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Baker Hughes announced it has deployed its industry-leading remote operations digital technology across Aramco's drilling operations, encompassing more than 200 sites, the largest deployment of its kind in Baker Hughes' history. Building upon Aramco's existing data-management infrastructure and capabilities, the project involves data aggregation from the edge; real-time, unified data streaming and visualization; data management; software-development services; rig-site digital engineers; and monitoring personnel. "This remote operations deployment, the largest in Baker Hughes' history, is a strong example of how we are investing for growth with customers who are driving digital transformation at a rapid pace, such as Aramco," said Maria Claudia Borras, executive vice president of oilfield services at Baker Hughes. "We will continue to expand our upstream digital capabilities to transform core operations, improve efficiency and reduce emissions." Baker Hughes' technology, delivered through the WellLink solution, includes the following benefits that build on Aramco's current digital capabilities: By connecting all drilling sites, Aramco enhances its view of its drilling operations in real time.
This issue marks the debut of the Hydraulic Fracturing Operations feature in JPT. While hydraulic fracturing has long been a feature topic, this year, we are branching this major area of interest into both this feature and a Hydraulic Fracturing Modeling feature, which will appear in the November issue of the magazine. For this issue, reviewer Nabila Lazreq of ADNOC has selected three papers that reflect industry efforts to achieve new goals in production and sustainability. Paper 201450 investigates the potential of natural gas (NG) foam fracturing fluid to reduce the major water requirements seen in stimulation. The authors write that such requirements can be reduced up to 80% in some cases by the use of NG foams.
In earlier days, the main technology developments were mostly related to the materials, such as fluids and proppants, and their characterizations. In recent years, more advancements have been made in tools, engineering processes, and analyses. In a cased-hole fracturing treatment, perforating plays a critical role to the success of the job, though it is often overlooked because perforations are visualized as holes with empty tunnel behind the pipe. Any damage is irrelevant because fracturing will simply bypass the damage. In fact, a shaped charge is made of metal liner and case with explosive loaded in between.
Abstract The drilling industry faces several challenges related to downhole vibration; amongst the solutions introduced to alleviate those challenges, a unique Axial Agitation System is often considered. This paper qualitatively analyses the effect of the Axial Agitation System in directional drilling and quantifies how it addresses the above challenges observed in Rotary Steerable System (RSS) Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) used in the 8.5 in. section in different wells of the ADNOC Offshore mature field. The Axial Agitation System consists of Axial Oscillation Tool which generates a pressure pulse from a valve driven by mud flow converted to axial motion by The Shock Tool. The system complements the rotational movement of the string by introducing gentle and consistent axial oscillating motion. The drill string moves around its rotational axis, oscillating along its axial axis reducing kinetic frictional losses from interaction with the wellbore, especially in directional and long lateral sections. The analysis consisted in comparing drilling dynamics metrics between wells with AAS in the drill string and offset wells without it, in the 8.5in hole section. As a pilot project, the system was introduced into Well A. Based on the successful tests in the pilot well; the system was also utilized in Wells B & C. The metrics include, but are not limited to, drilling activities, surface mechanical indicators, downhole data from the RSS as well as mathematical modelled algorithms. The results of the analysis of wells clearly indicate an enhancement into the drilling dynamics in terms of overall reduction in kinetic friction, improved weight transfer, less hanging and levels of torsional dynamics, shocks and vibration. The collateral benefits also included performance improvement, reduced non-productive time (NPT) and lower mechanical specific energy (MSE) to drill the section. The Axial Agitation System complemented very well with the rotary steerable system as well as other BHA components and delivered consistent performance in all three wells. High amplitude fine-tuned Axial Agitation System paired with RSS BHA creates a combination of a highly efficient directional system. The results are consistently performance with reduction in the shock and vibration levels in the environment. This also benefits in improving tool reliability, directional control while also optimizing the repair and maintenance costs for the downhole tools.
