Bin Ishaq, Wala (ADNOC Sour Gas) | Al Darmaki, Fatima (ADNOC Sour Gas) | Lucas, Noel (ADNOC Sour Gas) | Al Mansoori, Mohamed (ADNOC Sour Gas) | Deville De Periere, Matthieu (Badley Ashton and Associates Ltd) | Foote, Alexander (Badley Ashton and Associates Ltd) | Bertouche, Meriem (Badley Ashton and Associates Ltd) | Durlet, Christophe (Laboratoire Biogeosciences)
In the onshore sector of the United Arab Emirates, the Lower Arab D Member (Kimmeridgian) typically encompasses a thick succession of rather homogeneous low-energy mid-ramp carbonate mudstones interbedded with minor storm-induced cm-scale skeletal-rich floatstones. Within these deposits, the pore volume is dominated by locally abundant matrix-hosted micropores, along with variably abundant open to partially cemented fractures, primary intraparticle macropores and rare moulds and vugs. As a result of this variably developed pore system, measured porosity varies from poor to very good, while permeability changes from extremely poor to rarely good. Detailed petrographic observations (thin-sections, SEM) carried out within six cored wells in a sour gas reservoir highlight that the variations in reservoir properties are primarily linked to the micron-scale variations in the micritic fabric. Indeed, anhedral compact micrites with coalescent intercrystalline contacts are associated with very small and poorly connected micropores, while polyhedral to subrounded micrites with facial to subpunctic intercrystalline contacts show locally well-developed micropores and therefore better reservoir potential. δ18O and δ13C isotope measurements do not discriminate both micritic fabrics, indicating a recrystallisation of the matrix within shallow burial conditions. However, bulk XRF measurements, and especially SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 content indicate that poorly porous anhedral compact micrite host more insoluble material and have been prone to a greater compaction compared to porous polyhedral micrites. Log-derived elastic properties, including Young's Modulus (YME) along with porosity data, have been used in two wells to explore the potential relationship between micritic fabric, porosity, permeability and elastic properties. With the evolution of micritic fabric from anhedral compact to polyhedral / subrounded, Young's Modulus decreases with increasing porosity, indicating a decrease in the overall stiffness of the rock. Based on these two learning wells, specific porosity and YME cut-offs have been identified to discriminate the various micrite fabrics. Those cut-offs have been successfully tested in four other wells used as a blind test for the vertical prediction of the micritic fabrics, in which accurate predictions reached up to 90%. Following these results, porosity and YME cut-offs have been used to produce the first model of the distribution of the various micritic fabrics at the field-scale. These results have a fundamental impact on how sedimentologically homogenous microporous limestones can be described and predicted at the well and field-scales, especially in the context of exploring tight carbonate plays associated with intrashelf basins.
Newby, Warren (Total SA) | Abbassi, Soumaya (Total SA) | Fialips, Claire (Total SA) | D.M. Gauthier, Bertrand (Total SA) | Padin, Anton (Total SA) | Pourpak, Hamid (Total SA) | Taubert, Samuel (Total SA)
The Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian to Late Kimmeridgian) Diyab Formation has served as the source rock for several world-class oil and gas fields in the Middle East. More recently it has become an emerging unconventional exploration target in United Arab Emirates (UAE), Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and its ageequivalent Najhma shale member in Kuwait. The Diyab is unique in comparison to other shale plays due to its significant carbonate mineralogy, low porosities, and high pore pressures. Average measured porosities in the Diyab are generally low and the highest porosity intervals are found to be directly linked to organic porosity created by thermal maturation. Despite low overall porosities, the high carbonate and very low clay content defines an extremely brittle target, conducive to hydraulic fracture stimulation. This coupled with a high-pressure gradient facilitates a new unconventional gas exploration target in the Middle East. However, these favorable reservoir conditions come along with some challenges, including complex geomechanical properties, a challenging stress regime and the uncertainty of whether the presence of natural fractures could enhance or hinder production after hydraulic fracture treatment. Only recently has the Diyab been studied in detail in the context of an unconventional reservoir. This paper presents an integrated approach allowing a multidisciplinary characterisation of this emerging unconventional carbonate reservoir in order to gain a better understanding on the plays' productivity controls that will aid in designing and completing future wells, but already encouraging results have been observed to date.
