Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, currently known as Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS).
Content of PetroWiki is intended for personal use only and to supplement, not replace, engineering judgment. SPE disclaims any and all liability for your use of such content. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service, formerly known as Soil Conservation Service (USDA-SCS)
The pipeline system that conveys the individual-well production or that of a group of wells from a central facility to a central system or terminal location is a gathering pipeline. Generally, the gathering pipeline system is a series of pipelines that flow from the well production facilities in a producing field to a gathering "trunk" pipeline. Gathering systems typically require small-diameter pipe that runs over relatively short distances. The branch lateral lines commonly are 2 to 8 in. Gathering systems should be designed to minimize pressure drop without having to use large-diameter pipe or require mechanical pressure-elevation equipment (pumps for liquid and compressors for gas) to move the fluid volume. For natural-gas gathering lines, the Weymouth equation can be used to size the pipe. "Cross-country" transmission pipelines will collect the product from many "supply" sources and "deliver" to one or more end users. Transmission pipelines will generally require much larger pipe than gathering systems. Transmission systems normally are designed for long distances and will require pressure-boosting equipment along the route. Many factors must be considered when designing, building, and operating a pipeline system. Once the basic pipe ID is determined using the applicable flow formula, the other significant design parameters must be addressed. For U.S. applications, gathering, transmission and distribution pipelines are governed by regulations and laws that are nationally administered by the U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT).
When product vapor pressure is greater than 0.5 psia (more in some states) but less than 11.1 psia, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency permits the use of a floating-roof as the primary means of vapor control from the storage tank. Floating-roof tanks are not intended for all products. In general, they are not suitable for applications in which the products have not been stabilized (vapors removed). The goal with all floating-roof tanks is to provide safe, efficient storage of volatile products with minimum vapor loss to the environment. Design requirements for external floating roofs are provided in Appendix C of the API Standard 650.
Directional surveys obtain the measurements needed to calculate and plot the 3D well path. Instruments for conducting directional surveys can be set up in several different variations, depending on the intended use of the instrument and the methods used to store or transmit survey information. Depending on the method used to store the data, there are film and electronic systems. Survey systems can also be categorized by the methods used to transmit the data to the surface, such as wireline or measurement while drilling (MWD). Magnetic sensors must be run within a nonmagnetic environment [i.e., in uncased hole either in a nonmagnetic drill collar(s) or on a wireline].