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Liu, Zhiqiang (Computational Marine Hydrodynamics Lab (CMHL), State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering. School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University) | Liu, Xinwang (Computational Marine Hydrodynamics Lab (CMHL), State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering. School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University) | Wan, Decheng (Computational Marine Hydrodynamics Lab (CMHL), State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering. School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University)
To improve the ship hull optimization efficiency and take full advantage of the non-linear fitting capability of neural networks and the fast random search capability of genetic algorithms, the Wigley hull optimization based on artificial network and genetic algorithm is investigated in the present paper. The in-house hull form optimization software OPTShip-SJTU is firstly applied to obtain a series of new hull form and to calculate these hull resistances. Then a surrogate model of 3-layer BP neural network is constructed based on the sample data and a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the design of the Wigley ship with the total resistance minimum as the optimization objective function. During the calculation of hull hydrodynamics, potential flow solver NMShip-SJTU combined with ITTC formula is adopted to efficiently obtain the total resistance of the Wigley hull. The verification is also carried out to ensure the reliability of the optimization result. The results show that the resistance performance of the Wigley hull can be improved by designing the hull form reasonably. Besides, the form of bow bulbous is essential for the decreasing of total resistance according to the parameters sensitivity analysis. The design method—artificial network and the genetic algorithm can accurately work out the minimum resistance hull form and can be taken as a practical and efficient design tool.
With the implementation of the green ship and Ship Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI), how to reduce fuel consumption and carbon emission becomes the focus of the attention of shipyards and ship owners. One way to alleviate this problem is to optimize ship-shape curves. Based on the original ship, the ship-shape curves are optimized to reduce the wave-making resistance of the hull, and the ship-shape line also can be optimized with multiple objectives considering the ship's 6-DOF motion index.
The method of combining neural networks and genetic algorithm is used widely in different fields. Wang, Han, Sun, and Guo (2020) combined the elliptic basis (EBF) neural network approximation model and genetic algorithm to optimize the KP505 propeller, obtained the optimal design scheme theoretically and improved the optimization efficiency. Zeng, Ding, and Tang (2010) used the BP neural network and genetic algorithm to establish a new method for the optimal design of ship propeller based on the original map design method. Koushan (2003) used the genetic algorithm and neural networks to optimize the resistance and wave-making of a high-speed ship, and the optimization effect was obvious. Xu, Zhou, and Wang (2017) used the neural networks and genetic algorithm to optimize the ship's mooring system, and the optimization result is well. Yan, Liu, Xu, and Feng (2013) used the BP neural network and genetic algorithm to obtain the seaworthiness layout of trimaran ships with different layouts at different speeds. Wang, Lu, and Wang (2020) applied neural network and genetic algorithm to the airfoil optimization, optimized FFAW3- 301 airfoil have better aerodynamic performance. The optimization results showed that the optimization method was feasible. Lv, and Wang (2018) use the RBF neural network and genetic algorithm to optimize the strength of the ship hull after the broken. Chen and Ye (2009) firstly used the genetic algorithm to optimize the weights of the neural network, and then used the optimized neural network to predict the resistance of series 60 ship types. The neural network is simple and fast to calculate the resistance of ships, which can be applied to the calculation of ship resistance. Lin, Chen, Luo, and Wang (2019) analyzed a large number of data collected during the operation of a bulk cargo ship and used BP artificial neural network for training under the condition of considering fuel consumption. The fuel consumption rate optimization model is based on the neural network and the genetic algorithm is established. Xu (2012) used the BP neural network to optimize the layout of the trimaran with static water resistance as the target. From above all, we can realize that the BP neural network surrogate model is applied in optimization. But for hull optimization, it doesn’t been applied for the wide hull.
Richard, C. N (Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires-Argentina) | Zabala, G. S (Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires-Argentina) | Saitta, M. F (Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires-Argentina) | Díaz, C. (Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires-Argentina) | Abalos, R. (Instituto Tecnológico de Buenos Aires-Argentina)
The circular economy is an economic concept closely related to sustainability; its objective is that the value of products, materials, and resources remain in the economy for a long time trying to minimize waste.