Stratigraphically discordant massive dolomite bodies of the Upper Jurassic have long been documented because they strongly affect reservoir quality. Dolomitization is affected by varies factors such as original depositional texture, dolomitizing fluid, dolomitization timing and types, and previous diagenetic stages, which can make dolomite bodies either flow conduits or barriers. Therefore, understanding the complex diagenetic system and the distribution of the massive dolomite are extremely important.
In this study, we integrated forward diagenetic and geological modeling following 4-step approach: (1) detailed 3D geologic modeling to delineate the spatial distribution of the massive dolomite; (2) calculation of the effects of dolomitization on reservoir quality; (3) property modeling to predict the spatial distribution of reservoir quality; (4) integrate geological and diagenetic forward modeling to improve the understanding of the dolomitization system and its impact on reservoir quality.
Modeling results indicate that: (1) In general, dolomitization can be divided into two phases, replacement and pore-filling. During the replacement phase, porosity preservation is the dominant process, while during the pore-filling phase porosity decreases sharply with the increase of dolomite volume fraction. Overall, the replacement phase improves reservoir quality, while the pore-filling destroys it; (2) The massive dolomite is heterogeneously distributed with an overall regional trend of decreasing dolomite content southwards; (3) two episodes of dolomitization are likely to occur, supported by multiple types of data, the first is driven by the tectonic compression and developed adjacent to salt basins, whereas the second is related to late hydrothermal dolomitization overprinting the early dolomite.
This integrated forward diagenetic and geological modeling approach helps to better understand the dolomitization mechanisms and regional diagenetic system, by improving the mapping of the massive dolomite and the prediction of reservoir quality.
Al-Maqtari, Ameen N. (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Saleh, Ahmed A. (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Al-Haygana, Adel (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Al-Adashi, Jaber (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Alogily, Abdulkhalek (SAFER E&D Operations Company) | Warren, Cassandra (Schlumberger) | Mavridou, Evangelia (Schlumberger) | Schoellkopf, Noelle (Schlumberger) | Sheyh Husein, Sami (Schlumberger) | Ahmad, Ammar (Schlumberger) | Baig, Zeeshan (Schlumberger) | Teumahji, Nimuno Achu (Schlumberger) | Thiakalingam, Surenthar (Schlumberger) | Khan, Waqar (Schlumberger) | Masurek, Nicole (Schlumberger) | Andres Sanchez Torres, Carlos (Schlumberger)
A 3D petroleum systems model (PSM) of Block 18 in the Sab'atayn basin, onshore western Yemen, was constructed to evaluate the untapped oil and gas potential of the Upper Jurassic Madbi formation. 3D PSM techniques were used to analyze petroleum generation for conventional reservoirs and the petroleum saturations retained in the source rock for the unconventional system. Block 18 has several proven petroleum systems and producing oil and gas fields. The principal source rocks are within the Madbi Formation, which comprises two units, the Lam and the Meem members. Both contain transgressive organically rich "hot" shales with total organic carbon (TOC) of 8 to 10%; these are located stratigraphically at the base of each member. Additional organic-rich intervals within the Lam and Meem are less-effective source rocks, with lower TOC values.
The PSM consisted of 17 depositional events and 2 hiatuses. To accurately replicate geochemical and stratigraphic variations, the Lam and Meem members were further divided into sublayers. The model was calibrated to present-day porosity, permeability, and pressure data, and it incorporated vertical and lateral lithofacies and organic facies variations. Further calibrations used observed maturities (vitrinite reflectance and pyrolysis Tmax) and present-day temperatures and considered laterally variable heat flow from the Early Jurassic to the Late Miocene. Finally, petrophysical analyses from wells provided calculated hydrocarbon saturations, which were used to calibrate the saturation output from the model. The model satisfactorily reproduces the distribution of the main gas and oil fields and discoveries in the study area and is aligned with well test data.
Maturity results indicate that the upper Lam intervals currently sit within the main to early oil window but are immature at the edges of Block 18 (based on the Sweeney and Burnham Easy R0% kinetics). The lowest Lam unit enters the wet gas window in the center of the block. The underlying Meem member ranges from wet gas to early oil window maturity. Like the Lam, the Meem remains immature along the edges of Block 18. However, in the south of the block, the richest source rocks within the Meem are mainly in the oil window. The degree of transformation of the Meem and Lam varies throughout the members. The model predicts that, at present, the lowest part of the Meem, containing the greatest TOC, has 90% of its kerogen transformed into hydrocarbons.
