|Theme||Visible||Selectable||Appearance||Zoom Range (now: 0)|
The International Gas Union's (IGU) recent report on world LNG markets found that the trade increased by only 1.4 mt to 356.1 mt compared to 2019 supported by increased exports from the US and Australia, together adding 13.4 mt of exports. Asia Pacific and Asia again imported the most volumes in 2020, together accounting for more than 70% of global LNG imports. Asia also accounted for the largest growth in imports in 2020--adding 9.5 mt of net LNG imports vs. 2019. While 20 mtpa in liquefaction capacity was brought on stream in 2020, all in the US, startup of several liquefaction trains in Russia, Indonesia, the US, and Malaysia were delayed as a result of the pandemic, according to the report. The only project that was sanctioned in 2020 was the 3.25-mtpa Energia Costa Azul facility in Mexico, and in early 2021 Qatar took final investment decision (FID) on four expansion trains totaling 32 mtpa.
Panoro Energy has initiated its 2021 Gabon drilling campaign with the spudding of the Hibiscus Extension well on the Dussafu Marin Permit. That well will be followed by drilling at Tortue and Hibiscus North. Hibiscus and Tortue are two out of a total of six discovered fields within the Dussafu Permit offshore Gabon. Panoro currently holds a 7.5% interest in the license and has entered into an agreement to acquire an additional 10% working interest in the Dussafu Permit, bringing its total ownership to 17.5% following completion of the transaction. The Extension well is being drilled with the jackup Borr Norve and is the first well in a three-well campaign planned on Dussafu during 2021.
Angola's National Oil, Gas, and Biofuel's Agency has opened blocks for licensing in the Onshore Lower Congo Basin and the Onshore Kwanza Basin as part of its 2020 oil and gas licensing round. This latest call to tender is part of the agency's ongoing 2019–2025 hydrocarbons licensing strategy. The Onshore Lower Congo Basin Blocks include CON1, CON5, and CON6; while the Onshore Kwanza Basin Blocks comprise KON5, KON6, KON8, KON9, KON17, and KON20. The round aims to expand research and evaluation activities across sedimentary basins, increase geological knowledge of Angola's hydrocarbon potential, and invite a new wave of explorers to yield new discoveries.
Baumgardner, Lonny (SDX Energy) | Ahamiri, Jamal (SDX Energy) | Kuyken, Chris (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Farouk, Mohamed (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Jammeli, Kamel (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering) | Merchan, Ylmer (AlMansoori Specialized Engineering)
Abstract A 5-well rig-less & explosiveness abandonment campaign by 2 project partners operator and service provider was made a reality in Morocco whereby a novel method of cementing squeeze of perforations and an annular fill-up were established in one single operation. This is called LEAN abandonment and the method was masterminded as a result of intense collaboration between both partners. The method is scale-able and has full merit to target existing legacy wells for abandonment in Morocco and world-wide where appropriate. In this LEAN approach the tubing and annulus were communicating via SSD / non-explosive created tubing punch by holding backpressure on the annulus till perforations squeezed or pressure lock-up and subsequently immediately opening the annulus and releasing the annular pressure whilst continuing pumping and filling the annulus with some 800 m of cement creating the firm additional barrier. Clinical planning by operator and service provider on a establishing a new abandonment process that is opening-up further in-country and beyond opportunities was the critical success factors in this work. It led to organic improvement on a well by well basis in the campaign, it resulted in safe and successful operations and achieving abandonment objectives cementing to surface in tubing and annulus. LEAN Abandonment forms a paradigm shift. It may be different in different down-hole settings and there is no single solution however like in our case working a bottoms-up approach has resulted the lowest cost solution and having done so ways to improve overall safety and efficiency were identified. The use of non-explosive technology is a very good example.