Circular economy bases on optimizing the life cycle of resources, products, materials, and waste. Nowadays the economy globally managed is linear, which implies acquire-use-eliminate products, that is the acquired products are not allowed to complete a useful life cycle or once their life cycle is finished, there is no possibility of repair or recycling them. It means just throw them away and buy a new one. A clear example is the smartphone industry.
In the circular economy, the way to optimize resources is to generate a product that at the end of its useful life can be disassembled to obtain raw materials again for recycling and reuse.
The main objective of this work is to study and understand an economic concept of great current interest like the Circular Economy through the search and analysis of information about this topic and analyze its possibilities of application in the oil & gas industry.
Most of the authors of this paper are petroleum engineering students so another objective is to study and research this topic as future oil & gas sector professionals.
Specific objectives are to know the concept of Circular Economy, application methodology, and examples. Study the relationship between the circular economy and the oil & gas industry; analyze aspects of the circular economy that can be applied in the oil industry in the world and Argentina. Specifically, in Argentina identifies the current state of circular economy in oil & gas companies; and finally defines the sectors of the oil & gas industry in which it is possible to use this economic concept, with its advantages and disadvantages.
Bibliographic search activities on Circular Economy in general and in particular in the oil industry will be carried out, both in the world and in Argentina. The information found will be analyzed and potential applications for the sector in Argentina will be selected.
As result, it is expected to have an accurate knowledge of the current context of the Circular Economy in the oil sector in Argentina and to be able to propose possible application projects as future professionals in the sector.
The circular economy's main objective is that the value of the raw materials and resources used to build a product be maintained throughout the complete life of it. To make a shift from a linear economy to a circular economy, the whole system has to be redesigned, this is the only way to reduce waste and pollution.
The paper presents a risk management tool that assesses the impact that potential future carbon taxes will have on a company's hydrocarbon Reserves base and associated cashflows. Based on a number of case studies, this paper will present a practical application of the open-source engineering-based model called Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE), developed by Stanford University. The paper will demonstrate the application of the OPGEE model in the assessment of a range of carbon taxes, how they may vary the economic limit of a field's Reserves, and how this may influence a company's future field development decisions. This tool becomes useful in the risk management of the portfolio planning and capital allocation process where carbon tax risk can be objectively assessed and tested. If utilised correctly, the model can help to future-proof a company's hydrocarbon assets in an increasingly carbon constrained world. Asset owners or potential asset acquirers can assess the materiality of potential carbon tax impositions on assets and can prepare and adjust portfolios accordingly on an informed basis.
Global carbon emission reduction targets and how to meet them are high on operators’ agendas. Quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions created across every segment of the hydrocarbon extraction and production value chain is an essential step in this process.
It's already widely acknowledged by operators on the UK Continental Shelf that drill cuttings treatment at the well site can materially reduce costs and improve safety by avoiding the need to collect, contain and transfer cuttings by sea and road freight to a specialist processing facility onshore, as required using the traditional "skip and ship" method. It's also widely accepted that by reducing the transport and logistics involved in skip and ship processing, carbon emissions are also greatly reduced, but by exactly how much had not been precisely quantified.
In order to support operators’ understanding of their carbon footprints towards drilling waste management specifically, TWMA performed a study to establish the comparative carbon footprint for a portable thermal processing drill cuttings processing unit, treating drill cuttings on a standard offshore platform, versus that of a typical skip and ship to shore operation.
The study investigated the carbon footprinting process, interpreted recognised guidance and set system boundaries and emission scopes. The carbon footprint associated with each method of treatment was then calculated, based on carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) per tonne of drill cuttings functional unit. Furthermore, a carbon calculator was created to establish a carbon footprint comparison capability for any well within the North Sea.
The results revealed that the carbon footprint of the current skip and ship operation is 53% higher than that of a portable unit treating drill cuttings at typical North Sea well site. Furthermore, and based on the lower estimate of drill cuttings produced on the UK Continental Shelf, additional benefits will include: the diversion of 28,000 tonnes of waste powder from landfill; the recovery of 6000 m3 of produced oil for re-use in the offshore drilling system; and 6000 m3 of water that requires no further wastewater treatment.
