Radzuan, Nurul Asyikin M. (PETRONAS) | Salleh, Nurfarah Izwana (PETRONAS) | Chandrakant, Ashvin Avalani (PETRONAS) | Rusman, Liyana (PETRONAS) | Zamanuri, Kautsar (PETRONAS) | Bakar, Azfar Israa Abu (PETRONAS) | Yip, Pui Mun (PETRONAS) | Jamaluddin, M. Helmi (PETRONAS) | Ghonim, Elsayed Ouda (PETRONAS) | Nambiar, Vijay (Novomet) | Alexander, Euan (Artificial Lift Solutions)
Following the first pilot success of the truly rigless 3-1/2" tubing cable deployed ESP (TTESP-CD in offshore field of Sarawak Basin, PETRONAS has taken steps to further advance in the technology development and application through more replications within Sarawak and Malay Basin. PETRONAS had been looking into a strong business case for the TTESP-CD technology for a wider application throughout Malaysia region by looking at fields with strong/moderate water drive and low bubble point pressure besides having other limitations on the platform including the facilities reliability issues. TTESP-CD are to be applied widely in Malaysia with more flexibilities in design and improvement towards the subsurface equipment, installation equipment and procedures. With the challenges in the existing completion and production requirement for replications, based on the lesson learnt from the pilot implementation, multiple improvements to the system have been done including; 1) A High Rate Slim Pump with Flexible Application 2) Alignment Tool for Cable Hanger Orientation. With this in place, more opportunities identified for the candidate selection which improve the installation philosophy specifically in dual string applications and enhance the efficiency in installation procedures. Case studies of TTESP-CD replications in Malay & Sarawak Basin for Field T, Field B and Field P presenting the best case for TTESP-CD application with improvement to design, equipment and application. These will bring additional value to PETRONAS with estimated production gain of 1.5 KBD and up to 1.2 MMSTB reserves to be monetized with additional value saving of up to RM 6 Mill. Besides the subsurface challenges, aging offshore assets brings a lot of challenges, especially on the space availability, structural integrity, power availability and distribution, instrumentation and data transmission. This requires an integrated approach from multiple disciplines in delivering the studies as per required within the targeted timeframe.
The 2015 oil price downturn and future uncertainty in the industry have resulted in Malaysia Oil and Gas Regulator PETRONAS (MPM) taking a more proactive role in driving Malaysian Petroleum Arrangement Contractors (PACs) to maximize lifecycle value from their well stock. Key focus areas include streamlining review processes, reducing well cost, maximizing production from active wells and reactivating idle wells, reducing failures from well activities, driving value driven surveillance and promoting low cost well abandonment. This paper will focus on how the objective & value driven approach by PETRONAS MPM have resulted in business performance improvements at the national level through proactive and effective well value maximization throughout field/well lifecycle, from exploration stage down to the decommissioning and abandonment stage.
Lv, Zuobin (Tianjin Branch of CNOOC Ltd.) | Gao, Hongli (Tianjin Branch of CNOOC Ltd.) | Cheng, Qi (Tianjin Branch of CNOOC Ltd.) | Cheng, Dayong (Tianjin Branch of CNOOC Ltd.) | Meng, Zhiqiang (Tianjin Branch of CNOOC Ltd.)
JZS is an offshore metamorphic rock buried hill oilfield. Both horizontal and vertical velocities of the oil field change very fast. The interval velocity of the buried hill stratum is twice that of the overlying strata, and the top surface of the buried hill fluctuates greatly with a maximum height difference of 300m. In the complex buried hill reservoir, since the current professional seismic software can not realize variable time-depth relationship in horizontal direction, which leads to the error of the trajectory form and position of the horizontal well in time domain, therefore the well trajectory in time domain is not matched with that in depth.
