|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
Wang, Yiran (School of Transportation, Southeast University) | Xu, Sudong (School of Transportation, Southeast University) | Xie, Boyi (School of Transportation, Southeast University) | Xie, Wen (School of Transportation, Southeast University) | Zhou, Jia (School of Transportation, Southeast University) | Xu, Mengxiao (School of Transportation, Southeast University)
The eastern coastal areas of China are widely distributed with flexible vegetation due to the effect of climate, which have a great influence on wave attenuation. This paper used the XBeach model to simulate the the effect of wave attenuation under flexible vegetation on slope beach by respectively changing the relative height, diameter, density and vegetation coefficient of the plants. Results show that the effect of wave height attenuation by flexible vegetation increases with the increase of relative height, diameter, density and vegetation coefficient and with the increase of each parameter, the increasing tendency of attenuation gradually weakened.
With the development of society and the deepening of the process of industrialization, human activities have made more profound changes to the global climate. Among the marine disasters caused by climate change, storm surge disasters in coastal areas are more extensive and have certain research significance. Therefore, the exploration of methods for preventing waves and attenuating waves and protecting the embankments and the shoreline along the coast has also been a hot topic. Different from traditional invasive hard coastal engineering, aquatic vegetation distributed at the boundary of sea and land is of great significance for wave mitigation in coastal zones, especially in extreme weather such as storm surge (Feagin et al., 2011). In recent years, coastal areas have been increasingly demanding protection of the ecological environment and coastal vegetation has become a good material for ecological revetment due to its certain wave-reducing effect and environmental-friendly characteristics. Research on the effect of coastal wave vegetation on wave-revetment and protection needs to be studied further. In terms of field observation, Möller et al.(1999) have shown that after going deep into the Spartina alterniflora salt marsh 20-30m, the wave height attenuates to 29% and the energy loss is about 90%. Yang et al.(2012) measured the wave parameters of 13 continuous tides on the coast of the tidal reach of the Yangtze River estuary, and calculated the wave attenuation of S. alterniflora at the edge of the coastal salt marsh. The results showed that the wave height attenuation rate per unit distance on the coastal tidal flat covered with vegetation is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than the attenuation rate at mudflats.
According to the IEA, the oil & gas industry can achieve a 75% reduction in methane emissions with current technologies, and up to 70% at no net cost.
About 62% of the emissions CO2e is coming from upstream activities. Fugitive emissions constitute the biggest single emitting source. LDAR is therefore essential in every upstream asset. In this paper, I will discuss best practices and share case studies about how LDAR can help to minimize methane emissions.
Leak Detection and Repair programs have a long history with EPA Method 21 or OGI. LDAR is crucial to prioritize maintenance activities. Although some gas companies prefer OGI because of cost reasons, the more effective detection technique for all methane emissions is still using sniffing equipment PID or FID. A comparative study indicated that only 71% of the bigger leaks with more than 262 kg/year emissions are found with OGI and only 5% of the smaller leaks. Moreover, quantification of the mass leaks becomes much more accurate with sniffing equipment compared to camera screening combined with leak/no leak factors.
A best in class approach is realized with an LDAR campaign that applies Risk-Based Inspection considerations in combining measuring techniques like FID/PID and OGI and frequencies referring to the probability of occurrence and consequence of emissions (source type, historical performance, stream composition, HAP, …).
Another best in class practice is situated around repair activities. While in every campaign between 10 to 20% new leaks are identified, 80 to 90% of the emitting sources were leaking in previous measuring surveys and have returned. The tightening of leaking gaskets and seals provides a temporary better emission value of more than 90% reduction in only 62% of the repair attempts. Although a typical emission reduction improvement with a thorough LDAR program of 70% is achievable, more emphasis should go to in-depth problem solving to avoid recurring leaking sources. Examples include proactive mass replacement of certain gaskets or stem valve seals during turnaround activities. This continuous improvement realized with these repair activities decreases the fugitive emissions steadily.
Situations, where a yearly LDAR campaign has been omitted, demonstrate a quick return to past emission figures. Executing LDAR, finetuned to the situation and outstanding legislation, is necessary to contribute to lower methane and in general GHG emissions.
Based on our experience of delivering successful Leak Detection & Repair (LDAR) in the past three (3) decades, we would like to share
Also in this paper, we would like to highlight the importance of an integrated methane emission management platform (software) to ensure a transparent, auditable and manageable Methane Emission program.