Abstract Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) has steadily advanced toward the use of a casing running tool (CRT) vs. conventional casing running methods to improve efficiency and safety. This advancement focused mainly on 9 ⅝ in to 20 in diameter casing and utilized internal grip tools. Recently they have searched for an external-grip CRT system that would allow them to effectively run the smaller diameter liners of both ferrous and chrome (Cr) materials, especially in the extended reach drilling (ERD) wells with maximum reservoir contact (MRC). For 20 years CRT companies manufactured tools with gripping dies that could efficiently run ferrous material liners. Development of gripping mechanisms which can effectively run corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) materials has been met with varying success. Some of the challenges are to manufacture gripping dies from non-ferrous materials that will not contaminate the CRA liner and develop a gripping pattern that does not mark the CRA liner more than is accepted by API 5CRA industry standards, but maintain effective gripping force. In addition to hoisting and making up the string with no slippage it needs to perform fluid circulation at 3,000 psi. Until recently the liners were typically run in a conventional method using power-tongs. One of the tools chosen for the trial runs was a well-proven, external-grip mechanical CRT designed specifically for smaller diameter casing and liners. It has a 500-ton hoist capacity and a 5,000 psi circulation rating and was packaged with a combination float and cushion tool and a wireless torque turn sub. Dies had been designed to meet the non-contamination and acceptable marking criteria previously mentioned and would be compatible with liners possessing as much as 25% Cr. The dies had been extensively lab-tested, including heavy pull tests and torque application tests, but had not previously been used in field applications. The ERD-MRC well chosen for this trial was planned to have a record length of 6 ⅝ in, 24 ppf, 13% Cr liner with a wedge thread premium connection. In addition to not contaminating the liner, ADNOC expected an average running speed in joints per hour equivalent to the conventional casing running methods and a reduction in time during circulations. The result of the trial was 589 connections (25,035 ft liner length) successfully run with an average running speed matching their expectations. The liner displayed very minimal marks and there were no issues when hoisting or torqueing the connections. In addition, there were no rejected connections during the run. This publication will review the preparation for the run, actual run details, photos of the die marks, torque graphs and conclusions expressed by the operator with recommendations for changes moving forward.
Abstract Since the implementation of the Drilling Performance Department in late 2017, ADNOC Offshore has been able to develop a company performance-oriented culture among the drilling teams. This performance culture is reflected in 25% ILT reduction in 2018 and 12% in 2019. Furthermore, 37 NPT RCA cases were investigated and concluded in 2019, which resulted in 57 actions for tracking and closure. With 5 (five) concessions, 9 (nine) different shareholders, and 39 (thirty-nine) rigs, drilling performance management is challenging. ADNOC Offshore created a centralized Drilling Performance Team to capitalize on this diversity as an opportunity to improve the traditional drilling performance role. This paper describes the team's approach on Drilling Performance and the consecutive result. The team enhances the typical drilling performance role of Key Performance Indicator (KPI) management and reporting by adopting the Performance Opportunity Time (POT) and Root Cause Analysis (RCA) Process. At the same time, the Drilling Performance Team facilitates the flow of information between teams to ensure effective knowledge transfer within such a large organization. The POT concept tackles the well duration reduction through the reduction of Invisible Lost Time (ILT) and Non-Productive Time (NPT). To reduce the ILT, the team took advantage of the extensive technical background in the various drilling teams. Performance improvement initiatives were proposed by taking references from different teams within ADNOC Offshore and evaluating the application in other concession. Other approach is to compare with out-of-company references. For NPT reduction, the innovative approach was to use the HSE Root Cause Analysis (RCA) concept. This RCA process led by the Drilling Performance Team was implemented to standardize the approach and have a systematic investigation analysis. This process resulted in identifying root causes and effective corrective action plans. As per HSE, addressing the root causes of incidents would result in the most significant impact in NPT. This approach also allows an independent and more detailed look on the subjects, where commonly these tasks are done in a limited manner by drilling teams alone with their ongoing operational workload. Finally, results are communicated to the drilling organization through lessons learned portal and technical bulletins.
While the widespread adoption of lower-carbon technologies could create uncertainty and may be perceived as a threat to the global oil and gas industry, it opens new opportunities for investment. According to consulting firm Deloitte, the global oil and gas industry has the opportunity to redeploy as much as $838 billion, or about 20% of cumulative capital expenditures, during the next 10 years. With this opportunity comes a portfolio-management conundrum for companies across the industry: capture the remaining value in hydrocarbons or decide if, when, and to what extent to shift their portfolios in favor of new growth areas including renewables and new-energy ventures. For the purpose of its recent study into portfolio management in oil and gas, Deloitte defines a portfolio as the products, services, and business units that a company owns or invests in and defines portfolio strategy as deciding a company's products, services, and business units rather than its overarching business strategy, which includes plans and actions that outline how a company will compete in particular markets. The oil and gas industry saw a complete reversal of its fortunes in the past decade, with prices going from their peak to subzero, prime blue-chip companies being reduced to "speculative stock," and the world's largest initial public offering (Saudi Aramco) taking place alongside mass bankruptcies.