In this paper, a new practical trajectories matching method for buried hill horizontal wells in time domain and in depth is presented. First of all, we carried on the research on the theoretical form of horizontal well trajectory in buried hill in time domain. The research shows that the theoretical trajectory form of a horizontal well in buried hill is consistent with trend of the buried hill top surface morphology. On the basis of theoretical research, by establishing the pseudo time-depth relationship of horizontal well based on measure depth (MD) and seismic reflection two way time (TWT), we realized the accurate characterization of the trajectory form and position of a horizontal well in buried hill in time domain: (1)For normal horizontal well with no more than 90 degrees inclination angle, we can respectively establish the pseudo time-depth relationship of the horizontal well in buried hill segment and in upper segment, and then merge both time-depth relationship data into a whole; (2)For the complex horizontal well with well segment whose inclination angle is more than 90 degrees, we need firstly split the well trajectory into normal well segment and complex segment according to inclination angle, then establish the pseudo time-depth relationship in normal and complex well segments respectively. More specifically, we can split the trajectory into normal trajectory segment with the inclination angle no more than 90 degrees and complex trajectory segment with the inclination angle more than 90 degrees, for normal segment, we can establish pseudo time-depth relationship like the normal horizontal well described earlier, for complex trajectory segment, we need creatively invert the top and bottom of the complex segment to convert inclination angle of the segment to within 90 degrees, and then establish pseudo time-depth relationship of the inverted segment.
Through this method, we can obtain the accurate trajectory form and position of the horizontal well in time domain and it provides a basis for accurate geological modeling based on 3D seismic attributes constrains. The real reservoir performance of JZS buried oilfield in Bohai Bay in China has proved that the 3D geological model based on the new time-depth relationship (MD&TWT) of the horizontal wells is closer to the actual reservoir.
This paper presents an alternative solution for gas cloud imaging using full wavefield migration (FWM). The application of FWM method have been applied on both synthetic dataset with gas cloud event and existing field with gas cloud issue. The full wavefield migration is an inversion-based imaging algorithm that utilizes the complete reflection measurements: primaries as well as all multiples, both surface and internal to obtain the total reflections measurement. It combines the primary and higher order scattering reflection from the gas cloud to estimate the true amplitude response below the gas cloud. Successful applications to both synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that FWM improves the imaging illumination and resolution below gas cloud as compared to conventional migration.
Ng, Sok Mooi (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Khan, Riaz (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Isnadi, Biramarta (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Lee, Luong Ann (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Saminal, Siti Nurshamshinazzatulbalqis (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.)
The objective of this paper is to share the holistic approach to managing aging fleet for offshore fixed steel structures. PETRONAS is currently operating a fleet of more than 200 fixed offshore structures in Malaysian water. More than half of it has exceeded the original design life. With enhanced oil recovery and other developing technologies, offshore platforms often than not are required to continue operating beyond its original design life.
A holistic approach for life extension of fixed offshore structures are being developed to ensure safe operations of the facilities. PETRONAS has started SIM journey since 2007. The approach of Data, Evaluation, Strategy and Programme in line with API RP 2SIM set the basis for managing the integrity of the offshore fleet. An integrated solution was developed to manage both topsides and substructures. The Structural Integrity Compliance System (SICS) which houses the integrity management of topsides deteriorations to prioritize resources through risk based anomalies management. Risk based underwater inspection also formed part of the solutions, addressing mainly extreme storm in the region. Other Major Accidental Hazards (MAHs) risk ranking included in SICS are vessel collision and seismic. Management of facilities with minimal redundancy such as guyed wire monopod is addressed through time based inspection. A regional hazard curve is also developed to ensure the facilities are meeting the acceptance criteria set forth by the industry.
Besides aging, other integrity triggers including shallow gas and subsidence required a different scheme in managing the integrity of the facilities, primarily addressed through a comprehensive monitoring programme.
There is no one size fit all recipe in managing the aged platforms for life extension. The data plays a crucial role in ensuring the right methodology is deployed in support of digitalization and data driven decision making. Implementation of the system is proven to be reliable in ensuring the offshore fixed structures are intact to support safe and continuous operations to the operator in a cost optimum manner. The data analytics help to enhance the predictive model to optimize the inspection and maintenance programme.
