The SWP project is located in a mature waterflood undergoing conversion to CO2-WAG operations at Farnsworth, Texas, USA. Utilized CO2 is anthropogenic, sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. Major project goals are optimizing the storage/production balance, ensuring storage permanence, and developing best practices for CCUS.
This paper provides a review of work performed toward development of a 3D coupled Mechanical Earth Model (MEM) for use in assessment of caprock integrity, fault reactivation potential, and evaluation of stress dependent permeability in reservoir forecasting. Mechanical property estimates computed from geophysical logs at selected wellbores were integrated with 3D seismic elastic inversion products to create a 3D "static" mechanical property model sharing the same geological framework as the existing reservoir simulation model including 3 major faults. Stresses in the MEM were initialized from wellbore stress estimates and reservoir simulation pore pressures. One way and two way coupled simulations were performed using a compositional hydrodynamic flow model and geomechanical solvers.
Coupled simulations were performed on history matched primary, secondary (waterflood), and tertiary (CO2 WAG) recovery periods, as well as an optimized WAG prediction period. These simulations suggest that the field has been operating at conditions which are not conducive to either caprock failure or fault reactivation. Two way coupled simulations were performed in which permeability was periodically updated as a function of volumetric strain using the Kozeny-Carmen porosity-permeability relationship. These simulations illustrate the importance of frequent permeability updating when recovery scenarios result in large pressure changes such as in field re-pressurization through waterflood after a long primary depletion recovery period. Conversely, production forecasting results are less sensitive to permeability update frequency when pressure cycles are short and shallow as in WAG cycles.
This paper describes initial work on development of a mechanical earth model for use in assessment of geomechanical risks associated with CCUS operations at FWU. The emphasis of this work is on integration of available geomechanical data for creation of the static mechanical property model. Preliminary coupled hydro-mechanical simulations are presented to illustrate some of the key diagnostic output from coupled simulations which will be used in later work for in depth evaluation of specific risk factors such as induced seismicity and caprock integrity.
Kutsienyo, Eusebius Junior (Petroleum Recovery Research Center) | Ampomah, William (Petroleum Recovery Research Center) | Sun, Qian (Petroleum Recovery Research Center) | Balch, Robert Scott (Petroleum Recovery Research Center) | You, Junyu (Petroleum Recovery Research Center) | Aggrey, Wilberforce Nkrumah (KNUST) | Cather, Martha (Petroleum Recovery Research Center)
This paper presents field-scale numerical simulations of CO2 injection activities in the Pennsylvanian Upper Morrow sandstone reservoir, usually termed the Morrow B sandstone, in the Farnsworth Unit (FWU) of Ochiltree County, Texas. The CO2 sequestration mechanisms examined in the study include structural-stratigraphic, residual, solubility and mineral trapping. The reactive transport modelling incorporated in the study evaluates the field's potential for long-term CO2 sequestration and predicts the CO2 injection effects on the Morrow B pore fluid composition, mineralogy, porosity, and permeability.
The dynamic CO2 sequestration model was built from an upscaled geocellular model for the Morrow B. This model incorporated geological, geophysical, and engineering data including well logs, core, 3D surface seismic and fluid analysis. We calibrated the model with active CO2-WAG miscible flood data by adjusting control parameters such as reservoir rock properties and Corey exponents to incorporate potential changes in wettability. The history-matched model was then used to evaluate the feasibility and mechanisms for CO2 sequestration. We used the maximum residual phase saturations to estimate the effect of gas trapped due to hysteresis. The coupled approach which involves the aqueous phase solubility and geochemical reactions were modelled prior to import into the compositional simulation model. The viscosities of the liquid-vapor phases were modeled based on the Jossi-Stiel-Thodos Correlation. This correlation depended on the mixture density calculated by the equation of state. The gas solubility coefficients for the aqueous phase were estimated using Henry's law for various components as function of pressure, temperature, and salinity. The characteristic intra-aqueous and mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions were assimilated numerically as chemical equilibrium and rate-dependent reactions respectively. Multiple scenarios were performed to evaluate the effects and potentials of the CO2 sequestrated within the Morrow formation. Additional scenarios that involve shut-in of wells were performed and the reservoir monitored for over 150 years to understand possible dissolution/precipitation of minerals. Changes in permeability as a function of changes in porosity caused by mineral precipitation/dissolution were calibrated to the laboratory chemo-mechanical responses.