This study is the first of its kind to show a direct CO2 comparison between offshore processing and the skip and ship cuttings disposal method. It has increased the awareness of the CO2e emissions associated with each process. As the industry moves towards a lower carbon future, it provides a solution to significantly reduce the carbon emissions of drilling operations whilst also improving safety and reducing well cost.
The production of fuel and chemicals in many countries is based on fossil sources but concerns about reservoir limitations and greenhouse gas emissions are shifting the focus towards solutions to increase the efficiency of processes and decarbonise these markets: the objective of this paper is to provide an overview on low-carbon intensity technologies that are instrumental to the decarbonisation of the energy industry.
Hydrogen is the most promising low-carbon intensity energy vector. However, it is mainly produced through hydrocarbon steam reforming which generates 9 to 12 metric tons of CO2 per ton of produced hydrogen. A key factor in driving the energy transition and achieving a low-carbon future is therefore the potential to obtain low carbon intensity hydrogen – through carbon capture solutions producing blue hydrogen, using biofeedstocks within adapted steam reforming applications to produce biohydrogen, or via water electrolysis utilizing renewable power.
The blue hydrogen technology described in this paper results in more than 90% CO2 emissions reduction due to the integration of an advanced steam reforming solution with pre-combustion carbon capture. While blue hydrogen, which is produced from hydrocarbons, is able to significantly reduce the emissions to the atmosphere, but still produces some CO2, biohydrogen is instead a carbon neutral solution achived via modified steam reforming of liquid biofeedstock. This technology has the potential to be carbon negative when enhanced with a carbon capture system.
Another aspect of the decarbonisation process, Substitute (or Synthetic) Natural Gas (SNG) from biomass gasification, biogas upgrading and power-to-gas systems is the most promising and immediate solution among the hydrocarbon-based fuels. SNG product has great market possibilities in refining, and automotive sectors or for injecting into pipelines for the upgrading and re-purposing of distribution networks. The product is a clean carbon alternative to conventional natural gas that can be distributed using the existing grid infrastructure.
Wood is pleased to present this paper to introduce the above-mentioned technologies for hydrogen and SNG, with the aim to provide viable and alternative solutions to industrial operators who are looking to support the economy decarbonisation securely and create a more sustainable future.
The cost of carbon capture is the major impediment in its mainstream acceptance, but its ability to abate the carbon emissions at a considerable scale, makes it a technology with promising potential. The paper presents detailed account of the energy optimization meticulous review carried out for a brownfield project to capture carbon from the Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU) Tail Gas. The paper demonstrates the vital role of energy optimization in restraining the carbon capture cost.
The methodology comprised development of an overall integrated heat & power model of the process encompassing energy supply sources, including power generation and import, and major energy consumers like CO2 absorption solvent regenerator, CO2 compressor and dense phase CO2 pump etc. The optimization was achieved by setting the objective function to minimize energy cost in terms of steam & power demand, by relating the selection of major drivers i.e. electric motor or steam turbine, as well as solvent, with the total energy cost in conjunction with the associated CAPEX. It followed with a meticulous review of individual systems and components.
Comprehensive energy optimization exercise, equating energy supply, major drivers’ selection and process decisions with the total energy cost and the associated CAPEX minimization, facilitated in carbon capture cost reduction by more than 10%. The optimized scheme helped in maximizing the utilization of available waste heat as well as in minimizing the spare steam dumping in condensers. The exercise confirmed the absolute significance of the energy optimization measures in reducing the cost of carbon capture.
Following the trend of energy efficiency, the Oil&Gas sector is looking continuously to sustainable solutions aimed to reduce carbon footprint while maintaining competitiveness. The market shows that a clever way for O&G field is the implementation of Organic Rankine Cycle technology, which turns waste-heat into useful power, with minimum impact on the existing facilities. An ORC unit can exploit waste heat from several sources. Different ORC applications within the O&G field were studied.
