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US Job Numbers Up for OFS and Equipment Industry, But Outlook Remains Unclear The increase in OFS and equipment sector jobs over the past 2 months came amid higher oil and gas production. But increases in COVID-19 cases are causing uncertainty about when and how much demand will rise. Texas Regulator To Place New Limits on Allowable Flaring Oil and gas producers in the state are being asked to submit data and economic analysis on why they cannot sell natural gas before they are granted permission to flare it. UAE Has Become World’s Newest Producer of Unconventional Gas The first delivery of shale gas in the UAE marks a major milestone toward its goal of reaching 1 Bcf/D by 2030. It also signals the expansion of hydraulic fracturing in the UAE’s conventional fields.
In the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the oil and gas industry, regulators, and other stakeholders recognized the need for increased collaboration and data sharing to augment their ability to better identify safety risks and address them before an accident occurs. The SafeOCS program is one such collaboration between industry and government. It is a voluntary confidential reporting program that collects and analyzes data to advance safety in oil and gas operations on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The US Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) established the program with input from industry and then entered into an agreement with the US Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) to develop, implement, and operate the program. As a principal statistical agency, BTS has considerable data-collection-and-analysis expertise with near-miss reporting systems for other industries and the statutory authority to protect the confidentiality of the reported information and the reporter’s identify. Source data submitted to BTS are not subject to subpoena, legal discovery, or Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests.
In this 27 November 2007 file photo, a rough-legged hawk feeds on a rodent in a field near Great Falls, Montana. Down to its final weeks, the Trump administration is working to push through dozens of environmental rollbacks that could weaken century-old protections for migratory birds, expand Arctic drilling, and hamstring future regulation of public health threats. Down to its final weeks, the Trump administration is working to push through dozens of environmental rollbacks that could weaken century-old protections for migratory birds, expand Arctic drilling, and hamstring future regulation of public health threats. The pending changes, which benefit oil and gas and other industries, deepen the challenges for President-elect Joe Biden, who made restoring and advancing protections for the environment, climate, and public health a core piece of his campaign. The proposed changes cap 4 years of unprecedented environmental deregulation by President Donald Trump, whose administration has worked to fundamentally change how federal agencies apply and enforce the Clean Water Act, Clean Air Act, and other protections.
A polar bear sow and two cubs are seen on the Beaufort Sea coast within the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in this undated handout photo provided by the US Fish and Wildlife Service Alaska Image Library on 21 December 2005. The Trump administration on Thursday proposed to loosen Obama-era safety regulations for the oil industry in the Arctic Ocean off Alaska to ease the way for petroleum extraction in the region, an effort that President-elect Joe Biden will likely throw out once in office. The proposal would revise a suite of Obama-era rules crafted to improve safety in the extreme conditions of the Arctic after a Shell drilling rig ran aground in the Gulf of Alaska in 2012. The company later abandoned oil exploration in the Arctic, and there are no active drilling operations there. Now, much of the US portion of the Arctic Ocean—the Chukchi Sea and part of the Beaufort Sea—is off-limits to new oil and gas leasing under a 2019 judge’s order that overturned President Donald Trump’s effort to open vast areas of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans to oil leasing.
The United Arab Emirates’ (UAE) chief energy regulator has announced that the country holds a substantial volume of newly discovered unconventional resources as it approved a 5-year spending plan for the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC). The Supreme Petroleum Council, which also serves as ADNOC’s board of directors, placed the estimated reserves of unconventional oil within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi at 22 billion bbl, according to a government news release on 22 November. The figure would place the UAE’s tight reservoir potential on par with that of some of the biggest plays in North America. The government also said that an additional 2 billion bbl of reserves was also recently discovered, raising the UAE’s total conventional reserve estimate to 107 billion bbl. Both the conventional and unconventional estimates were independently verified by Houston-based reserves specialist Ryder Scott.
Liao, Zhenkun (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Dong, Sheng (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Wang, Zhifeng (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China) | Tao, Shanshan (College of Engineering, Ocean University of China)
In this paper, based on the current data since 1996 to 2015 obtained by the FVCOM ocean model, the design surface current speed of three selected sites in the Barents Sea is studied. Four types of probability distributions are applied to fit omnidirectional or directional annual extreme current speed, then corresponding return values are estimated. The results show that the return values of omnidirectional current speed are generally larger than those of directional, but there are exceptions, which should be taken into account when estimating and using the design parameters of ocean current speed.
In recent years, the ice cover of Arctic sea is declining. Bader et al. (2011) reviewed the research on the sea ice of Northern Hemisphere, and they concluded that the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean has decreased significantly in all seasons, with the fastest decline in summer, and probably will even be completely ice-free by the summer of 2040. Ross and Fissel (2018) reviewed recent findings of sea-ice research, they concluded that Arctic sea ice has changed a lot in the past 30 years, and its coverage has been greatly reduced especially in the summer and early fall, people are expected to have more Arctic commercial transportation and offshore oil and gas exploration in this century.
The Barents Sea is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, with the Norwegian Seas to the west and the Kara Sea to the east. The Barents Sea has a maximum depth of 600m, and in its southeast near the Svalbard Archipelago, there is a wide continental shelf with a depth of less than 100m (ISO, 2010). This sea area is rich in oil and gas resources (U.S. Geological Survey, 2008). Herbaut et al. (2015) found that, the average area of sea ice in the Barents Sea has decreased rapidly since 2005, Specifically from 670 000 km2 in 2005 to 400,000 km2 in 2012. Duan et al (2018) found that the sea ice in the Barents Sea is experiencing a decreasing process with oscillations in some periods due to unsteady and extreme synoptic process.