The model confirms that the Madbi formation is a promising unconventional shale reservoir with a high quantity of hydrocarbons retained within it. Despite the higher quantity of hydrocarbons retained in the upper Meem, in terms of liquid and vapor hydrocarbons predicted in this model, the lower Lam is the most-prospective conventional tight sand reservoir, and the Meem has very small potential as tight sand reservoirs. This study provided a novel application of 3D PSM technology to assess new unconventional as well as conventional plays in this frontier area.
Full field development of the Upper Jurassic carbonates, offshore Abu Dhabi is exceedingly challenging. The heterogeneous texture, complicated pore systems and intensive lithology changes all mark the regressive cycles of sedimentation. Such complicated characteristics obscure formation evaluation of these formations. Advanced well logging tools and interpretation methodologies are implemented to minimize the petrophysical uncertainties to qualify the products as field development critical elements. This case study highlights a newly applied NMR log interpretation approach. The results help to understand the complex pore system in a tight carbonate layer, along a horizontal drain drilled close to the oil-water contact.
NMR log data was acquired in real-time while drilling simultaneously with Gamma Ray, Resistivity and Image Logs. Earlier field studies recommended swapping standard T2 free fluid relaxation cutoff values by actual laboratory NMR measurements for a higher precision suitable for the reservoir texture heterogeneity, the study itself supported the application of higher cutoff values to better discriminate the free fluid in well-connected macro pores from the irreducible which will have a direct impact on the computed permeability.
In this case study, a variable free-fluid T2 cutoff was firstly implemented based on arbitrary estimations to match the computed Coates permeability to the offset core values. Free-fluid, irreducible fluids were sequentially computed. A unique NMR-Gamma Inversion (NMR-GI) workflow is further utilized as a mathematically defined approach to process the raw data using probabilistic functions. The result is a more precise pore size distribution, coherent with the geological variations. NMR Capillary pressure was computed.
The complex formation texture could be accurately tracked for thousands of feet drilled along the horizontal drain. After validation with offset core, the NMR-GI interpretation was combined with, Archie saturation and Image log analysis for a conclusive assessment. Hydraulic flow units were combined. Successful completion design and production zone selection articulated on the defined open hole log interpretation.
NMR while drilling logging and the applied (NMR-GI) methodology prove to be leading tools to assist in resolving carbonate reservoir complexities. Not only that they help to understand the pore system characteristics, but they effectively support well placement, completion and production.
The Early Tithonian – Early Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation of the Neuquén Basin in Argentina, constitutes a world-class shale play outside the US and Canada, and corresponds to distal marine facies of the Vaca Muerta-Quintuco System. The aim of this work is to present a basin-scale characterization of the vertical and lateral distribution of the organic-rich units (TOC>2% by weight) of the Vaca Muerta Formation, integrating them within a sequence stratigraphic framework. The dataset comprises basin-scale 3D seismic coverage and almost five hundred wells widely distributed over an area of 30,000 km2. The Vaca Muerta Play includes twelve organic-rich units (OVM, Organic-rich Vaca Muerta with TOC ≥ 2% by weight), where the first eight correspond to the up-to-date tested landing zones. These OVM units correspond to transgressive systems tracts and lower section of highstand system tracts of high frequency sequences and were defined considering a well marker framework including chronostratigraphic surfaces and diachronic surfaces (top of organic-rich facies). Multiple regional well correlations were developed and calibrated with well geochemical data and acoustic impedance seismic sections. Finally, the results of this study are presented through eight thickness maps of the main organic-rich units (OVM1-OVM8) and several regional well and seismic interpreted sections. These regional maps allow us to infer stratigraphic controls (e.g. systems tracts, previous clinoform paleo-topography, etc.) and influences of regional tectonic controls (morpho-structural domains). Regional thickness maps presented in this paper allow a detailed understanding of the 3D distribution of the main landing zones of the Vaca Muerta Play in the Neuquén Basin and are very useful in exploration and development subsurface assessments. The methodologies and results in this paper are also applicable to others unconventional resources of marine shales.