Strong ownership and commitment of the structural integrity engineers in ensuring the data integrity maintain the challenge in sustainability of the system and provide reliable source for data driven decision making to the operator.
Category: Operational Excellence (136 - Managing Aging Facilities)
Klemens is a research assistant and PhD candidate in Petroleum Engineering (within Earth Science & Engineering program) at King Abdullah University of Science & Technology (founded by Saudi Aramco) focusing on Multi-Data reservoir history matching utilizing ensemble Kalman-based techniques. His work has been presented at several conferences amongst others at the IPTC 2014 and the OTC Asia 2014 and in an invited talk at the Petroleum Engineering Department at Texas A&M. Klemens has come 2nd place in the IPTC YP Poster competition in 2014, 2nd place in the graduate division at the Middle East & South Asia Student Paper Contest 2013 and 2014. As the president of the SPE KAUST Student Chapter he has led chapter to qualify for the PetroBowl 2013 and 2014, as well as led the SPE KAUST Student Chapter to become an outstanding student chapter of the year 2014, the first time in the history of Saudi Arabia.
Sazali, Wan Muhammad Luqman (Petronas Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Md Shah, Sahriza Salwani (Petronas Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Kashim, M. Zuhaili (Petronas Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Kantaatmadja, Budi Priyatna (Petronas Research Sdn. Bhd.) | Knuefing, Lydia (Australian National University) | Young, Benjamin (Thermo Fisher Scientific)
PETRONAS is interested in monetizing X Field, a high CO2 carbonate gas field located in East Malaysian waters. Because of its location (more than 200 km from shore) and the preferable geological formation of the field, reinjection of produced CO2 back into the field's aquifer has been considered as part of the field development plan. To ensure feasibility, the PETRONAS R&D team has conducted a set of laboratory analyses to observe the impact of CO2 on the carbonate formations, through combining the use of static CO2 batch reaction experiments with advanced helical digital core analysis techniques. The analysis of two representative samples, from the aquifer zone is presented here. The initial state of the samples was determined through the use of theoretically exact helical micro computed tomography (microCT) techniques. The images were processed digitally to determine the porosity and calibrated with RCA to ensure the reliability of digital core analysis results. After scanning, both plugs were saturated with synthetic brine with similar composition as the fields' formation brine and aged with supercritical CO2 at reservoir temperature and pressure for 45 days. After 45 days, the aged core plugs underwent post reaction analysis using micro-CT scan and image processing software. Based on macroscopic observation, the core plugs showed no changes after aging with supercritical CO2 at high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) as per reservoir condition. However, analysing the high resolution micro CT images, the team was able to determine the changes in porosity before and after CO2 aging, which are around 1%.
One of the primary functions of Saudi Aramco Gas-Oil Separation Plants (also known as GOSPs) is to separate emulsified water from the crude. The water is typically highly concentrated with salt, so crude desalting is required to meet the standard quality specifications. GOSPs are typically designed with standard Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers to control demulsifier and wash water flow for injection into wet crude. Demulsifier and wash water injection rates are normally left to operator judgement. The challenge with manual adjustment of flowrate is the high risk of overdosing or underdosing as there are several variables that impact the required demulsifier and wash water rates. Overdosing will result in wastage of demulsifier and wash water and higher operating expenditures. Underdosing may lead to operational upsets and potentially off-spec crude production.
To overcome this challenge, innovative schemes (Smart Demulsifier Control & Wash Water Ratio Control) have been developed in-house. Smart Demulsifier Control optimizes the separation efficiency (or percentage of total produced water separated) of an upstream High Pressure Production Trap (HPPT or 3-Phase Separator) based on a dynamic target by adjusting the demulsifier injection rate and concentration in the wet crude. Simultaneously, wash water ratio control ensures that an adequate wash water rate is injected to satisfy salt-in-crude specifications. These control schemes eliminate the need for operators to determine the required dosage rate, thereby avoiding both overdosing and underdosing of demulsifier and wash water.