Kholaif, Yasser (NOSPCO) | Elmaghraby, Mahmoud (NOSPCO) | Nago, Annick (Baker Hughes) | Embry, Jean-Michel (Baker Hughes) | Basu, Pramit (Baker Hughes) | Perumalla, Satya (Baker Hughes) | El-Said, Mohamed M. (Baker Hughes) | ElMenshawy, Ali (Baker Hughes) | Baghdadi, Ahmed (Baker Hughes)
Abstract Drilling challenges in offshore Nile Delta have been largely documented in the literature. Operators are often confronted with drilling problems related to shale swelling, cavings, tight holes in combination with increased risks of lost circulation in some of the highly depleted formations. The Kafr El Sheikh shale in particular, has been linked to many instances of wellbore instability, due to its mineralogical composition (estimated to be mostly smectite, >70%). From offset well drilling experience, it could also be noticed that insufficient mud weight was often used to drill through the Kafr El Sheikh Shale, causing wellbore failure in shear due to lack of support of the wellbore wall. In the past, multiple mud weight designs have been implemented relying solely on pore pressure as lower bound of the mud window. With the increased use of geomechanics, it has been demonstrated that the lower bound should be taken as the maximum of the pore pressure and borehole collapse pressure, thus accounting for the effects of formation pressure, horizontal and vertical stresses, rock properties as well as wellbore trajectory. It has been proven that slight overpressure is often encountered halfway through the Kafr El Sheikh formation, which would typically result in slightly higher borehole collapse pressures. In the study fields, the operator expressed interest in drilling highly deviated wells (> 60-70 degrees). This raised concerns for increased drilling challenges, especially in the Kafr El Sheikh. A comprehensive and systematic risk assessment, design of a fit-for-purpose solution and its implementation during drilling took place in the fields of interest. Offset well data analytics from the subject fields supported a holistic evaluation of drilling risks associated with the Kafr El Sheikh, providing good understanding of stress sensitivity on deviation, azimuth and lithology. Upon building a robust geomechanical model, calibrated against offset well drilling experience, pre-drill mud weight and drilling practices recommendations were provided to optimize the drilling program. Near real-time geomechanical monitoring was implemented which helped to manage the model uncertainties. The implementation of a holistic risk assessment, including geomechanical recommendations and near real-time geomechanical monitoring, was effective to lead the drilling campaign successfully. As a result, three high angle wells (> 60-70 degrees) were drilled through the challenging Kafr El Sheikh formation without any hole instability. An integrated risk assessment of hole instability, managed in stages (pre-drill and during drilling), has helped to understand and simulate the behaviors of the formation. Proactive decisions have established a controlled drilling environment for successful operations.
Woodside has decided to exit its 50% nonoperated participating interest in the proposed Kitimat Liquefied Natural Gas (KLNG) development, located in British Columbia, Canada. The exit will include the divestment or wind-up and restoration of assets, leases, and agreements covering the 480 km Pacific Trail Pipeline route and the site for the proposed LNG facility at Bish Cove. Project operator Chevron announced its plan to divest its 50% interest in KLNG in December 2019. Woodside said it will work with Chevron to protect the project's value during the exit. The costs associated with the decision to exit KLNG are expected to affect 2021 net profit after tax up to $60 million.
Wijaya, Aditya Arie (Halliburton) | Wu, Ivan Zhia Ming (Halliburton) | Parashar, Sarvagya (Halliburton) | Iffwad, Mohammad (Halliburton) | Yaakob, Amirul Afiq B (Petronas Carigali) | Tolioe, William Amelio (Petronas Carigali) | Sidid, Adib Akmal Che (Petronas Carigali) | Ahmad, Nadhirah Bt. (Petronas Carigali)
Abstract In recent years, the development of frontier areas brings added challenges to formation evaluation, especially thinly bedded reservoirs. It is challenging to evaluate such reservoirs due to the low resistivity values and high shale volume, which masks the contrast between water and hydrocarbon zones. Using conventional approaches in these types of reservoirs will underestimate the hydrocarbon potential and reserves estimates. A study has been carried out of the thin-bed laminated reservoir in B-field using the tensor model technique to assess the hydrocarbon potential. Additional data from borehole imaging and sonic logs are critical for enhancing the evaluation of hydrocarbon potential and complements the result of the tensor model evaluation. The study was conducted to calculate the sand resistivity and sand porosity using a combination of the tensor model and the Thomas-Stieber model. The tensor model uses acquired horizontal and vertical resistivities, while the Thomas-Stieber model uses the calculated shale volume and porosity. One of the main parameters in the tensor model is shale resistivity, which upon analysis, varies across many shale sections in the well. This uncertainty is reduced by picking multiple shale resistivity values based on borehole image facies analysis. The VPVS ratio technique and Brie’s plot using compressional and shear travel time are used as a qualitative analysis that indicates the same gas-bearing interval. The tensor model calculations improve hydrocarbon saturation by a range of 4-21%, depending on sand thickness and shale volume, which increases the net to gross by more than 20%. The borehole image facies analysis helps to objectively pick the shale resistivity parameters to avoid subjective interpretation and underestimating the pay. A qualitative approach using sonic data helps to identify the potential gas-bearing interval and complement the previous tensor model interpretation. Although all interpretation methods indicate a similar gas-bearing interval that correlates with the mudlog total gas reading, the combination of the tensor and Thomas-Stieber method with image constrained shale resistivities gives the most definitive gas saturation and net pay The novelty of this study is to showcase two things. First is the application of combined tensor and Thomas-Stieber model in a laminated reservoir, with image constrained shale resistivity for improved gas saturation and net pay. The second is to highlight the use of gas-sensitive sonic data to confirm the gas saturated interval.