The study conducted evolved in two phases. The first one aimed to identify the most suitable waste heat sources unexploited in the O&G facilities. The second one explored the technical and economic analysis of different configurations, in order to understand the best ORC solution for this industrial sector (in terms of process parameters, equipment and layout).
A proved ORC application was in the Gas-compressor-stations along the pipelines where multiple gas-turbines operating in open-cycle are used as prime-movers for compressors. Although reliable and flexible, they waste a significant amount of energy that can be converted into useful power by means of an ORC system, a clear opportunity to boost the overall efficiency of the plant.
Other applications regarded the exploitation of hot streams in associated petroleum gas (APG) process carried-out within refineries. Due to its poor chemical composition, APG are typically burned via torches, thus wasted. ORC can exploit that energy to produce electricity by means of a flare-gas-boiler which heats up a vector fluid to feed the turbogenerator.
Beside those waste-heat streams, another potential form of energy was available in gas pressure-letdown stations, where lamination valves dissipate the potential energy contained in the pressurized gas. In this scenario, the Gas-expander technology (similar to ORC) can be a valuable alternative and a more efficient solution. It consists in a turbine through which the NG at high pressure, rather than being laminated, expands to produce work, thereafter converted into electricity by a generator.
This paper will present the above-mentioned solutions, employed both individually or combined.
Considering a large-scale application, the paper will show how the implementation of the ORC recovery systems represents other than a way to meet sustainability targets also a remarkable and profitable business for O&G companies. Furthermore, the Gas Expander technology represents a solution to improve the energy efficiency of NG transmission and distribution networks, as well as upstream and downstream facilities.
Aragones Ortiz, Raul (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Nicolas Alegret, Roger (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Oliver Malagelada, Joan (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) | Malet Munté, Roger (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Ferrer Ramis, Carles (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) | Comellas Vogel, David (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Voces Merayo, Ramon (Alternative Energy Innovations SL)
Our planet has a tremendous problem with the air pollution and climate change. The last study published by Jos Lelieveld et al. [
Besides, it has been demonstrated that the carbon footprint associated with various human activities leads to a steady increase in global mean temperature. Most of the gases that human activity emits into the atmosphere are due to the industrial processes that require a lot of energy for the transformation of the raw materials. Furthermore, a large part of the energy consumed in the industry is dissipated in the form of heat, also called waste heat. As a clear example, in the EU27, it is estimated that more than 65% of the energy used in the energy-intensive industries (EII) industry is lost in form of waste heat, representing yearly the 21% the EU energy needs.
This paper presents new wireless and battery-less industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices powered by waste heat for measuring vibrations in rotative machines, called INDUEYE IIoT. These self-powered devices will help huge energy demanding industries (especially chemical, petrochemical, oil refineries, etc.) to become more environmentally friendly and profitable in their digitalization process towards Industry 4.0. Also, these new industrial sensing devices take benefit of the new long-range wireless protocols such as NB-IoT or LoRa that simply eliminate all the wireless infrastructure in the facility (and its associated costs). Additionally, the edge-computing concept is introduced in the INDUEYE IIoT device decreasing to 98% of the cloud computation, reducing in consequence, the cloud computing carbon footprint, and its associated fees.
Hydrogen is an essential feedstock for a variety of chemical and industrial processes. Refineries with a global share of over 30% are amongst the largest consumers. Traditional methods of generating hydrogen involve the reformation of fossil-fuel sources with the help of steam. These methods release CO2 as a side product and are thus carbon-intensive. A zero-carbon approach of producing hydrogen can be achieved via electrolysis of water powered by surplus renewable energy sources, which in return helps to balance the intermittency of solar photovoltaic (PV) or wind. Hydrogen is also often a by-product of industrial processes. These synthetic waste gases have typically been flared in the past. Burning these gases in gas turbines instead can significantly boost the economic case and reduce carbon emissions compared to flaringbecause of the utilization of the waste energy.