This confirms the CO2 injection in the morrow B will alter petrophysical properties, such as permeability and porosity in short-term due to the dissolution of calcite. However, further investigation for the long-term effects needs to be conducted. Moreover, the following significant observations are extracted from the result of this study: oil recovery, total volume of CO2 due to multiple trapping mechanisms, effect of salinity, the timescale-view of the dissolution/precipitation evolution in the Morrow B sandstone.
Experiences gained from this study offers valuable visions regarding physiochemical storage induced by the CO2 injection activities and may serve as a benchmark case for future CO2-EOR projects when reactive transportations are considered.
Sourcing water for hydraulic fracturing, and disposing of produced water, are constraints and significant cost items in the Permian Basin. Some of the produced water can be treated and reused by using a water life cycle approach.. The $10-billion deal will add liquefaction and export capabilities to the existing facility in Sabine Pass, Texas, according to a Reuters report. Golden Pass currently handles up to 2 Bcf/D of natural gas imports to North American markets. A deal with the UK-based energy and chemicals company could fetch up to $3 billion for ConocoPhillips, which is transitioning out of the North Sea to focus on US shale operations.
Producers in Texas have claimed an economic victory with their transition to local sands that they once avoided using in horizontal wells due to their low-quality. Driven by a recovery in well completions and increased proppant loading per well, the market for raw fracturing sand is expected to grow by more than 4% annually through 2021, an industry research study says. Permian Basin producer Callon Petroleum is attributing its data-driven approach to a routine completions practice to improved proppant placement and higher oil production. Carbo Ceramics is making big strides in the use of ceramic proppant. Although Saudi Arabia has plenty of sand, it took some ingenuity by Saudi Aramco and Schlumberger to figure out how to use it effectively as proppant.
Unconventional development has made it clear to Erdal Ozkan that conventional theory overlooks a lot of potentially productive rock. He talks about looking for ways to do better as part of JPT’s tech director report. The industry has figured out how much opportunity lies in the Permian Basin’s Delaware subbasin, and the Delaware play is now dominating US unconventional oil activity, Citigroup’s Jeff Sieler told the SPE Gulf Coast Section reservoir group recently. Unconventional Resources: Will Shale Oil Ever Make Money? This well-established oilfield consultancy explains why 2020 might be a big year for the unconventional sector.
Another reminder that it costs more to coax the same amount of oil from new wells as for older wells nearby, with a closer look at the big plays and how the wells are completed. ProPetro closed its deal to purchase Pioneer’s pressure pumping fleet, boosting its services in the Permian Basin. How Close Is Too Close? The ideal well spacing is in the eye of the beholder. The decision depends on so many factors that machine learning is now trying to determine the best combination of ingredients.
Billion-dollar valuations for these companies in the near future could become a reality. Frac water disinfection experts become De Nora service arm in the unconventional oil and gas market. Three papers selected from 2018 SPE ATCE look at the challenges and approaches to the treatment of increasing volumes of produced water. Sourcing water for hydraulic fracturing, and disposing of produced water, are constraints and significant cost items in the Permian Basin. Some of the produced water can be treated and reused by using a water life cycle approach.. Water management for unconventional projects continues to evolve at a rapid pace.
After a long cooling off period, this dry-gas shale play is once again red hot. Ghawar vs. Permian Basin: Is There Even a Comparison? While some try to put the two enormous oil producers toe-to-toe, the best thing to do might be to understand why they are different. Machine-learning methods have gained tremendous attention in the last decade. The underlying idea behind machine learning is that computers can identify patterns and learn from data with minimal human intervention.
A growing sector of water midstream companies is in the Permian Basin looking to take advantage of a business opportunity borne out of rising produced water volumes. Billion-dollar valuations for these companies in the near future could become a reality. Frac water disinfection experts become De Nora service arm in the unconventional oil and gas market. Operators in the Permian Basin are looking for new ways to handle the rising volumes of produced water coming out of the region without using saltwater disposal wells. One solution, treatment for discharge, could provide an efficient alternative.