Vican, Kresimir (Halliburton) | Jambunathan, Venkat (Halliburton) | Negm, Ehab (Halliburton) | Guergueb, Nacer (Halliburton) | Yznaga, Reinaldo Jose Angulo (Halliburton) | Eriavbe, Francis (Al Dhafra Petroleum)
Abstract Rock typing in carbonate reservoirs has always represented a difficult challenge due to rock heterogeneity. When interpreting electrical logs, the thick carbonate formation can leave an impression of a homogenous environment; however, looking at core analysis and mercury injection capillary pressure (MICP) data, reservoir heterogeneity can be determined. This complexity of the formation characterization presents challenges in reservoirs that contain tilted water/oil contact (WOC). Tilted WOC discovers hydrocarbon saturation below the free-water level, and different events during geological time can contribute to this specific fluid accumulation. Knowledge of the fluid distribution is needed to understand the mechanisms of oil entrapment, oil volumetrics, and potential recovery mechanisms involved in reservoirs under this wettability and WOC conditions. This case study will describe the workflow used to characterize and model an atypical regime like non-water wet formations in reservoirs with tilted WOC. In this study, a combination of electrical logs, core analysis (lithofacies, poro-perm, MICP), and customized workflow was used to characterize, classify, and map facies. Capillary pressure information and formation tester data were integrated and compiled for each facies. Moving forward, a new method was developed to model saturation height functions representing non-water wet formations and tilted WOC phenomena. Fluid and saturation properties are estimated and assigned to each reservoir point and after reservoir rock types (RRT) were defined. This method has been validated by applying the new approach to actual well data. The drainage capillary pressure (Pc) lab data in the reservoir intervals with established conventional WOC complemented interpretation results derived from acquired logs; however, for the reservoirs zones with identified tilted WOC, correlation and matching Pc lab data with logs was not possible. The new method provides saturation properties in formations with complex fluid-rock interactions and phenomena. This work introduces a novel approach to estimate saturation height functions and saturation distribution for reservoirs with complex fluid-rock interaction and distribution, such as non-water wet formations in tilted WOC conditions.
