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Pioneer Natural Resources announced late Thursday an agreement to acquire smaller oil and gas producer DoublePoint Energy in a deal valued at $6.4 billion, including $900,000 in debt and liabilities. The transaction gives Pioneer an additional 95,000 acres of leases in Midland Basin, the eastern half of the Permian Basin that lies entirely within Texas. Pioneer will boast more than 1 million net acres in the Permian after the deal closes, which is expected to happen next quarter, and has emphasized that its positions are not on federal lands where new leasing has been paused indefinitely by the White House. In exchange, DoublePoint shareholders will receive more than 27 million shares of Pioneer and $1 billion in cash. The stock portion of the deal will effectively give DoublePoint shareholders 11% ownership of Pioneer which is expected to have a pro-forma market value near $47 billion.
Gianotten, Ingrid P. (Lundin Energy Norway AS) | Rameil, Niels (Lundin Energy Norway AS) | Foyn, Sven E. (Lundin Energy Norway AS) | Kollien, Terje (Lundin Energy Norway AS) | Marre, Julio R. (Miramar Julio Marre) | Looyestijn, Wim (PanTerra Geoconsultants B.V.) | Zhang, Xiangmin (PanTerra Geoconsultants B.V.) | Hebing, Albert (PanTerra Geoconsultants B.V.)
The main Petrophysical challenges in carbonate reservoirs are often to define meaningful rock types, then to establish robust permeability and saturation models for these rock types, as well as to develop a realistic estimation of irreducible water saturation (Swirr). Realistic Swirr estimation is important for predicting production behavior (expected development of water cut) and thus ultimately for planning the future development scheme of a discovery. In this study, we present the 2014 Alta discovery, located in the southwestern Barents Sea. More than 50% of the expected hydrocarbon resources reside within complex carbonate reservoirs of Permo-Carboniferous age that display highly variable rock properties. The initial screening revealed that primary rock textures and pore geometries were, for a large part, overprinted by diagenetic processes. Hence, better control on the reservoir’s diagenetic evolution will be needed to apply a full-scale rock typing workflow. In the meantime, it was decided to proceed with a simplified reservoir characterization approach based on the main stratigraphic building blocks. Sufficient core coverage allowed for using permeability measurements on core samples as direct input to a 3D reservoir model. A customized core analysis program, using whole-core samples, was designed to characterize the effect of large-scale vuggy pores. For modeling water saturation, a workflow based on the Thomeer hyperbola was developed that describes mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) curves. The results adequately specify the saturation in all the stratigraphic building blocks. However, saturation uncertainty in the reservoir is high due to a highly variable cementation factor (m), unknown wettability, and the presence of residual oil below the current free-water level (FWL). The Alta structure has been and still is leaking gas, causing the FWL to rise over time. To address the otherwise underestimated volumes in the transition zone above the current FWL, a deeper pseudo-FWL was created and used as input to the saturation height function. Despite log-based water saturation (Archie) and core measurements (Dean-Stark) indicating more than 80% water saturation for less permeable reservoir rocks within the oil leg, production tests did not produce water at normal rates. This clearly demonstrated the need to distinguish “nonproductive” pore systems (with capillary-bound fluids; in this case, water) from pore systems contributing to production (“free” fluids). A large MICP data set confirmed that most reservoir rocks exhibit a mix of different pore types and pore-throat diameters. To model this accurately, porosity partitioning in nonproductive microporosity and movable porosity using the NMR logs was performed. Calibrating appropriate T2 cutoffs by matching core MICP to NMR logs in these heterogeneous rocks is seriously hampered by the large difference in sample size. Applying both MICP and NMR measurements to a subset of core plugs helped to resolve this challenge. Comparing the corresponding movable (“free”) porosity to total porosity revealed near-linear relationships for different reservoir rocks. For irreducible water saturation (Swirr), Swimmobile is calculated using the NMR-based movable porosity. Swimmobile is considered to be a close approximation of Swirr. The resulting full-field simulation showed a significantly improved match between model output and recorded well test data.