Gas turbines are typically designed for natural gas operation, and accommodating high levels of hydrogen poses significant challenges due to its different physical properties. First, hydrogen is the lightest molecule with a lower volumetric energy content and higher diffusivity. This has an impact on the fuel delivery system, as sealings and piping materials need to be upgraded. Second, local mixing between fuel and air may not be perfect as hydrogen flames tend to stabilize further upstream, where mixing quality is lower and are more compact. As hydrogen has a higher flame temperature, local hotspots can lead to higher NOx emissions. This, in return, may require performance adaptations to meet the local emissions standards.
Perhaps the most challenging aspect of hydrogen use in turbines is its significantly higher reactivity. Hydrogen has a substantially higher flame speed (up to 10 times) and lower ignition delay time than natural gas, which increases the risk of flashback and explosions.
To overcome all these challenges and guarantee safe operation with high hydrogen fuels, focused development is required, particularly with regards to the combustor. Following an iterative rapid prototyping approach, the design optimization is typically achieved via high-fidelity ComputerAided Engineering(CAE) simulations coupled with validation through high-pressure testing at engine conditions. Here, the use of Additive Manufacturing (AM) for generating prototypes has been a critical success factor in recent years. In addition to reducing the overall lead time by up to 70%, AM offers the opportunity to generate and manufacture more efficient aero designs for e.g., cooling and fuel routing schemes.
This paper focuses on the use of hydrogen in gas turbines and discusses the required development steps. General challenges of accommodating hydrogen in gas turbines and the implications on design modification and operation will be examined in detail. Examples of achieving up to 100% hydrogen operation on a 25MW scale gas turbine from recent testing programs will be subsequently presented. Use cases of gas turbines operating with high hydrogen fuels in industrial processes will alsobe discussed.
The Oil and Gas industry today faces the ȢEnergy Trilemma,Ȣ that is satisfying the growing global demand for energy, in conjunction with increasing societal pressure to decarbonise whilst also reducing costs. The decarbonisation of Oil and Gas assets is often perceived to be a capital-intensive process, which will make operations more difficult and impact profitability. Whilst this may be true for the more aggressive/ambitious mitigation schemes, there are solutions that can significantly improve the bottom line. Many of these solutions can be easily implemented, without significant disruption, and result present material GHG reductions.
This paper highlights the opportunities for Oil and Gas operators to identify, fund, and execute energy transition projects that have successfully decarbonised assets. The decarbonisation methodology builds on lessons learned in identifying low carbon transition pathways for other high emitting industries.
The process begins with a framework and evaluation model to assess a wide set of potential carbon reduction technologies that Oil and Gas companies can use to achieve carbon reduction. The key evaluation and prioritisation tool is the marginal abatement model which incorporates low carbon transition scenario planning with extended functionality aimed at providing insights to successfully achieve the targeted reduction and the potential impact of these scenarios on future financial performance.
Following the evaluation and prioritisation methodology, this paper will review two decarbonisation case studies that have identified positive cashflow outcomes. The first is the application of a hybrid energy system installed at a remote onshore site to reduce reliance on diesel. The second considers reductions in the cold venting operations on a complex offshore facility to reduce fugitive emissions.
The first case study demonstrates how an energy transition programme resulted in the phased delivery of a complete hybrid energy system which integrated wind power, diesel generation, and several energy storage systems including hydrogen electrolysis, storage and fuels cells, as well as lithium ion batteries and flywheel technology, all managed by a custom microgrid controller to power this remote production site whilst reducing GHG emissions. This case study shows how experience and investment in another industry can be exploited in the Oil and Gas industry. The lessons from the first phase were applied to make the second phase more economic, resulting in significant operating cost savings and the reduction in GHG emissions is 10,530 tCO2-eq per annum.
The second case study offers an approach to decarbonisation which can be applied more generally in the context of operational efficiency. The ease with which the project can be executed was also assessed to ensure minimum operational downtime during the implementation phase.
Our paper concludes that energy transition initiatives, if approached by combining deep techno-economical expertise, coupled with the experience from a wide range of industries, can provide attractive commercial opportunities for upstream and midstream operators. These projects whist meeting decarbonisation goals also make suitable candidates for emerging energy transition financing initiatives.