Aragones Ortiz, Raul (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Nicolas Alegret, Roger (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Oliver Malagelada, Joan (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) | Malet Munté, Roger (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Ferrer Ramis, Carles (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona) | Comellas Vogel, David (Alternative Energy Innovations SL) | Voces Merayo, Ramon (Alternative Energy Innovations SL)
Our planet has a tremendous problem with the air pollution and climate change. The last study published by Jos Lelieveld et al. [
Besides, it has been demonstrated that the carbon footprint associated with various human activities leads to a steady increase in global mean temperature. Most of the gases that human activity emits into the atmosphere are due to the industrial processes that require a lot of energy for the transformation of the raw materials. Furthermore, a large part of the energy consumed in the industry is dissipated in the form of heat, also called waste heat. As a clear example, in the EU27, it is estimated that more than 65% of the energy used in the energy-intensive industries (EII) industry is lost in form of waste heat, representing yearly the 21% the EU energy needs.
This paper presents new wireless and battery-less industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices powered by waste heat for measuring vibrations in rotative machines, called INDUEYE IIoT. These self-powered devices will help huge energy demanding industries (especially chemical, petrochemical, oil refineries, etc.) to become more environmentally friendly and profitable in their digitalization process towards Industry 4.0. Also, these new industrial sensing devices take benefit of the new long-range wireless protocols such as NB-IoT or LoRa that simply eliminate all the wireless infrastructure in the facility (and its associated costs). Additionally, the edge-computing concept is introduced in the INDUEYE IIoT device decreasing to 98% of the cloud computation, reducing in consequence, the cloud computing carbon footprint, and its associated fees.
The compression units installed on sales gas network face wide range of operating modes owing to the varying supply & demand scenarios and the associated network dynamics. It is very challenging to ascertain the real performance in such applications due to changing specific energy consumption. The paper presents development of a novel and robust monitoring system, enabling realtime energy performance monitoring of dynamic compression and revealing realistic opportunities for energy savings.
The methodology comprised review of design and OEM data for the compression units, followed by review of operating envelope. Subsequently, developed a thermodynamic model of compression units encompassing all the operating modes. Then embedded the actual performance curves from OEM in the thermodynamic digital twin and validated the model with actual operating data. Carried out site visits and held discussions with technical teams as part of the comprehensive approach. A mathematical model additionally developed, in addition to the thermodynamic model, to enable operators for off-line monitoring of the compressors performance during unavailability of thermodynamic digital twin.
Detailed performance analysis of centrifugal compressors is essential to ascertain their condition and functioning. A decrease in performance can be an indication of internal wear or fouling, which if allowed to continue, may result in reduced throughput or excessive energy consumption or even unscheduled outages. Thus, the performance is not just an indication of energy or operating cost but also reflects other vital aspects like reliability. The integrated thermodynamic digital twin developed for large sales gas compression units, with total throughput capacity of more than 500 MMSCFD, has enabled and demonstrated effective energy performance monitoring even with changing operating scenarios. It facilitated real-time comparison of actual performance (specific energy consumption) with model based expected performance. It also aided real-time trending of polytropic efficiency as well as real-time display of potential energy savings opportunities. The digital twin has proven to be a reliable and low cost tool to predict compressor performance for various operating modes on real time basis. The data from the compression digital twin can be tied into process simulation models for process optimization. The model can complement supervisory capabilities, diagnostics, control capabilities and even facilitate in predicting failures ahead of time.
