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Produced water is an inextricable part of the hydrocarbon recovery processes, yet it is by far the largest volume waste stream associated with hydrocarbon recovery. Water production estimates are in the order of 250 million B/D in 2007, for a water-to-oil ratio around 3:1, and are expected to increase to more than 300 million B/D between 2010 and 2012 (Figure 1, Dal Ferro and Smith 2007). Increasingly stringent environmental regulations require extensive treatment of produced water from oil and gas productions before discharge; hence the treatment and disposal of such volumes costs the industry annually more than USD 40 billion. Consequently, for oil and gas production wells located in water-scarce regions, limited freshwater resources in conjunction with the high treatment cost for produced water discharge makes beneficial reuse of produced water an attractive opportunity. Figure 1 - Global onshore and offshore water production (Dal Ferro and Smith 2007).
In this study, a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 m3/d was used to conduct flotation, filtration, and adsorption trials for produced-water treatment at a crude-oil gathering facility. The number of offshore facilities employing waterflooding with desalination continues to grow. Currently, more than 50 sulfate removal units are in operation offshore with a total capacity of approximately 8 million BWPD.
Water treatment systems in the North Sea differ from those in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM). This paper provides a detailed understanding of these differences and provides insight into the design of water-treatment systems in general. In this study, a pilot plant with a capacity of 50 m3/d was used to conduct flotation, filtration, and adsorption trials for produced-water treatment at a crude-oil gathering facility. A recent webinar covered the varieties of current technology for flotation equipment and provided an in-depth look into flotation technology and the options surrounding offshore applications. The author reviews advances in produced water treatment, particularly offshore, since the 1960s.
Water treatment systems in the North Sea differ from those in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM). This paper provides a detailed understanding of these differences and provides insight into the design of water-treatment systems in general. A recent webinar focused on hydrocyclones and their application for offshore oil and water separation. The discussion includes fundamental science, practical considerations, implementation and field experience. The author reviews advances in produced water treatment, particularly offshore, since the 1960s.
Many oil and gas companies are pursuing fracture-flowback-water and produced-water recycling for subsequent drilling and fracturing operations. Removal of metals is important to success of these processes. This is the third article of a series on water management for hydraulic fracturing in unconventional resources. This month, water treatment technologies are introduced, beginning with the removal of suspended solids by coagulation/flocculation and electrocoagulation for recycling flowback fluids.
The well count and completion intensity of US tight oil and gas operations have grown in recent years, and rising pressure from environmental regulations means that produced water management has become a key focus for operators. While storage and logistics are critical elements of the viability of water reuse, if the water chemistry is not fit for gel fracturing formulations, it will not matter how much is stored in centrally located impoundments. This paper reports on performance of an advanced MVR system in north-central Texas. With inconsistent inlet water quality being the rule rather than the exception, sizing and operational considerations of the treatment system components must vary accordingly to make the most economic sense. The demands for the fresh water used in many hydraulic fracturing operations are placing pressure on water sources in some regions of the United States.
Four companies are now under consideration for the EPC deal, which will include the building of a jetty with two berths for LNG carriers. Located near the Port of Hamburg, Germany's first LNG terminal is scheduled to start up by the end of 2022. At a water treatment plant for an onshore oil field in northern Germany, formaldehyde injection was started in 2015 as a biocide. The goal of this study was to understand the chemical parameters and microbial distribution in the water system and whether formaldehyde injection was effective.
Enhanced oil recovery processes, particularly offshore, create challenges for produced water treatment. Higher oil prices has created increased interest in chemical enhanced oil recovery (CEOR) using polymers, surfactants, and alkalis. This technology poses some special challenges, especially around water treatment.
Polymer flooding in sensitive areas can require the transport of polymer fluids over long distances. Conventional wisdom limits transport distance or degradation occurs. This paper argues that critical velocity, not distance, is the controlling factor. Polymer flooding has been used to enhance the production of oil from mature fields in Oman. This article discusses the trial of several approaches to improve the treatment of water produced from these fields.
Produced water from chemical floods can cause problems for separation and water treatment equipment due to the polymers and surfactants used. Challenges are greater offshore where space limitations can affect treatment options. A variety of low-cost technologies can result in an increase in production in mature oil and gas fields, although the increase is usually temporary and not always economical.