | Abensur Gandelman, Roni (Petrobras) | Henrique Martins dos Santos, Pedro (Petrobras) | Borella Hougaz, Augusto (Petrobras) | Gomes Clemente, Ricardo (Intelie) | Dumlao, Vincent (Intelie) | Henrique Santos Teixeira, Pedro (Intelie) | Mazzi, Vitor (Intelie)
The act of planning a well is a collaborative effort taking disparate data from various groups and synthesizing it into one overarching program. Each operator follows its own well design process, but common to each operator is the fact that wells not designed wholly in series, but rather have many parallel sections, with a set of decision gates and countless data interdependencies. The goal of this paper is to detail the successful development and implementation of an integrated planning platform within a National Oil Company.
The individual components of well design process are not performed in a vacuum. The various inputs / outputs from one application affect the inputs/ outputs of applications both upstream and downstream of it, along the design process. This is addressed by facilitating integration and analysis of data input / output from each component of the planning process, synthesizing it, and performing automated system-integrity and overall conformity checks between the interdependent components. Any changes to an individual design component that affect other areas must be flagged, notifying the appropriate parties. Defining and automating workflows, mapping data interdependencies within the workflows, and creating a system of data governance are also keys to building an efficient planning platform. Similar to a navigation program which is able to determine an optimal driving route by considering various dynamic and static data points, the implemented platform uses a data-adaptive approach to well planning. Using this method, it takes unstructured data processes, decision trees, data integration protocols, and automates them while also permitting users to collaborate on well planning and design, allowing the standardization of processes. Operators are able to embed their particular methods of well design into the software platform and thus ensure that all of their company meet the specific requirements. Key to the effectiveness and longevity of this type of platform is a neutral data repository. Allowing data to be free of any singular data protocol ensures that although individual applications may revised, replaced, or put into competition with one another, the format of the data produced as well as ingested by these applications stays constant. Data will remain mapped, both in terms of overall process workflow and interdependencies. This paper is beneficial to any operator wishing to gain insight in developing a forward thinking of a digital strategy for well planning and design. However, the use of these types of methods and development of a similarly integrated platform an operator can standardize processes, enforce and ensure data governance, as well as gain efficiency in overall planning time.
Aguiar, Romulo (Schlumberger) | Tocantins, João Pedro (Schlumberger) | Marquinez, Victor (Schlumberger) | Baines, Victoria (Schlumberger) | Barreto, Diogo (Schlumberger) | Gozzi, Danilo (Petrobras) | França, Rafael (Petrobras)
After findings were made in the pre-salt province that represented a major discovery for the oil industry, drilling activity in Brazil has been focused primarily on economically viable ways to develop these reserves. The pre-salt cluster is a geological formation that consists of organic microbial carbonates and other sediments. The reservoir poses innumerous drilling challenges, including hard silicate nodules and lowporosity layers, which make the formation strength extremely high. Also, the heterogeneity level of such carbonates (within centimeters) imposes extra challenges, especially on drilling shock & vibration, with low rates-of-penetration (ROP), raising pre-salt well construction costs. To offer a technical solution, the service provider applied an innovative approach based on two pillars: a model-based design approach, leading to two drill bit designs with improved cutting structure resistance, with dynamic stability, delivering the entire section in one bit run with higher ROP. Along with the technology, a new workflow called "stratigraphic zonation for drilling" was implemented. This paper reviews the work covering this new stratigraphic zonation workflow, the development of this virtual drilling scenario and some field results with lessons learned and way forward.
The first OTC Brasil 2017 Advisory Committee Meeting took place on 25 July with several authorities, executives of oil and gas companies, and representatives of business entities in attendance. Among them were Christino Áureo, Secretary of State for Civil and Economic Development; Pedro Parente, Petrobras CEO; three Petrobras directors; and João de Luca, OTC Brasil 2017 Chairman. Their planning will contribute to the success of the 2017 event, scheduled for 24-26 October at Rio Centro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
OTC Brasil, 24-26 October 2017, will recognize Paulo Cuoto for individual achievement and Shell BC-10 Life of Field Seismic Monitoring System for corporate achievement. The recipients will be honored during the awards luncheon on 25 October at Riocentro Exhibition and Convention Center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These achievements are truly significant contributions to the oil and gas industry in Brazil.
As a result of the government's energy reforms, OTC Brasil is a timely venue for investment opportunities in the country. In fact, the nation's top energy executives will speak about Brazil's many offshore opportunities during next month's OTC Brasil. Pedro Parente, Petrobras CEO; Solange da Silva Guedes, Petrobras E&P Executive Director; and other oil and gas executives, speak at the opening plenary session of OTC Brasil 2017, 24–26 October in Rio de Janeiro.