Bigoni, Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Pirrone, Marco (Eni S.p.A) | Trombin, Gianluca (Eni S.p.A) | Vinci, Fabio Francesco (Eni S.p.A) | Raimondi Cominesi, Nicola (ZFOD) | Guglielmelli, Andrea (ZFOD) | Ali Hassan, Al Attwi Maher (ZFOD) | Ibrahim Uatouf, Kubbah Salma (ZFOD) | Bazzana, Michele (Eni Iraq BV) | Viviani, Enea (Eni Iraq BV)
The Mishrif Formation is one of the important carbonate reservoirs in middle, southern Iraq and throughout the Middle East. In southern Iraq, the formation provides the reservoir in oilfields such as Rumaila/West Qurna, Tuba and Zubair. The top of the Mishrif Formation is marked by a regional unconformity: a long period of emersion in Turonian (ab. 4.4 My) regionally occurred boosted by a warm humid climate, associated to heavy rainfall. In Zubair Field, within the Upper interval of Mishrif Formation, there are numerous evidences of karst features responsible of important permeability enhancements in low porosity intervals that are critical for production optimization and reservoir management purposes.
In the first phase, the integration of Multi-rate Production logging and Well Test analysis was very useful to evaluate the permeability values and to highlight the enhanced permeability (largely higher than expected Matrix permeability) intervals related to karst features; Image log analysis, on the same wells, allowed to find out a relationship between karst features and vug densities, making possible to extend the karst features identification also in wells lacking of well test and Production logging information. This approach has allowed to obtain a Karst/No Karst Supervised dataset for about 60 wells.
In the second phase different seismic and geological attributes have been considered in order to investigate possible correlations with karst features. In fact there are some parameters that show somehow a correlation with Karst and/or NoKarst wells: the Spectral Decomposition (specially 10 and 40 Hz volumes), the detection of sink-holes at top Mishrif on the Continuity Cube and its related distance, the sub-seismic Lineaments (obtained from Curvature analysis and subordinately from Continuity), distance from Top Mishrif. In the light of these results, the most meaningful parameters have been used as input data for a Neural Net Process ("Supervised Neural Network") utilizing the Supervised dataset both as a Trained dataset (70%) and as a Verification dataset (30%). A probability 3D Volume of Karst features was finally obtained; the comparison with verification dataset points out an error range around 0.2 that is to say that the rate of success of the probability Volume is about 80%.
The final outcomes of the workflow are karst probability maps that are extremely useful to guide new wells location and trajectory. Actually, two proof of concept case histories have demonstrated the reliability of this approach. The newly drilled wells, with optimized paths according to these prediction-maps, have intercepted the desired karst intervals as per the subsequent image log interpretation, which results have been very valuable in the proper perforation strategy including low porous intervals but characterized by high vuggy density (Karst features). Based on these promising results the ongoing drilling campaign has been optimized accordingly.
Contreras Perez, David Rafael (OMV E&P GmbH - Abu Dhabi) | Al Zaabi, Ruqaya Abdulla (ADNOC Offshore - GUL) | Viratno, Bernato (OMV E&P GmbH - Abu Dhabi) | Sellar, Christopher (OMV E&P GmbH - Abu Dhabi) | Susanto, Maria Indriaty (OMV E&P GmbH - Abu Dhabi)
This paper summarizes an efficient workflow for building a reliable static model reference case by improving the accuracy of well placement in a hydrocarbon bearing structure. This is beneficial in optimising upcoming well target position and trajectory planning as well as during the dynamic history matching process. In a non-operated venture, the ability to generate an up-to-date static model that maintains pace with operations, provides valuable insight to advise the operator on the upcoming drilling plan and continuously supports the dynamic model for reserves booking, is highly sought after.
The systematic approach described in this paper is applied to a geo-model from a Middle East carbonate reservoir consisting of over 50 wells with good quality PSDM seismic data. The workflow presented begins with seismic mapping, utilizing volume-based modelling techniques, followed by structural element correction using borehole images (e.g. structural formation dip and true stratigraphic thickness estimate) and finally introduces alternative control points, which enable drilled wellbore trajectories to be structurally anchored, based on layer thicknesses and structural trends within the target reservoir.
Using this approach it is possible to generate a consistent structural model that honours geological markers, measured dip ranges and structural trends seen from seismic data and image logs. During the process one learns more about data quality (e.g. scale of data resolution and depth of investigation), associated with specific fields and carbonate reservoirs through the interaction between geological, geophysical and petrophysical disciplines and ensures their correct use. Data are used to improve the raw interpreted seismic horizons by calibrating mapped thickness distribution against the well tops. 2D visualizations are generated on a well-by-well basis, including map views, curtain sections (along each horizontal well), composite cross-sections and 3D visualizations to show inter-well relationships within different geological layers. As a result the well is placed in the correct structural position. Correct well placement, especially of highly deviated/horizontal wells, provides more accurate identification of reservoir sweet spots, leading to improved well target position and trajectory planning for upcoming wells, and a robust baseline to achieve production/well test history match during the dynamic modelling process.
Identification of tidal channels fairways is key for predicting behavior of areas at higher risk to water breakthrough or otherwise have a significant impact on the development and monitoring of reservoir performance. However, tidal channels in carbonates are not often easily characterized using conventional seismic attributes. It is important to decipher the complexity of the carbonate tidal channel architecture with integrated multisource data and a variety of approaches.