The Rumaila Field is in southeast Iraq and contains multiple reservoir intervals, including the Upper Cretaceous Mishrif carbonate reservoir, one of the major reservoirs in the world, that has been producing for more than 50 years. One of the key challenges in the Mishrif is to characterize the pore-structure distinction between primary and secondary porosity. The secondary porosity in the form of large pores, if present, dominates the petrophysical properties, especially permeability. Advanced logs, e.g., nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and image logs, can be used to understand the variations in pore structure, both qualitatively and quantitatively. In this paper, we focused primarily on four new wells with very comprehensive logging and coring programs. NMR logs were acquired using different tools and pulse sequences. This resulted in uncertainty in porosity and T2 distributions and, consequently, complications in the NMR interpretation. We observed two key issues: porosity deficit due to lack of polarization and T2 distribution truncation due to the low number of echoes. We used a single pore model to reproduce the NMR response in different pore sizes and fluid types for different pulse sequences. The results showed that the NMR response, especially in water-filled (water-based-mud filtrate) large pores, is sensitive to polarization time, echo spacing, and tool gradient strength. NMR log data confirmed the modeling results. We recommended an optimum pulse sequence and tool characteristics to fully capture the heterogeneous rock and fluid system in this carbonate reservoir. NMR logs, when available, were the primary tools to identify the large pores. We present a consistent workflow for NMR log analysis that was developed to identify and quantify large pores and extended to all wells in the field. We used advanced NMR interpretation techniques, e.g., factor analysis (NMR FA) (Jain et al., 2013), in a series of oil wells drilled with water-based mud. Using factor analysis, we identified a cutoff value of 847 ms for large pore volumes. In this manuscript, we also present an integration of laboratory measurements, e.g., NMR, mercury intrusion capillary pressure (MICP) data, whole-core CT scanning, and thin-section analysis, in our interpretation workflow. We also compared the large pore volume from image logs with NMR logs and other laboratory data and observed very consistent results. All the available information was integrated to build an “NMR-based” petrophysical model for porosity, rock type, permeability, and saturation determination. The NMR-based model was very comparable with the classic flow zone indicator (FZI) rock typing. The results of this study were used to modify the NMR acquisition program in the field and to build a petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs. In this paper, we will discuss NMR modeling and corresponding log data from various wells to confirm the results. Furthermore, we will present a novel interpretation workflow integrating laboratory measurements and log data, which led to the modification of the NMR acquisition program in the field and the creation of a data-driven petrophysical model based on only NMR and image log measurements for carbonate reservoirs.
Summary The ability of geochemistry techniques in reservoir-continuity studies has already been proved. Most of the traditional methods mainly involve analyzing nonpolar components of crude oil and overlooking polar components. Despite valuable information obtained from nonpolar components, these compounds are sometimes affected by various alterations or likely provide only a piece of the reservoir-compartmentalization puzzle. In this paper, an integrated geochemical approach that uses nonpolar (i.e., saturates and aromatics) and polar (i.e., asphaltenes) components of crude oil was performed to evaluate reservoir continuity efficiently. The Shadegan Oil Field in the Dezful Embayment in southwest Iran was investigated for reservoir-continuity studies to show the efficiency of this proposed technique. The selected interparaffin peak ratios and light hydrocarbons [the C7 oil correlation star diagram (C7CSD)] from whole-oil gas chromatography (GC) (WOGC) chromatograms were used to obtain oil fingerprints from the nonpolar fraction of crude oils. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of asphaltenes was applied to obtain oil fingerprints from the polar fraction of crude oils. The pairwise comparison of studied wells by each technique was summarized in a similarity matrix with green, yellow, and red colors to show connectivity, limited connectivity, and disconnectivity according to oil fingerprints. Finally, a compartmentalization model was prepared from the integrated results of different techniques considering the worst-case scenarios regarding the occurrence or absence of reservoir continuity when relying on individual methods for the studied field. Results show that the Shadegan Oil Field comprises three zones in the Asmari Reservoir and two zones in the Bangestan Reservoir. Reservoir-engineering data, including pressure data and pressure/volume/temperature (PVT), completely corroborated the obtained results from the geochemical approach. The consistency of results suggested FTIR oil fingerprinting of asphaltene as a novel and straightforward technique, which is a complementary or even alternative method with respect to previous geochemical methods.