Abstract During a drilling operation, rock cuttings are often sampled off a shale shaker for lithology and petrophysical characterization. These analyses play an important role in describing the subsurface; and it is important that the depth origin of the cuttings be accurately determined. Traditionally, mud-loggers determine the depth origin of the sampled cuttings by calculating the lag time required for the cuttings to travel from the bit to the surface. These calculations, however, can contain inaccuracies in the depth correlation due to the shuffling and settling of cuttings as they travel with drilling fluid to the surface, due to unplanned conditions like drilling an overgauge hole, and due to other unforeseen drilling events, especially critical in horizontal sections. We therefore aimed to remedy these inaccuracies by developing a series of styrene-based nanoparticles that tagged the cuttings as they were generated at the drillbit. These “NanoTags” were tested while drilling in Q4, 2019; and the results indicated that the NanoTags did in fact have the potential to identify some systematic errors compared with traditional mud logging calculations.
Abstract Logging while drilling (LWD) ultrasonic imaging tools have been recently introduced for slim hole size. Due to fundamental differences in data acquisition methodologies with other previously utilized LWD and wireline imaging techniques, field trials have been performed with the objective of validating and evaluating the new ultrasonic tool’s measurement. Ultrasonic imagers have been deployed in multiple wells of different environments and formation characteristics to evaluate the tool’s measurement quality and potential applications. The trials were performed in carbonate and clastic formations, horizontal and vertical trajectories, oil- and water-based drilling fluid systems, and in drilling and wipe operations. An LWD ultrasonic imager has also been deployed back to back with wireline. Multiple passes were performed to evaluate the time dependency and hole deterioration effect. In water-based mud, an ultrasonic imaging tool was run in the same bottomhole assembly with the proven LWD laterolog resistivity imager for the comparison of both technologies. In addition to stratigraphic dips, bed boundaries, fractures, faults, and other geological features usually detected by other imaging techniques, ultrasonic imaging tools also provided high measurement sensitivity for detecting geometric features relating to wellbore shape and wellbore stability. LWD microresistivity-based image comparisons indicated a robust correlation of the fractured zones contributing to lost circulation while drilling. Multiple passes for drilling and wipe images with wireline comparisons logged days after the LWD run clearly illustrated the time-dependency of the image quality due to borehole deterioration, invasion, and progression of geomechanical effects used to benchmark future data acquisition requirements. This paper evaluates the capabilities and performance of ultrasonic imaging tools in comparison with other LWD and wireline high-resolution imaging sensors.
Abstract Spectral gamma-ray (SGR) data were acquired from a new slim logging-while-drilling (LWD) tool and from surface cuttings in a near vertical well and in a horizontal well across clastic deposits. Comparison of the data from both measurements indicates that there are advantages from both methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data from cuttings also support the findings. The formation evaluation objective is to quantify the volumes of each mineral and fluid present in the formation. SGR data brings the required additional information to reduce the mineral volume uncertainty, especially for the clays in the formation with complex mineral assemblages. In the studied clastic deposits, several clay types are present (with the dominant contribution from illite and kaolinite) together with feldspars and trace elements like zircon and other heavy minerals. The presence of gas introduces another unknown, since it affects the porosity measurements and fluid volume calculation through bulk density and neutron porosity. The comparison of SGR data from LWD logs and from cuttings brings robustness to our conclusions. Comparison of the thorium, potassium, and uranium concentrations from LWD logs and from cuttings shows good agreement in the measurements for the low-angle well. The high-angle well data also shows good agreement between the two measurements except for the cleaner sand section. The results from the cuttings are affected by the accuracy of sample depth control due to the poor borehole conditions and inefficiency in evacuating cuttings in high-angle wells compared to low-angle wells. The trend of the SGR is maintained. The LWD SGR elemental concentrations are then used to solve the formation mineral fractions, which are compared with the same fractions from the XRD on cuttings. Similar conclusions are drawn for the elemental concentrations. The potassium concentration enables the quantification of illite and potassium feldspar. Uranium brings a significant contribution to the total GR measurement, which could lead to a clay volume overestimation if the uranium contributions weren’t excluded. In conclusion, LWD provides superior quality SGR data compared with SGR from cuttings because of the better depth control and vertical resolution. SGR on cuttings can be an alternative when combined with other LWD measurements and accepting a higher uncertainty, in case LWD SGR cannot be run due to certain borehole conditions. This paper compares the results of a slim tool LWD and cuttings SGR data for the first time and concludes on the applicability of each technique.