In this paper, petrological characteristics and petrographic analysis is conducted on well logs and validated carefully using core data. Then, the second step is to compare the carbonate channel systems with modern analogue in Bahama tidal flat and outcrop scales in Wadi Mi'Aidin (Northern Oman). Thereafter, the supervised probabilistic neural network (PNN) and linear regression method were undertaken to detect an additional channel distribution.
The relationship of high porosity with low acoustic impedance appeared mostly in the channel facies which reflects good reservoir quality grainstone channels. Outside these channels, the rock is heavily mud filled by peritidal carbonates and characterized by a high acoustic impedance anomaly with low quality of porosity distribution. The new observation of PNN porosity volume revealed a lateral distribution of the Mishrif carbonate tidal channels in terms of paleocurrent direction and the connectivity. Additionally, the prior information from core data and the geological knowledge indicate a good consistency with classified lithology. These observations implied that Mishrif channels consist of a wide range of lithology and porotype fluctuations due to the impact of depositional environment.
The work enables us to provide a new insight into the distribution of channel bodies, and petrophysical properties with quantification of their influence on dynamic reservoir behavior of the main producing reservoir. This work will not only provide an important guidance to the development and production of this case study, however also deliver an integrated work path for the similar geological and sedimentary environment in the nearby oil fields of Southern Iraq.
This work presents a new open access carbonate reservoir case study that uniquely considers the major uncertainties inherent to carbonate reservoirs using one of the most prolific aggradational parasequence carbonate formation set in the U.A.E; the Late Barremian Upper Kharaib Mb. as an analogue. The ensemble considers a range of interpretational scenarios and geomodelling techniques to capture the main components of its reservoir architectures, stratal geometries, facies, pore systems, diagenetic overprints and wettability variations across its platform-to-basin profile.
Fully anonymized data from 43 wells across 22 fields in the Bab Basin, U.A.E from different geo-depositional positions and height above FWL’s (specified to capture multiple structural positions) within an area of 36,000 km2 was used. The data comprises of a full suite of open hole logs and core data which has been anonymized, rescaled, repositioned and structurally deformed; FWL’s were normalized and the entire model was placed in a unique coordinate system. Our petrophysical model captures the geological setting and reservoir heterogeneities of selected fields but now at a manageable scale.
The novelty of this work has been to create semi-synthetic
This seminar will teach participants how to identify, evaluate, and quantify risk and uncertainty in everyday oil and gas economic situations. It reviews the development of pragmatic tools, methods, and understandings for professionals that are applicable to companies of all sizes. The seminar also briefly reviews statistics, the relationship between risk and return, and hedging and future markets. Strategic thinking and planning are key elements in an organisation’s journey to maximise value to shareholders, customers, and employees. Through this workshop, attendees will go through the different processes involved in strategic planning including the elements of organisational SWOT, business scenario and options development, elaboration of strategic options and communication to stakeholders.
The Apollonia tight-gas chalk play is located in the Abu Gharadig Basin in the Western Desert of Egypt. This has long been ignored as a gas play in the overburden, while the Jurassic and Cretaceous oil fields deeper in the basin have been explored and developed. Large areas of the North Sea contain Cretaceous sediments, which form a massive hard layer of chalk that historically has presented a major drilling risk and expense to operators in the area.
Green fields today mostly can be regarded as marginal fields and successfully developed. It covers the complete assessment of the oil and gas recovery potential from reservoir structure and formation evaluation, oil and gas reserve mapping, their uncertainties and risks management, feasible reservoir fluid depletion approaches, and to the construction of integrated production systems for cost effective development of the green fields. Depth conversion of time interpretations is a basic skill set for interpreters. There is no single methodology that is optimal for all cases. Next, appropriate depth methods will be presented. Depth imaging should be considered an integral component of interpretation. If the results derived from depth imaging are intended to mitigate risk, the interpreter must actively guide the process.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) Drilling began on the Bamboo-1 well, located around 35 miles offshore Cameroon in the Ntem concession. The Bamboo prospect is a basin floor fan target within an Upper Cretaceous play. The well will be drilled to an estimated depth of 4200 m. Murphy Cameroon (50%) is the operator, with partner Sterling (50%). The Nene Marine 3 exploration well--located in the Marine XII block, which is around 17 km offshore Congo--encountered a wet gas and light oil accumulation in a presalt clastic sequence Eni (65%) operates the Marine XII block, with partners New Age (25%) and Société Nationale des Pétroles du Congo (10%). CNPC said PetroChina is now building a production facility capable of pumping 4 Bcm/yr.
Africa (Sub-Sahara) A drillstem test was performed on the Zafarani-2 well--located about 80 km offshore southern Tanzania. Two separate intervals were tested, and the well flowed at a maximum of 66 MMscf/D of gas. Statoil (65%) is the operator, on behalf of Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation, with partner ExxonMobil Exploration and Production Tanzania (35%). The FA-1 well--located in 600 m of water in the Foum Assaka license area offshore Morocco--was spudded. The well targets Eagle prospect Lower Cretaceous resources. Target depth is 4000 m. Kosmos Energy (29.9%) is the operator, with partners BP (26.4%),