Pei, Yanli (University of Texas at Austin (Corresponding author) | Yu, Wei (email: firstname.lastname@example.org)) | Sepehrnoori, Kamy (University of Texas at Austin and Sim Tech LLC) | Gong, Yiwen (University of Texas at Austin) | Xie, Hongbing (Sim Tech LLC and Ohio State University) | Wu, Kan (Sim Tech LLC)
Summary The extensive depletion of the development target triggers the demand for infill drilling in the upside target of multilayer unconventional reservoirs. However, such an infill scheme in the field practice still heavily relies on empirical knowledge or pressure responses, and the geomechanics consequences have not been fully understood. Backed by the data set from the Permian Basin, in this work we present a novel integrated reservoir-geomechanics-fracture model to simulate the spatiotemporal stress evolution and locate the optimal development strategy in the upside target of the Bone Spring Formation. An embedded discrete fracture model (EDFM) is deployed in our fluid-flow simulation to characterize complex fractures, and the stress-dependent matrix permeability and fracture conductivity are included through the compaction/dilation option. After calibrating reservoir and fracture properties by history matching of an actual well in the development target (i.e., third Bone Spring), we run the finite element method (FEM)-based geomechanics simulation to model the 3D stress state evolution. Then a displacement discontinuity method (DDM) hydraulic fracture model is applied to simulate the multicluster fracture propagation under an updated heterogeneous stress field in the upside target (i.e., second Bone Spring). Numerical results indicate that stress field redistribution associated with parent-well production indeed vertically propagates to the upside target. The extent of stress reorientation at the infill location mainly depends on the parent-child horizontal offset, whereas the stress depletion is under the combined impact of horizontal offset, vertical offset, and infill time. A smaller parent-child horizontal offset aggravates the overlap of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV), resulting in more substantial interwell interference and less desirable oil and gas production. The same trend is observed by varying the parent-child vertical offset. Moreover, the efficacy of an infill operation at an earlier time is less affected by parent-well depletion because of the less-disturbed stress state. The candidate infill-well locations at various infill timings are suggested based on the parent-well and child-well production cosimulation. Being able to incorporate both pressure and stress responses, the reservoir-geomechanics-fracture model delivers a more comprehensive understanding and a more integral solution of infill-well design in multilayer unconventional reservoirs. The conclusions provide practical guidelines for the subsequent development in the Permian Basin.
The water-shutoff technique is used in some wells of the U reservoir in the Iro field of the Oriente Basin in Ecuador as a remediation plan to restore production after an early water breakthrough. The production historical data, workovers, and sand-body correlation of wells are compared to understand reservoir behavior, shale-baffle-sealing continuity, the existence of different sand units, and the effect on production. The Iro field is in the south of Block 16. Production began in March of 1996. Iro is considered a mature field that produces heavy crude oil.
Increased injection volumes coupled with a suboptimal completion design can lead to overstimulation at current well-spacing densities. In the complete paper, the authors analyze offset well-pressure measurements in the Permian Basin to evaluate if a fracturing job is overstimulated. Additionally, numerical modeling studies are performed to evaluate the extent of overstimulation in different scenarios and provide recommendations to maximize the capital efficiency of a fracturing job. In their analysis, the authors focus on the scenario in which fracturing hits occur when child-well fractures intersect with the parent well. Pumping for the full designed volume and time (typically 90 minutes) according to well-stimulation procedures is currently common in the industry.