Saleh, Khaled (Schlumberger) | Morad, Aly (Schlumberger) | Cavalleri, Chiara (Schlumberger) | Hakim, Emad Abdel (General Petroleum Company) | Farouk, Mohamed (General Petroleum Company) | Atwa, Eslam (General Petroleum Company) | Ameen, Mohamed (General Petroleum Company) | Youssif, Youssif (General Petroleum Company) | Mamdouh, Kareem (General Petroleum Company)
Abstract Recent advancement in logging technology and data analytics allows measuring a comprehensive set of formation petrophysical properties and rock composition in cased boreholes. State-of-the-art pulsed neutron logging technology and processing algorithms record capture and inelastic elemental spectroscopy for matrix parameters, and detailed mineralogy characterization, total organic content estimation, and carbon/oxygen analysis, simultaneously with formation sigma, neutron porosity, and fast neutron cross-section. The fast neutron cross-section (FNXS) is a new formation nuclear property introduced by the advanced pulsed neutron tool that is independent of thermal and capture cross-section and highly sensitive to gas regardless of hydrogen index. Unlike thermal neutron capture cross-section, for which certain isotopes have extremely high values (such as Cl, B, and Gd), fast neutron cross-sections of all isotopes are more or less similar. Thus, FNXS is approximately proportional to atom density. Therefore, this new nuclear property has functionality similar to that of the bulk density (gamma-gamma density measurement). A local relationship can be defined to convert the FNXS into bulk density when the lithology and fluid properties are known, and calibration is possible. Otherwise, a more comprehensive assessment of bulk density can be performed by integrating FNXS with the other outputs from the slim pulsed neutron logging into a mineral solver. While solving for rock and fluid volumes from the cased-hole logs, a reconstructed bulk density may be derived in a cased-hole environment. This synthetic bulk density can be used by geophysicists to develop synthetic seismograms to properly map formation tops with surface seismic data. Since the pulsed neutron measurements follow linear volumetric law equations, they can be directly integrated into a mineral solver together with the elemental spectroscopy outputs to create a synthetic bulk density, together with the other answers. A blind comparison was done between synthetic bulk density from the cased-hole log-based mineral solver and a measured openhole density, showing a strong correlation in a three-phase fluid reservoir (gas, oil, and water). A synthetic seismogram is an essential tool when geophysicists fine-tune surface seismic data. This seismogram is developed using bulk density and compressional slowness to derive acoustic impedance, where sometimes bulk density is missing. As a result, an old approach to estimate bulk density using Gardner’s equation has certain limitations in complex environments. The new formation nuclear property that is now available in the slim pulsed neutron technology can be leveraged to provide a more robust and quality-controlled synthetic bulk density derived through FNXS integrated with the other pulsed neutron and spectroscopy outputs.
Grove, Brenden (Halliburton Jet Research Center) | McGregor, Jacob (Halliburton Jet Research Center) | DeHart, Rory (Halliburton Jet Research Center) | Dusterhoft, Ron (Halliburton) | Stegent, Neil (Halliburton) | Grader, Avrami (Ingrain, a Halliburton Service)
Abstract Hydraulically fractured completions dominate industry perforating activity, particularly in North American land basins. This has led to the development of fracture-optimized perforating systems in recent years. Aside from overarching safety, reliability, and efficiency priorities, the main technical performance attribute of these systems is consistent hole size in the casing, driven by limited entry fracture design considerations. While the industry continues to seek further improvements in hole size consistency, attention is also being directed to the perforations more holistically, from a perspective of maximizing the effectiveness of subsequent hydraulic fracturing and ultimately production operations. To this end, this paper presents two related activities addressing the development, qualification, and optimization of perf-for-frac systems. The first is a surface testing protocol used to characterize perforating system performance, in particular casing hole size and consistency. The second is a laboratory program, recently conducted to investigate perforating stressed Eagle Ford shale samples at downhole conditions. This program explored the influences of charge size, formation lamination direction, pore fluid, and dynamic underbalance on perforation characteristics. Casing hole size was also assessed. For the first activity (surface testing), we find that using cement-backed casing can be an important feature to ensure more downhole-realistic results. For the second activity (laboratory program), perforation casing hole sizes for the charges tested were in line with expectations based on existing surface test data, exhibiting negligible pressure dependency. Corresponding penetration depths into the stressed shale samples generally ranged from 3.5-in to 5-in, which is much shallower than might be expected based on surface concrete performance. Dynamic underbalance was found to exhibit some slight effect on the tunnel fill characteristics, while pore system fluid was found to have minimal influence on the results. An interesting feature of the perforated samples was the complex fracture network at the perforation tips, which appeared "propped" to some extent with charge liner debris. Some of these fractures were formation beds which had delaminated during the shot, a phenomenon observed for perforations both parallel and perpendicular to the laminations. The implications of these results to the downhole environment continues to be assessed. Of particular interest is the impact these phenomena might have on fracture initiation, formation breakdown, and treatment stages which accompany subsequent hydraulic fracturing pumping operations.