In this paper we will set out how we maximise the value created by the digital revolution through the use Systems Thinking and Agile techniques to establish a FEL 0-1 Digital Twin, we will then describe how we use a BIM approach to evolve this Digital Twin through the project lifecycle; fostering collaboration, breaking down siloes, creating and protecting value as we do so. Two case studies, one an offshore gas compression project and the other a normally unmanned wellhead installation, will be presented to demonstrate the application and effectiveness of this approach.
No matter what industry or activity, when a human is performing a task, there is a possibility that the person carrying out that task could make an error. There are numerous studies showing the contribution of poor procedures towards human error, which led to an incident, ranges between 65-90%. Process Safety Management legislation such as Seveso III and OSHA 1910.119, require the use of procedures when executing safety critical tasks and as such regulators have recognized the importance of having a set of good quality procedures as part of the management of human factors.
As companies begin to embrace the concepts of digitalization and big data, the main challenge still remains … ‘how do we make a step change in reducing human error in heavily paper based operating and maintenance procedures?’
This paper will provide examples of how poor procedures have led to human error causing across industry incidents, introduce the background to human factors with respect to procedures and explain some of human error categories to which people are susceptible. The paper will then explain the road map approach that the UK regulator (UK Health and Safety Executive) has adopted as part of their Human Factors Delivery Guide. The paper then shows how the energy industry's approach return these procedures back into a paper format, fails to take advantage of available digital technologies to make the step changes in reducing human error.
This paper shows that incidents continue to occur in all industries due to human error in procedures and shows how the drive from the regulator to perform Critical Tasks Analysis can actually lead to procedures becoming less useable (f these reviews are not performed correctly). The paper will then show how taking a digital approach to meeting these new regulatory requirements provides the opportunity to digitize existing operating and maintenance procedures, enabling a structured, efficient and auditable approach to theses assessments. The paper will also show how the adoption of the available digital technologies provide new performance influencing techniques that are not available in paper-based systems.
The paper will also show how emerging technologies such as Augmented Reality can further enable the transition to these new technologies and how big data, can provide additional continuous improvements in procedures, ensure appropriate competencies are in place for field workers performing tasks and also introduce significant efficiencies to lower operation costs.
Human error continues to contribute significantly to incidents in the energy and other industries. To address this, regulators, such as the UK Health and Safety Executive, are placing new requirements on operating companies to ensure the risks associated with errors in procedures are managed more effectively. The opportunity to make a step change in reducing human error, whilst also providing an efficient work flow, will lead to safer working environments, reduce potential impacts on the environment and also provide efficiencies for operation and maintenance teams, which will lead to savings in Operational Expenditure.
We all identify the need to integrate climate change into corporate strategy, with a profitable Carbon Capture Utilisation & Storage (CCUS) business model the elusive goal. Today, CCUS forms 10% of the R&D program of Total, a founding contributor to the OGCI Climate Investments fund. Here in the North East of Scotland, UK and Scottish Governments, along with project developer Pale Blue Dot Energy and Total are providing match funding to the European Commission’s Connecting Europe Facilities fund to progress feasibility work on the Acorn CCS project. As society continues to drive an expectation beyond hydrocarbons, what proposal might the North East of Scotland offer in response?
To meet ambitious emissions reduction targets, the UK must envisage radical changes to the energy economy. Already affecting power generation, these changes must drive further into transport and domestic/industrial energy consumption. Two technologies which may play a part in the decarbonisation of the UK energy business are CCUS and the use of Hydrogen as an energy carrier and energy store, with several studies showing that clean hydrogen is potentially the lowest cost route to meeting UK emission targets in multiple sectors. This builds on the UK’s world class gas network infrastructure, which can be repurposed to avoid becoming stranded, avoiding the enormous expense of increasing the capacity of the electricity transmission network, much of which would lie idle during the summer. The UK gas network carries approximately three times more energy than the electricity network, at one third the unit cost to consumers, and meets winter peaks that are five times greater.
Different to previous CCUS projects, and having the Oil and Gas Authority (OGA)’s first carbon dioxide appraisal and storage licence award, ACORN is an opportunity to evaluate a brownfield CCUS solution to capture, transport and store post-combustion CO2, combined with an upside through emerging pre-combustion CO2 capture technology relating to the production and sale of bulk hydrogen produced from natural gas with a zero-emission target. Located at the St Fergus Gas Terminal – an active industrial site where around 35% of all the natural gas used in the UK comes onshore. ACORN is designed as a "low-cost", "low-risk" CCUS project, to be built quickly, taking advantage of existing oil and gas infrastructure and well understood offshore storage sites. The Acorn Hydrogen project undertakes to evaluate and develop an advanced reformation process which will deliver the most energy and cost-efficient industrial hydrogen production process whilst capturing and sequestering CO2 emissions. An initial phase offers a full-chain demonstration project, an essential step toward commissioning the concept and subsequent commercialisation of large-scale CCUS and Hydrogen deployment in the UK.