The Smart Demulsifier Control (SDC) scheme controls demulsifier injection using two control layers. The first layer controls the Concentration of the Demulsifier in the Wet Crude so that demulsifier flow is automatically adjusted based on the Production Rate to achieve the set point concentration determined by the second layer of control. The second layer adjusts the demulsifier concentration to control the Separation Efficiency of the HPPT, or the amount of water separated in the HPPT vs. the Dehydrator, to achieve the Target Separation Efficiency Set Point determined by a site specific process model. In case of a dehydrator upset, another PID controller with more aggressive tuning will override the HPPT Separation PID Controller to set the required demulsifier concentration to mitigate the upset.
Wash water ratio control scheme controls the flow of wash water to ensure that the salt-in-crude specification is met. A site specific target ratio is determined through a salt mass balance.
These innovative controls have reduced desalting train upsets by 78% as the process related upsets are practically eliminated. This is achieved while optimizing the demulsifier dosage where 20-40% of demulsifier dosage reduction was realized, especially during the winter season. Moreover, savings of 20% wash water have been achieved throughout the utilization of these self-calculated and smart controls that were developed in-house with minimal costs.
Thomas, Gawain (Aramco Services Company) | Ow, Hooisweng (Aramco Services Company) | Chang, Sehoon (Aramco Services Company) | Shi, Rena (Aramco Services Company) | Wang, Wei (Aramco Services Company) | Chen, Hsieh (Aramco Services Company) | Poitzsch, Martin (Aramco Services Company) | Shateeb, Hussain (Saudi Aramco) | Abdel-Fattah, Amr (Saudi Aramco)
A novel barcoded advanced tracers system has been developed and field-validated in a hydrocarbon reservoir. With a detection scheme that supports automation, this cost-effective tracers system is designed to enable potentially ubiquitous long-term full-field injections in the interest of using the high fidelity tracer data to increase the oil recovery factor through improved optimization of the water injection and oil production.
Our Advanced Tracers system uses real-time chromatographic separation and optical detection to achieve ultra-low limits of detection (LOD) at 1 part per billion (ppb) or better. Such low LOD facilitates small injection quantities, making full field deployment of Advanced Tracers cost-effective compared to state-of-the-art interwell tracers. Additionally, the detection strategy that enables automation of the analysis process for real-time tracer detection is outlined, paving way for minimal manual sample collection and work-up.
Results on recently field-validated real-time optically-detectable tracers in a hydrocarbon reservoir, detectable at ultra-low LODs, are described. This is achieved even in the presence of background oil by means of an intrinsically oil-blind detection method. The material exhibits high mobility in high-salinity high-temperature carbonate reservoirs, with tracer breakthrough successfully detected at concentrations of less than 1 ppb using chromatographic separation followed by an optical detection method. The novel methodology as outlined highlights its simplicity, safety and cost-effectiveness relative to current practices in the field.
Fluorobenzoic acid based tracer technology requires chemical derivatization of the samples for ultra-low detection limits in a GC-MS. Our novel tracer detection strategy omits the need for chemical derivatization. In addition, it enables a compact, portable, optical-based automated wellsite detection system to be used in the field, with tens of unique barcodes possible. These innovative steps are keys to near real-time tracer detection in the field, realizing one of the intelligent oil field monitoring and the reservoir management applications.
Data Analytics is an emerging area that involves using advanced statistical and machine learning algorithms to discover information & relationsips present in different types of data. The work described in this paper illustrates the application of machine learning techniques to an Oilfield Advanced Process Control (APC) project involving deployment of APC at a large onshore conventional oilfield in Saudi Aramco. APC implementation enables better control and optimization of the production from hundreds of oilwells. APC rollout at the large oilfield involved APC deployment on 300 oil wells. Using conventional APC implementation methodology, the rollout would be very difficult to manage and would have taken about 3 man years which was not practical. Use of innovative data analytics techniques was essential to ensuring the timely deployment of such a large scale APC project. A machine learning algorithm used to cluster similarly behaving wells, enabled significant (80%) reduction in the engineering effort and operator involvement in developing the models for each well. This allowed the implementation to be completed one year in advance thus realizing the APC benefits earlier than planned.