The Early Tithonian – Early Valanginian Vaca Muerta Formation (Weaver, 1931, emend. Leanza, 1973) of the Neuquén Basin in Argentina, constitutes a world-class shale play outside the US and Canada. The Vaca Muerta Formation corresponds to distal marine facies (outer ramp to basinal facies in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate setting) of the Vaca Muerta-Quintuco System.
Reservoirs and the lateral seal of stratigraphic traps are controlled by the depositional environment or diagenesis. The recognition of facies and lithology from seismic attributes is an effective approach for identifying stratigraphic traps related to the depositional environment. In this paper, the occurrence of stratigraphic traps related to depositional environment in Permian aeolian clastics and Jurassic carbonate-evaporites was studied. To identify these stratigraphic traps, multiple seismic attributes were classified using supervised and unsupervised artificial neural networks (ANNs), which allowed the recognition of seismic facies and lithology.
Neural networks are a powerful classification technique, which incorporates multiple attributes into a number of classes to identify sedimentary facies. Two algorithms comprising supervised and unsupervised neural networks are commonly implemented. With a supervised learning algorithm, prior information such as typical facies at the control wells are required to train the multilayer perceptron (MLP) network. With an unsupervised algorithm, only seismic data is input to the neural network, and competitive-learning techniques are employed to classify or self-organize the data based on its internal characteristics. Without prior information, the output classes are not labeled with lithofacies. According to the availability of prior information, supervised and unsupervised learning were applied to recognize dune-playa and carbonate-evaporite combinations, respectively. To characterize the depositional environments, joint interpretation with a geological model is necessary for both supervised and unsupervised classification.
Two major findings have been derived from this work. First, the learning technology based on ANNs is effective to recognize sedimentary facies. The microfacies and lithologies identified by both supervised and unsupervised ANNs are very consistent with the drilled wells. Second, the recognition of depositional facies and lithology can characterize the stratigraphic traps in the study areas. Lateral seal plays a key role in stratigraphic traps. Playa siltstone and tight lagoonal limestone constitute the lateral seal in dune-playa and carbonate-evaporite combinations, respectively.
BinAbadat, Ebtesam (ADNOC Offshore) | Bu-Hindi, Hani (ADNOC Offshore) | Lehmann, Christoph (ADNOC Offshore) | Kumar, Atul (ADNOC Offshore) | AL-Harbi, Haifa (ADNOC Offshore) | AL-Ali, Ahmed (ADNOC Offshore) | Al Katheeri, Adel (ADNOC Offshore)
In this study, core and log data were integrated to identify intervals which are rich in stromatoporoids in an Upper Jurassic carbonate reservoir of an offshore green field Abu Dhabi. The main objective of this study was to recognize and stromatoporoids floatstones/rudstones in core, and develop criteria and workflow to identify them in uncored wells using borehole images.
The following workflow was used during this study: i) Identification of the stromatoporoid feature in pilot wells with core and borehole images, ii) Investigate the properties and architecture of stromatoporoid bodies, iii) Integrate the same scale of core observations with borehole images and conventional log data (gamma ray, neutron porosity and bulk density logs) to identify stromatoporoid-rich layers, iv) Performing a blind test on a well by using the criteria developed from previous steps to identify "stromatoporoid accumulations" on a borehole image, and validate it with core observations.
In the reservoir under investgation, stromatoporoid floatstones/rudstones intervals were identified and recognized both on core and borehole image in the pilot wells. These distinct reservoir bodies of stromatoporoids commonly occur in upper part of the reservoir and can reach to a thickness of around 20ft. The distribution and thickness of stromatoporoid bodies as well as growth forms (massive versus branching) were recognized on core and borehole images. The accumulations varied between massive beds of containing large pieces of stromatoporoids and grainstone beds rich in stromatoporoid debris. The massive beds of stromatoporoid accumulations are well developed in the northern part of the field. These layers can enhance the reservoir quality because of their distinct vuggy porosity and permeability that can reach up to several hundred of milidarcies (mD). Therefore, it is important to capture stromatoporoid layers both vertically and laterally in the static and dynamic model. Integrating borehole image data with core data and developing a workflow to identify stromatoporoid intervals in uncored wells is crucial to our subsurface understanding and will help to understand reservoir performance.
Integration of image log data which is calibrated to core and log data proved to be critical in generating reservoir facies maps and correlations, which were integrated into a sequence stratigraphic framework as well. The results were used in the static model in distribution of high permeability layers related to the distribution of stromatoporoids.