Kuang, Qingwen (State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology ) | Zhang, Chongwei (State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology ) | Ning, Dezhi (State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology ) | Mayon, Robert (State Key Laboratory of Coastal and Offshore Engineering, Dalian University of Technology )
The hydroelastic interaction of water waves and the finite-length ice sheet with a gap is investigated in this study. The ice sheet is treated as an elastic thin plate with free-edge boundary conditions. The analytical solutions are obtained using the eigenfunction expansion method. Effects of the gap location on water-wave propagation and hydroelastic responses of the ice sheet are analyzed. Local minima and maxima are found in the transmission coefficient curve. Enhanced wave elevation in the gap and hydroealstic response of the ice sheet can be observed at specific wave frequencies. The wave resonance effect in the gap is also discussed.
With climate change, Arctic shipping routes have attracted great interest from researchers and the industry (Smith and Stephenson, 2013). The interaction of water waves and sea ice is becoming a hot subject at present. On wave-ice interaction problems, early researches have widely considered the situation of semi-infinite or finite sea ice in water waves, by assuming the sea ice to be perfect and continuous (e.g. Fox and Squire (1990), Fox and Squire (1994), , Meylan and Squire (1993), Meylan and Squire (1994), Sahoo et al. (2001), and Teng et al. (2001)). It is also common that an ice sheet may have cracks or a polynya in it, which brings more difficulties to the hydrodynamic analysis. Squire and Dixon (2001) found that the crack can behave as a steep low-pass filter that allows an easier passing through of long waves. The perfect transmission can also occur at some specific wave periods. Shi et al. (2019) found that both the length and distribution of the polynya have important effects on wave reflection and transmission. dependent on the relative position of the submerged body to elastic plate edges. Ren et al. (2016) studied the wave excited motion of a floating body between two semi-infinite ice sheets and observed standing waves in the polynya. Li et al. (2018) considered a circular cylinder submerged below an ice sheet with a crack. The results revealed that the location of the crack played an important role in the body motion.
In this study, a collision risk model was developed, based on gas model theory and Pedersen's collision and grounding mechanics. Busan north port was chosen as the area of assessment and, was divided into equal cells. Geometrical collision risk, both ship-ship and ship-structure, within each cell was analyzed following a probabilistic quantification. Moreover, bathymetry data of the port waters were analyzed to assess grounding risks. Results were plotted on Google EarthTM to identify the highest risk point and region within the area of assessment to aid safe maneuvering of vessels.
With the recent trends and advancements in maritime world, emergence of new ships is inescapable and consequently, maritime traffic density has continued to expand. Increased number of ships, as well as bigger ships in narrow passages attribute to higher volumes of traffic in already congested waterways and particularly, in port areas. This, in turn, makes ship maneuvering more difficult and complicated. Moreover, higher maritime traffic can increase the risk of collision accidents with unfavorable consequences. Although some major technological advancements such as ECDIS (Electronic Chart Display and Information System), ARPA (Automatic Radar Plotting Aids), GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and GMDSS (Global Maritime Distress & Safety System) are successfully integrated with navigation, port and harbor areas are still more susceptible to collision accidents. Thus, evaluating the risk of collision has become an integral part in maneuvering supporting systems to improve safety in navigation by decreasing the risk of collision.
Collision risk in navigation is often misread due to the rarity of disastrous, individual accidents. Ylitalo (2010) discovered that the probability of an accident in a particular area would not be zero, although there is less or no records of previous incidents. Even though the probability of a direct ship-ship collision is very small, a minor incident can have unfavorable consequences, which can lead to loss of property as well as life at sea. Therefore, all risks in navigation have to be taken seriously. Identifying the risk areas, therefore, is vital to minimize and to avoid accidents. Once the risk areas are clearly identified, measures such as emergency planning can be taken for safe maneuvering of ships.
This study investigates pressure distribution and horizontal wave force on a vertical breakwater and the variation of wave force with different incident period based on weakly compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (WCSPH) and Flow-3D model, respectively. The numerical wave flume is established and the second-order waves are generated by a piston. Numerical calculation shows that the results of these two methods are in good agreement with experiments. In order to analyze the effect of pressure distribution and wave force with wave period, a series of numerical tests were carried out. Research results indicate that under the same incident wave height and water depth, as wave period increases, the pressure distribution and wave forces increase. Wave crest force basically increases linearly with the period. The increasing rate of the wave trough force gradually decreases. Under the same period and wave height, as the water depth increases, the crest force and trough force also increase.
Breakwaters are generally constructed for dissipation and reflection of incident wave energy in order to decrease the wave height to protect the coast against the erosion and to reduce the force acting on coastal structures. As wave period becomes longer, the wave loads on breakwater increases. Therefore, research on wave load with period is important significantly.
In coastal engineering, long period wave load on breakwater has attracted more and more attention. Long-period wave often occurs in the Arabian Sea (Amrutha et al. 2017), Indian Ocean (Tan et al. 2015) and so on. Many researches have been carried out on the wave force on the vertical breakwater. Sainflou (1928) proposed an analytical solution for pulsating wave loads. Minikin (1963) developed a formula to predict wave impact force. However, Minikin's formula is incorrect because wave force decreases with the incident wave length increasing (Allsop et al., 1996a). Fenton (1985) studied the wave pressure and forces on upright wall by potential theory. Goda (1974, 2000) developed a new formula to calculate the wave load on composite breakwater. This method has been widely used in coastal engineering and has been adopted in Japan and USA standards (Japan Standard 2009, EM 1110-2-1100 2011). However, these methods are based on potential theory and experimental data, and for some extreme cases, it may not be predictable very well.