Azahree, Ahmad Ismail (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Jaafar Azuddin, Farhana (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Mohd Ali, Siti Syareena (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Yakup, Muhammad Hamzi (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Mustafa, Mohd Azlan (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Widyanita, Ana (PETRONAS Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Kalita, Rintu (PETRONAS Center of Excellence)
Abstract A depleted gas field is selected as CO2 storage site for future high CO2 content gas field development in Malaysia. The reservoir selected is a carbonate buildup of middle to late Miocene age. This paper describes an integrated modeling approach to evaluate CO2 sequestration potential in depleted carbonate gas reservoir. Integrated dynamic-geochemical and dynamic-geomechanics coupled modeling is required to properly address the risks and uncertainties such as, effect of compaction and subsidence during post-production and injection. The main subsurface uncertainties for assessing the CO2 storage potential are (i) CO2 storage capacity due to higher abandonment pressure (ii) CO2 containment due to geomechanical risks (iii) change in reservoir properties due to reaction of reservoir rock with injected CO2. These uncertainties have been addressed by first building the compositional dynamic model adequately history matched to the production data, and then coupling with geomechanical model and geochemical module during the CO2 injection phase. This is to further study on the trapping mechanisms, caprock integrity, compaction-subsidence implication towards maximum storage capacity and injectivity. The initial standalone dynamic modeling poses few challenges to match the water production in the field due to presence of karsts, extent of a baffle zone between the aquifer and producing zones and uncertainty in the aquifer volume. The overall depletion should be matched, since the field abandonment pressure impacts the CO2 injectivity and storage capacity. A reasonably history matched coupled dynamic-geomechanical model is used as base case for simulating CO2 injection. The dynamic-geomechanical coupling is done with 8 stress steps based on critical pressure changes throughout production and CO2 injection phase. Overburden and reservoir properties has been mapped in Geomechanical grid and was run using two difference constitutive model; Mohr's Coulomb and Modified Cam Clay respectively. The results are then calibrated with real subsidence measurement at platform location. This coupled model has been used to predict the maximum CO2 injection rate of 100 MMscf/d/well and a storage capacity of 1.34 Tscf. The model allows to best design the injection program in terms of well location, target injection zone and surface facilities design. This coupled modeling study is used to mature the field as a viable storage site. The established workflow starting from static model to coupled model to forecasting can be replicated in other similar projects to ensure the subsurface robustness, reduce uncertainty and risk mitigation of the field for CO2 storage site.
Abstract One of the major brownfields in offshore India was producing for three decades from main carbonate reservoirs of the Eocene and Oligocene age. Average production of this brownfield is approximately 11,000 barrels of oil per day (BOPD). To maintain the declining reservoir pressure, the field has been under active water injection for more than two decades. However, being a complex carbonate reservoir with high textural heterogeneity, the water-front movement is not very well understood and monitored. To increase the oil production, the operator started drilling horizontal drain-holes from the platforms and has adopted a conventional perforated and blind tubing combination as a completion strategy. However, it was found that wells were performing poorly with very high water cut. An integrated and comprehensive petrophysical workflow was applied that used data analysis and the added value of advanced 3D acoustic data in combination with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data to provide a rapid realistic solution to avoid such high watercut through optimizing the completion strategy. This led to a production gain in this offshore field, which was underperforming as per earlier predictions and expectations. Conventional well-log based qualitative evaluation for horizontal segmentation strategy was rejected in favor of an integrated approach for lateral reservoir facies delineation. Lateral petrophysical property characterization was carried out through quick integration of NMR pore-size driven facies analysis, advanced acoustic radial profiling, anisotropy, and Stoneley analysis. Permeability profiling along the horizontal drain-hole section using NMR and acoustics provided critical insight. Those were integrated to avoid potential high permeability conduits of thief zones for water breakthrough. A rock-quality index was derived to optimize the completion strategy soon after the logging, even preceding the rig-down of the acquisition runs and lowering of the completion. Zones with higher skin, deeper formation damage, and lower rock-mechanical properties were avoided for efficient swell-packer placements. The well started producing and continued production with only 10% water cut along with 450 barrels of oil compared to an average 90% watercut and 100 barrels of oil from the other wells of the same platform, which used the older nonoptimized completion strategy. Based on the promising result for the first well, the same workflow was used for two similar wells of other two different platforms inthe same field, which also resulted in similar production with enhanced oil production and reduced water cut. The study using the rapid integrated evaluation workflow established efficient zonal isolation of high permeability thief zones with accuracy for timely optimization of horizontal well segmentation, which assisted in pulling higher production in this brownfield by reducing unwanted water production.