More than 80% of Abu Dhabi oil reserves are accumulated in the Thamama reservoirs. However, its source rock locations, thickness and richness distributions are not fully understood.
Thamama hydrocarbons were generated and migrated from different source rocks including Diyab, Rayda, Thamama dense and Shuaiba basinal facies, in addition to a contribution from the deeper Paleozoic, Silurian Qusaiba and the Pre-Cambrian Huquf source rocks.
The Oxfordian, Diyab high-energy Oolitic belts are prograding in westward direction, and have resulted in the development of Diyab intrashelf basin in west Abu Dhabi. At the end of the Kimmeridgian time, Abu Dhabi basin was tilted towards the east due to the opening of Arabian-Indian Suture. This tilting had completely shifted the high-energy Oolitic belts to prograde in eastward direction, which resulted in the development of Rayda source rock in east Abu Dhabi.
The Thamama dense layers were deposited during the highstand system tract, which allowed some organic matter to be preserved; especially in intervals deposited below the wave base. The Shuaiba basinal facies were deposited in an intrashelf basin that was surrounded by the Shuaiba shelf facies. This resulted in restricted water circulation and anoxic conditions. Such depositional environment is reasonable for source rock preservation.
The hydrocarbon generations from these different sources were mainly accumulated in a super-giant Paleo-structure that was located in the northeast onshore Abu Dhabi. This Paleo-structure was segmented by the Late Tertiary tilting, which resulted in remigrating its trapped hydrocarbon into the prominent Abu Dhabi fields.
The development of Rayda source rock will increase the potentiality of finding additional unconventional hydrocarbon resources in east onshore Abu Dhabi. The high unconventional potential in this area can be attributed to the advanced level of source rock maturity and to the highly faulting and fracturing found in east onshore Abu Dhabi. The Rayda source rock maturity map confined the unconventional gas potential to the foreland basin while the unconventional oil potential is located to the south of this area (
Understanding the locations of Thamama source rock kitchens will facilitate the delineation of its migration pathways. This will reduce the exploration risk and help in detecting prospective areas for stratigraphic traps potential along the Thamama migration pathways over all Abu Dhabi.
Agbor, Fritz Ako (University of Western Cape) | Mhlambi, Sanelisiwe (University of Western Cape) | Teumahji, Nimuno Achu (Schlumberger Limited) | Sonibare, Wasiu Adedayo (Schlumberger Limited) | Van Bever Donker, Johannes Marinus (University of Western Cape) | Chatterjee, Tapas Kumar (University of Western Cape)
Despite the undergoing exploration and research for hydrocarbons during the recent decades, the hydrocarbon potentials of existing source rock(s) in the Pletmos basin still remain enigmatic. The basin has undergone rifting and transforms processes during its evolution in a manner that its present-day architecture and geodynamic evolution can only be better understood through the application of a multidisciplinary and multi-scale geo-modelling procedure.
In the study, thermal modelling and reconstruction of burial history of the source rocks in the southern depocenter of the Pletmos Basin has been investigated through an integration of data and methods.
Through geohistory Modelling, an integration of the acquired multidisciplinary dataset allowed us to reconstruct the burial history, basement subsidence, vertical fluid flow, and the changes in rock properties (i.e. porosity, permeability, pressure and fluid flow rate) both in time and depth, as well as established a reliable tectonostratigraphic framework of the Mesozoic sedimentary infill. Then based on the reconstructed burial history, thermal history was reconstructed by modifying the paleoheat flux to minimize variances, and comparing between measured borehole and predicted vitrinite reflectance and Tmax (thermal indicator) values. These enable us to achieve an improved understanding of the subsurface controlling processes that might have led to the sedimentary infill and resulted to the heat-flow distribution and present-day thermal maturity of the source rocks in the Basin. The approach gives us the opportunity to considered the geodynamic evolution events from Mesozoic (Upper Jurassic) rifting to Cenozoic (including major uplifts, erosion and subsidence, and the Shona Buvet hot spots). Here we present some selected results, from the burial and thermal history modelling reconstructions of the sedimentary geothermal evolution and thermal maturity levels of the source rocks at selected well locations within the area. Likewise, this study has provided supplementary information that aids towards understanding the Petroleum System(s) of the Basin.