SPE Offshore Europe represents an ideal opportunity to update both the region and industry on results, observations, and conclusions with respect to the evolving development architecture, selected process technologies, Government and gas transportation regulatory engagement as this, the leading Scottish CCS project continues its journey toward a final investment decision.
The Scottish Government has been urged to explain its position on hydraulic fracturing after telling a judge that no ban is in place and ministers still have to make up their minds. Scotland will block hydraulic fracturing indefinitely after a public consultation found overwhelming opposition to the practice, the British region’s energy minister said on 3 October in a victory for environmentalists.
Bravo is the second of four platforms to be decommissioned and removed from the Brent field, following Brent Delta in 2017. The field has produced approximately 3 billion boe since 1976. A panel of UK government officials and industry executives discuss opportunities to increase efficiency in North Sea decommissioning programs.
The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate has given clearance to start up facilities at the North Sea field, which straddles the line between the UK and Norwegian sectors. Production is set to begin in September. Hydroniq will deliver a hull-integrated seawater cooling system for a cable-laying vessel the Norwegian shipbuilder Vard is designing and building for Prysmian Group. Construction for the field’s second processing platform begins on the same day the Norwegian authorities approved the plan for development and operation for the biggest field development on the Norwegian continental shelf. The new deals, valued at approximately $2.9 billion over 3 years, cover services for liner hangers, downhole monitoring, and additional completions on the NCS.
The decision comes a year after Neptune stopped production from the North Sea gas field, and 4 months after it submitted decommissioning plans to the UK authorities. The Neptune-operated project is on track to start drilling later this year, with first oil scheduled for the end of 2020. The Norwegian North Sea field is expected to produce 30,000 BOE/D at its peak. Norwegian authorities approved development plans for Duva and Gjøa P1, both of which are expected to produce first oil in late 2020. The fields will each tie back to the Gjøa platform on the Norwegian Continental Shelf.
The subsea operations company said its most recent campaign is the first fully unmanned offshore pipeline inspection completed “over the horizon,” surveying up to 100 km from the shore. One of the largest industrial projects in the UK in recent years, Mariner marks Equinor’s first operated field on the UK Continental Shelf. It is expected to produce 70,000 BOPD at peak rates. The Norwegian Petroleum Directorate has given clearance to start up facilities at the North Sea field, which straddles the line between the UK and Norwegian sectors. Lundin reports that the hookup and commissioning of installed facilities at the large North Sea field is progressing as planned.
Cianella, Roberto (Secretariat of the Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations) | Ferrari, Marco (University of Bologna) | Macini, Paolo (University of Bologna) | Mesini, Ezio (University of Bologna & Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations)
Currently, in the European Union (EU) law, the Directive 2013/30/EU concerning the safety of offshore operations in the Oil and Gas industry is in force. The European Commission, by means of this legislative instrument, fixed the minimum safety standards for the prospection, research and production of hydrocarbons in offshore environments. In 2015, thanks to the transposition of this Directive, the Italian government adapted to the European legislative framework in terms of safety of offshore Oil and Gas activities.
The main innovative aspect introduced in the Italian transposition Decree is the institution, by governmental appointment, of the Committee for the Safety of Offshore Operations (CSOO). With the aim of prevent relevant accidents in offshore Oil and Gas operations, the Committee, on one hand performs the functions of Competent Authority with powers of regulation, supervision and control, and on the other hand it is completely independent from the function of offshore license issue.
By transposing the Directive 2013/30/EU, it was possible to define the strategy for the control of the safety of offshore Oil and Gas infrastructures, providing the obligation for Operators to draw up a Report on Major Hazards (RoMH), which must be submitted to the CSOO. Aim of this report is to describe the technical peculiarities and the relevant performances of offshore installations in terms of health, safety and environment. In addition, to develop a detailed risk assessment, Operators are required to produce specific documentation such as the corporate major accidents prevention policy, the safety and environmental management system, the scheme of independent verification and the internal emergency response plan. To ensure that the safety and environmental critical elements identified in the risk assessment are adequate and the program for their monitoring is suitable, up-to-date and enforced, the figure of the Independent Verifier is introduced. Regardless of the verification carried out by this third party, the responsibility for the correct functioning of the systems undergoing verification is always traceable to the Operator. Finally, the task of defining and implementing processes and procedures for the evaluation of the RoMH and the relating documentation is entrusted to the CSOO.
Aim of this novel regulatory tool is to increase the safety level of offshore operations, by integrating the pre-existing legislative framework on the safety and protection of the sea from pollution, which in Italy has so far guaranteed the achievement of high safety levels for workers and the environment. Thanks to a meticulous control activity carried out by the technical Offices of the Italian Ministry of Economic Development, it was possible to achieve this goal. The evaluation, performed by means of a public consultation (started in September 2018 and closed at the end of December 2018), is assessing whether the Offshore Safety Directive, as implemented by Member States, has achieved the objective to ensure safe operations.
Finally, the paper highlights the major discussion points that should be considered in assessing the common experiences of European Competent Authorities.