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Energy demand is expected to grow during the next century as more countries seek a better quality of life for their citizens. Increasing trends in population and consumption, price volatility, supply instability, and environmental concerns are changing the energy mix and energy strategies in the 21st century. The energy mix is the set of energy sources that are used to meet energy demand. Energy demand will be met by a global energy mix that is transitioning from a mix dominated by fossil fuels to a more balanced energy portfolio. The emerging energy mix will rely on clean energy. Clean energy refers to energy that has little or no detrimental impact on the environment.
The electrical system of a typical oil field consists of power generation, power distribution, electric motors, system protection, and electrical grounding. The power is either generated on site or purchased from a local utility company. To ensure continuous production from an oil field, it is of utmost importance that the associated electrical systems be designed adequately. This chapter covers essential topics in the design and operation of the electrical system and discusses the construction and specification of electric motors. The required power for the oil field is either generated on site by engine- or turbine-driven generator sets or purchased from a local utility company. The engines or turbines may use diesel or natural gas as a fuel. Some units are dual-fueled, using natural gas and diesel. Natural-gas-fueled prime movers are most practical for normal power generation for most applications. Diesel is used where natural gas is unavailable and for units that provide black-start and emergency power. Some remote oil fields lack access to utility power lines and require on-site power generation. In such cases, in addition to normal generators, a standby generator might be needed to provide emergency power and black-start capability. Sometimes, a standby generator is designed to handle the total facility electrical load, but usually it is designed only for essential loads. When commercial power is purchased from a utility company, an electrical substation generally is installed near the oilfield facility. Most local utility companies bring their power into their main substation(s) through high-voltage overhead transmission lines from a large generating plant in a remote area.
When Juan Ricardo Ortega was appointed president of Grupo Energía Bogotá (GEB), Colombia's largest natural-gas transporter and second-largest energy transmitter, in July 2020, he brought a unique set of skills and experiences to the role. Ortega was trained in economics, finance, and mathematics at the University of the Andes and then at Yale (where, at age 54, he'll soon complete a PhD degree in economic development). He began his career as chief economist at multinational banking company BBVA in Bogotá in the 1980s but later transitioned to the public sector, when he was appointed economic adviser to then Colombian President Andrés Pastrana. Ortega went on to hold other high-level public positions, such as vice minister of finance and commerce and secretary of finance for the City of Bogotá, as well as professorships at Colombian universities. From 2014 to 2020, he worked as an adviser to the Inter-American Development Bank in Washington, DC, but returned to Colombia when he was appointed president of GEB.
The various surface-drive system components of a progressing cavity pump (PCP) system will generally have specified maximum load and speed limits. For example, drive-head manufacturers' catalogs will typically specify a maximum torque, polished-rod speed, and power as well as give a thrust bearing rating for their equipment. Some may also provide a maximum axial load value for their drives. The maximum torque limits typically are set for structural purposes, whereas the power limits reflect the safe operating capacity of the power transmission system (belts and sheaves or gear set). There are also torque limits related to the braking system capacity, and in many cases, only the lower of the two is published.
BP has acquired UK-based digital energy business Open Energi. The company's digital platform uses real-time data to optimize the performance of energy assets. It connects customers to power markets with the goal of providing flexibility at times of low renewable-energy generation and during price peaks. The share of primary energy from renewables is projected to increase from around 5% in 2018 to 60% by 2050 in the net-zero scenario set out in BP's Energy Outlook. However, because generation from these sources depends on weather conditions, the growth will also bring increased market and price volatility.
The required power for the oil field is either generated on site by engine- or turbine-driven generator sets or purchased from a local utility company. The engines or turbines may use diesel or natural gas as a fuel. Some units are dual-fueled, using natural gas and diesel. Natural-gas-fueled prime movers are most practical for normal power generation for most applications. Diesel is used where natural gas is unavailable and for units that provide black-start and emergency power.
Electricity systems around the world are changing, with the Paris Agreement of 2015 a catalyst for much current change. The Australian government ratified the agreement by committing to 26–28% emissions reductions below 2005 levels by 2030. Reduction in emissions from electricity generation has become the focus of these targets. To decarbonize the grid to meet targets while building firm, dispatchable generation capacity to support the system, a new metric is required to measure success. The complete paper explores the outputs of the model of energy and grid services (MEGS), illustrating outcomes if a single technology group is favored.
One of the options for gas monetization is gas to power (GTP), sometimes called gas to wire (GTW). Electric power can be an intermediate product, such as in the case of mineral refining in which electricity is used to refine bauxite into aluminum; or it can be an end product that is distributed into a large utility power grid. This page focuses on electricity as the end product. The primary issues related to GTP are the relative positions of the resource and the end market and transmission methods. The scale or volume of gas and/or power to be transported influences each of these issues.
Two of the world's wealthiest men have put their vast resources behind what the nuclear industry calls small modular reactors (SMRs) in the quest for the perfect carbon-free energy source. TerraPower, founded by Bill Gates, and PacifiCorp, owned by Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway, are sponsors of the project. The first SMR from TerraPower, the Natrium reactor project, will be built in Wyoming--the nation's primary coal producer--at the very location that once housed a coal station, where the infrastructure for a steam-cycle power plant and distribution to the electrical grid already exist. Last year, the state legislature passed a law authorizing utilities to replace coal or natural gas generation with small nuclear reactors and the US Department of Energy awarded TerraPower $80 million in initial funding to demonstrate Natrium technology; the department has committed additional funding subject to congressional approvals. Just ask anyone in Texas where a combination of frozen wind turbines and unprecedented demand last winter darkened the state for days.