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Digital twins are nothing but the 3D digital replica of a physical thing. They have been in existence since the days computer-aided design became mainstream during the 1990s. However, they remained standalone replicas for the next 20 years until augmented reality (AR) became prominent in the gaming and entertainment industries. As TechNewsWorld notes, AR—often referred to as mixed reality—is an immersive and "interactive experience of a real-world environment where computer-generated perceptual information enhances real-world objects." The technology expands our physical world by adding a digital layer and generating the AR.
LinkedIn will also prompt users to add additional details like education, skills (ideally, add at least 5), and location. The main reason LinkedIn requests these details is so that user profiles will be fully optimized and searchable. For job seekers, this is vital to being found by talent acquisition specialists.
The influence of social media has created a lot of concern these days. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. In 2020, the global number of Facebook users is expected to reach 1.69 billion, up from 1.34 million in 2014. Nearly two-thirds of adults in the United States (68% to be precise) report that they are Facebook users. The usage of social media around the world continues to increase.
The influence of social media has created a lot of concern these days. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. In 2020, the global number of Facebook users is expected to reach 1.69 billion, up from 1.34 million in 2014. Nearly two-thirds of adults in the United States (68% to be precise) report that they are Facebook users. The usage of social media around the world continues to increase. Social media statistics from 2019 show that 3.5 billion people use social media worldwide, and this number is only growing.
The supply chain around the Internet of things (IoT) has become the weak link in cybersecurity, potentially leaving organizations open to cyberattacks via vulnerabilities they are not aware of. But a newly released set of guidelines aims to ensure that security forms part of the entire lifespan of IoT product development. The Guidelines for Securing the IoT—Secure Supply Chain for IoT report from the European Union Agency for Cybersecurity (ENISA) sets out recommendations throughout the entire IoT supply chain to help keep organizations protected from vulnerabilities which can arise when building connected things. One of the key recommendations is that cybersecurity expertise should be further integrated into all layers of organizations, including engineering, management, marketing, and others so anyone involved in any part of the supply chain has the ability to identify potential risks—hopefully spotting and addressing them at an early stage of the product development cycle and preventing them from becoming a major issue. It is also recommended that "security by design" is adopted at every stage of the IoT development process, focusing on careful planning and risk management to ensure that any potential security issues with devices are caught early.
When the first PCs were deployed in industrial automation environments during the 1980s, it was difficult to imagine how the information technology (IT) would influence the day to day operations of industrial organizations. For the last decade or so, the convergence of operational technology (OT) and information technology has been an important topic in organizations whose operations rely on industrial control systems.
The advantages of the IT/OT convergence are obvious – cost reduction, improved capabilities or greater efficiency. However, these advantages come with a cost as they have affected the way that industrial control systems operate and increased the exposure of ICS to cyber risks.
According to one research study, nearly 90% of organizations with connected OT infrastructures have experienced a security breach within their Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and Industrial Control Systems (SCADA/ICS) architectures, with more than half of those breaches occurring in just the previous 12 months.
A cloud-based augmented reality system is presented which is designed to enhance the real-time collaboration of domain experts involved in modeling large reservoirs. An evaluation of traditional techniques is compared with this new approach. Work-from-home (WFH) scenarios are becoming more important and, in some cases, critical. There is a need to untether the geologist and other domain experts from high end office-bound workstations.
Reservoir models in recent years have become increasingly large. The volume of seismic, well data and modeling data structures presents a challenge in both management of the data and making it accessible to domain experts and others. The traditional practice of siloing data in various disconnected data repositories in various corporate data centers is becoming increasingly untenable. What is needed is a comprehensive approach that scales to the largest models and is accessible anywhere for time critical analysis and collaboration. The authors have created a prototype of a potential solution to this problem, where the model resides in the cloud and can be visualized in augmented reality either as a hologram through a head mounted display or through the AR capabilities of tablets and smartphones. This technology is ideal for WFH scenarios: it is light weight, inexpensive and does not require broadband speeds in excess of what most home users can access.
What we have found is that AR based approaches to modeling large reservoirs can rival traditional workstation approaches. Furthermore, AR based approaches are superior for close collaboration among domain experts. Collaboration on 3D models has not changed significantly in a generation. For co-located personnel the approach is to gather around a 2D screen. For remote personnel the approach is sharing a model through a 2D screen along with video chat. Over the years various attempts have been tried to enhance the collaboration experience and have all fallen short. Virtual reality (VR) has been proposed as a solution. However, we have found that augmented reality (AR) is a much better solution for many reasons which are explored in the paper.
The cloud has been transformative for nearly every industry. The oil and gas industry has been slow to adopt cloud technologies for many reasons that have largely been overcome. AR has already acquired an impressive track record in various industries. AR will have applications in nearly all industries. For various historical reasons, the uptake for AR is much faster in some industries than others. It is too early to tell whether the use of cloud-based augmented reality for modeling large reservoirs will be transformative, however the results of this initial work are promising.
Protecting endpoint operating technologies (OT) is an increasingly important challenge for the energy sector. As energy companies continue to digitize existing assets and build new assets with intrinsic network connectivity, they present an ever-expanding attack surface to escalating attacks. Trends show that cyberattacks on OT targets have increased in frequency and sophistication. Meanwhile, structural mismatches in the life cycles and maintenance cycles present a challenging business case for companies seeking to defend assets, rendering current cybersecurity best practices both technically difficult and potentially unaffordable to sustain.
Overall, the energy industry has made tremendous progress in maturing cybersecurity capabilities. Yet current practices leave significant gaps due to lag between updates. Put simply, systems patched on Monday are powerless on Friday to stop attacks methods developed on Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday.
To meet this challenge and answer both the technical and the business case, future cybersecurity solutions need to meet clear requirements: They must function while isolated, remain potent between updates, provide flexibility for deployment in unique, widely varied OT configurations, and must meet or exceed the cost-benefit ratio of current practices. We believe that artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) solutions offer these characteristics, as well as ancillary benefits. This paper will describe in detail the current challenges faced by energy companies, the implications of observable industry trends, the characteristics that potential cybersecurity solutions must meet, and why we believe AI and ML technologies can meet these requirements now and in the future.
Use of robotics for subsea field developments became common practice during the last few decades. The development of unmanned aerial vehicles in conjunction with Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI), Cloud and Edge computing, the fast-evolving technologies, are opening new horizons for construction monitoring and supervision and facility inspection, maintenance and repair activities. This paper presents the results of TechnipFMC's latest investigations and tests to develop the use of advanced Unmanned Autonomous Systems (UAS's) to leverage the operational performance of some of its activities.
Intel and Cyberhawk released a case study outlining the successful inspection of a gas terminal near the coast of Scotland using commercially available drone technology. One of the defining features of the 21st century will undoubtedly be the changing relationship between humans and automated machines. In June, the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued the first approval for the overland use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in Alaska. Unmanned aircraft are finding their place in the oil and gas industry by providing aerial geologic modeling to address reservoir-related challenges and making inspections safer.