Sridharan, Sri (Pioneer Natural Resources) | Lazarus, Aaron (Pioneer Natural Resources) | Reese, Carrie (Pioneer Natural Resources) | Wetherley, Erin (Kairos Aerospace) | Bushko, Katrina (Kairos Aerospace) | Berman, Elena (Kairos Aerospace)
Results of multiple years of periodic aerial methane surveys over Pioneer Natural Resources’ operations footprint, comprising approximately 680,000 acres in the Permian basin, are presented, including impacts to operational efficiency, cost, and methane emissions mitigation. Aerial methane detection was performed using a light-aircraft mounted, integrated methane imaging spectrometer. Geo-referenced methane emissions data combined with real-time geo-referenced optical imagery provided accurate methane localization and source attribution. Ground inspection teams used optical gas imaging technology to validate the aerial results and dispatch repair teams. Externally validated leak quantification provided by the spectrometer further allowed accurate measurement of methane mitigation. Aerial methane inspections of nearly 10,000 operations sites per survey, including wells, tank batteries, and all associated equipment, are reported for multiple years of periodic surveys. The data shows a complete picture of the most significant methane emissions from the Pioneer operations footprint over consecutive years and has proven beneficialinvaluable for enhancing operational efficiency. Based on the data, Pioneer has been able to identify the areas of highest impact and focus operational resources on those improvements. Surveys identified types of emission sources that can be addressed immediately within Pioneer operations and areas where Pioneer would need to work with others to improve overall gas takeaway challenges in the Permian basin. Furthermore, Pioneer has reduced leak detection and repair (LDAR) costs significantly by reducing both driving time and ground-based inspection time. We estimate more than 2500 work hours and 1000 driving hours, were saved by each aerial survey. Between 2016 and 2018, the company's methane intensity has declined approximately 41%. Aerial survey results have allowed Pioneer to significantly reduce methane emissions while simultaneously improving safety and efficiency, reducing costs, and reducing vehicle traffic. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-year, comprehensive, aerial periodic methane survey of an entire upstream oil and gas operation's footprint. We're now able to report on the benefits of this paradigm shift away from conventional LDAR surveys. Although the challenge of reducing methane emissions can be daunting, the results from aerial monitoring show that with a technology and data-driven approach, operators can significantly reduce emissions while simultaneously reducing costs and improving operational efficiency.
Sari, Alperen (Barbaros Naval Science and Engineering Institute, National Defence University, Tuzla-Istanbul) | Sulukan, Egemen (National Defence University, Turkish Naval Academy, Tuzla-Istanbul) | Özkan, Dogus (National Defence University, Turkish Naval Academy, Tuzla-Istanbul)
Maritime transportation has been a cost-effective option among other transport modes. Meanwhile, this demand has been increasing day by day because of the expanding global economy. The ships are one of the most important transport and trade vehicles in the world; 90% of the world trade is carried out by maritime transport, and this sector plays a crucial role in climate change and global warming because it is one of the key sectors leading to emissions of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas (GHG). In other sectors that lead to CO2 emissions, i.e., energy production, manufacturing industry, and heating in residences, energy efficiency has been improved and emissions have been reduced significantly. However, there has been no net reduction in the transport sector; total CO2 emissions have also increased because of the continuous increase in freight and passenger traffic, although efficiency has increased. Increasing the energy efficiency of a ship allows for fuel consumption reduction and GHG emissions. In this study, the energy system of a chemical tanker ship was analyzed and then modeled by using the long-range energy alternatives planning system, a widely used platform for energy policy analysis and climate change mitigation assessment, including a comprehensive energy flow diagram, namely, reference energy system. A base scenario was developed, and the ship’s energy system was convenient to be analyzed and evaluated in terms of technical, economic, and environmental aspects, including low-emission development strategies, to comply with marine engine regulations of the International Maritime Organization.
This paper displays the results obtained through exploratory research carried out through an online form that sought to assess the level of preparation of ports and port terminals in the face of climate change. This work was developed with the intention of complementing and continuing the research carried out by UNCTAD 2018 and published under the name UNCTAD Research Paper nº 18. That work identified biases due to the low number of participating ports in the South American and Caribbean region. This research was conducted with the objective of filling this gap. This paper also highlights the main differences between the two studies.
Xiong, Liuqing (College of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology) | Gao, Haibo (College of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology) | Norman, Rosemary (Newcastle University) | Pazouki, Kayvan (Newcastle University) | Lin, Zhiguo (College of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology) | Lim, Serena (Newcastle University)
Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) are vessels that operate without any crew on-board. There is an increased demand for USVs in recent years, particularly for the use of water quality monitoring and ocean data mapping. In China, USVs are widely used as a luring fish boat which acts as the assisting boat of light luring seine vessel. One of the main problems of such boat is that the traditional propulsion system is poorly matched with the high energy consumption that is required during certain specific operation, which results in poor vessel performance. A hybrid electric propulsion system configuration solution is proposed to increase the overall propulsion efficiency of such USVs. The typical operating profile was identified and a comprehensive simulation was conducted to demonstrate the compatibility during vessel operations. An intelligent equipment selection analysis was also carried out to recommend the optimal equipment selection by considering a multiobjective problem. The result shows that the configuration solution proposed can reduce fuel consumption and the optimal intelligent selection method can provide a suitable selection solution for decision makers. This article highlights an energy management strategy focusing on the threshold method based on support vector machine pattern recognition. A multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm based on the dynamic inertia weight and chaotic motion was used to optimize the equipment selection by considering fuel consumption and emissions. The proposed propulsion system configuration and equipment selection solution can be implemented for the design of USVs, which has a routine fixed operating pattern.
Unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) are vessels that operate on water without any on-board personnel (Manley et al. 2008). Research on unmanned vessels is on the rise, especially for the purpose to enhance safety (Burmeister et al. 2014). USVs are typically used for vessels for specific missions, such as for scientific research, environmental missions, ocean resource exploration, and military uses (Liu et al. 2016). A large number of USVs are operated in the coastal region where emissions from the vessels have shown to have direct impact on the health of the population (Viana et al. 2014). In view of this, the selection of main propulsion system of such vessels is important, as the system plays the role of having the biggest impact on emissions. Tighter regulations arise from environmental concerns, which move design and operation to greener ships and more optimal designs. With the increase in concerns of climate change, new ship design is incorporating greener technology that promotes energy saving and emission reduction. The hybrid power system is one of the major developments toward the design of greener ships and has been gradually applied on offshore supply ships, inland river ships, and sightseeing ships (Qian et al. 2013; Gao et al. 2017; Xia et al. 2017).
Cervantes Bravo, Reynaldo José (Consultant) | Jimenez Nieves, Edgar (Consultant) | Valqui Ordoñez, Brayam (Penn State University) | Canto Espinoza, Daniel (Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería/Facultad de Ing. de Petróleo, Gas Natural y Petroquímica) | Hinostroza Cairo, Anderson (Consultant)
The most important transition of the energy matrix in Peru was characterized by an economic bonanza between the years 2009 - 2011 and, whose energy intensity (I.E) was reflected by the accelerated growth of the GDP; which, caused an exponential increase in the energy demand of Peru and, whose multiplying effect was produced by the energy exchange of the predominance of Hydroelectric Energy towards the development of Natural Gas with the Camisea Gas Megaproject, however, it was not considered the impact of other factors. In this sense, the present study requires contextualizing the Energy Trilemma: 1) the country's energy security; through an energy efficiency policy in response to meeting demand in line with GDP growth, 2) energy equity, for the access of quality energy and accessible prices to more vulnerable populations with a diversified energy matrix; 3) environmental sustainability, to describe the Environmental Commitments of Peru with the COP24. The methodology is based on a macroeconomic-energetic model, whose architecture begins with historical information between the years 1970-2016 with respect to GDP vs. primary energy consumption; to then calculate the annual energy intensity of Peru and its CO2 emission according to the polluting factor of each primary matter. Followed, using projections of the GDP from 2017 to the year 2035 (3.8% per year - Conservative case with information from the World Bank) and 3 scenarios of decrease in energy intensity of 1%, 1.5% and 2% per year, may increase energy efficiency and reduce the emission of CO2 in the proportion of 10.4%, 15.2% and 19.6% respectively between 2017-2035. As a result, the total energy consumption will be estimated up to the year 2035 in Millions of TOE, according to each scenario of variation in energy intensity (ΔI.
Visible light is all around us, from sunlight to street lighting and automobile headlights to the backlight on a smartphone and in nearly every indoor space. Humans are so accustomed to working and living in artificial light that many of us have not stopped to consider the implications. Most OSH professionals’ experience with light and artificial lighting is likely limited to assessing whether sufficient light exists for people to see where they are going or carry out a task, or whether a light is too bright. This article aims to provide a current review of lighting for OSH professionals. Such a review is timely due to emerging issues including energy efficiency, human health impacts (e.g., blue light hazard, circadian rhythm disruption, fatigue), human performance (e.g., visual performance, visual comfort) and environmental impacts (e.g., light pollution).
The visible light spectrum (VLS) is typically considered the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from approximately 400 to 700 nm wavelength (Figure 1; Elert, 2019; IUPAC, 1997). The colors range from violet (~400 to 450 nm), blue (~450 to 500 nm), green (~500 to 550 nm), yellow (~550 to 600 nm), orange (~600 to 650 nm) and red (~650 to 700 nm). However, there can be some significant variation in exact wavelength ranges reported for colors (Elert, 2019; Helmenstine, 2020; Jones, 2020). The radiant energy of light is characterized by the direct relationship with frequency (Brune, 2020); that is, the shorter wavelength range of the VLS (e.g., violet/purple) has more intrinsic energy than longer wavelengths (e.g., red). The radiant flux (power) of a light source is a function of the frequency of the emitted radiation and time over which the energy is transmitted (DiLaura, Houser, Mistrick et al., 2011; Sliney, 2016).